Thermal comfort - thermal mass : housing in hot dry climates

Results are shown on how to use the thermal mass of buildings envelope to ameliorate diurnal temperature swings in hot dry regions.

Estimation of air infiltration of buildings based on the degree of air tightness and climatic data

A method was developed to estimate annual air infiltration rates in houses from measured data (building envelope air tightness, wind speeds, indoor and outdoor air temperatures). It was applied to 6 houses and the results showed a close correlation with the results from existing air filtration models.

Assessing the energy impact of ventilation and infiltration in multi-unit residential buildings

The study was to evaluate energy use of ventilation system with supply in corridors and exhaust in wet rooms. The field test protocol was to measure energy use one day with corridor supply ventilation on, one day off, for a range of different outdoor temperatures in winter. When corridor supply is on, the internal pressure changes (although always negative) and infiltrations are modified.

A simple model to study ventilated facades energy performance.

Aims to supply a simple and useful tool for the analysis of energy performance of different ventilated facades typology. A steady state energy balance was applied to a control volume solving basic equations with finite element code with an iterative procedure, in order to simulate the studied sample. The different surfac3e and air mass temperatures are calculate for each step of the channel height, and the mass flow rate evaluated as overall natural draught.

Multi-dimensional heat transfer through complex building envelope assemblies in hourly energy simulation programs.

States that most whole building thermal modelling computer programs use simplified, one-dimensional, parallel path descriptions of the building envelope, which may generate serious errors in building load estimation for several structural and material configurations of building envelope components which have high thermal mass and/or two- and three dimensional thermal bridges.

Cost-effectiveness of increasing airtightness of houses.

Air infiltration through the exterior envelope of a residential building impacts significantly on the heating energy consumption and cost, especially in a cold climate such as Montreal's. Therefore to renovate existing houses to the level of new well-built houses in terms of airtightness will lead to a reduction of the heating energy costs. By considering the life-cycle energy consumption and the initial cost of renovation, and the CO2 tax credits, the paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of this type of renovation.

Integration of the envelope permeability measurement into the outdoor/indoor pollutant transfer process.

The study forms part of a research project performed by LEPTAB and ATMO Poitou-Charente within PRIMEQUAL program which targets the relation between the indoor and local outdoor pollution. According to many studies, outdoor pollution has a major influence on indoor air quality, airflow being the main factor linking the outdoor environment directly to the climate indoors. A precise regulation of the air flow entering the room is enabled by the mechanical ventilation system and this makes possible the control of the indoor air pollution concentration.

The impact of airtightness on system design.

States that 80% or more of infiltration is due to the many imperfections designed into the building envelopes. Discusses the problem and the role of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1999.

The energy design process for designing and constructing high-performance buildings.

States that the design team must set goals in order to successfully achieve high-performance, low energy buildings. The energy design process can help to achieve the desired effect, beginning in the predesign phase and continuing through to commissioning and occupation. A good understanding of various strategies, the setting of aggressive energy targets and employing computer simulations all contribute to the process. After the building envelope has been optimised, the mechanical/electrical/control systems can be designed.

Envelope and internal space performance of office buildings in a hot climate.

States that buildings in Saudi Arabia are often constructed without attention to the occupant discomfort caused by hot summer temperatures. Single-zone thermostats tend to limit comfort to the sun-side of office buildings, and there is also a possibility of asymmetrical radiation. Describes a pilot study conducted in a room in which airflows and temperatures were measured and then simulated using CFD techniques. Several factors were identified which contributed to the problem.