The Solvent window was developed to improve visual and thermal comfort in sunny conditions. The glazing system realizes the conversion of short wave solar radiation to convective heat and long wave radiation.
This paper deals with the case of a very important thermal discomfort due to wide open arcades and corridors beneath a building, especially under windy and rainy weather. Building thermal simulations (with ESP-r) and field measurements were operated for a building at Coimbra University (Portugal) to suggest architectural corrections (e.g. closing the arcades with windows and doors) in order to reduce discomfort outside and inside the building sand save energy.
Two new blocks of flats have been built for people with respiratory diseases. A number of points were taken into particular account during the design and construction of the buildings. For example, the project designers and builders were given training in prevention of problems with indoor air, only building materials that had been tested and found to have low emissions were used, and a supply/exhaust ventilation system and a central vacuum-cleaning system were installed.
Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured in the living room of an unoccupied apartment located in a street canyon in central Copenhagen, in the street, and at a nearby urban background station. A simple dispersion model was used to calculate the particle concentrations outside a window facing the street from where most of the ventilation air was supplied. The penetration efficiencies and the deposition rates were estimated using the concentration rate balance, ignoring indoor sources.
Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors.
In contemporary architectural design, the indoor climate receives little attention. Most architects are not familiar with the typical problems and solutions involved in climate design. However, it is this relation that provides much control over the initial climate conditions and can prevent costly artificial solutions. As a result, many design decisions are made without insight into the consequences on the indoor climate.
Traditional residential buildings in Anhui, Southern China, maintain comfortable indoor thermal conditions in the summer without any air-conditioning. To understand this phenomenon, the building thermal environment was simulated to study the physical principles for maintaining natural thermal comfort. Measured data such as outside temperatures, solar radiation intensities, the thermal characteristics of the structure, and the interior gain were used as the boundary conditions.
The new office building of the Ministry of Transport at Terneuzen in the Netherlands is a sustainable and energy efficient building with a good indoor environment. The building is constructed of sustainable materials, well insulated, utilises maximum daylight and is equipped with a minimum of building services. Passive and natural sources have been utilised as much as possible. An advanced natural ventilation system provides fresh air and controls the thermal comfort in summer.
An energy audit calculation procedure has been developed for existing buildings. It allows to estimate which measures have to be taken to improve the thermal performance of building envelope. An example of the application of this calculation procedure is presented.