Thermal improvement of indoor environments through an architectural correction

This paper deals with the case of a very important thermal discomfort due to wide open arcades and corridors beneath a building, especially under windy and rainy weather. Building thermal simulations (with ESP-r) and field measurements were operated for a building at Coimbra University (Portugal) to suggest architectural corrections (e.g. closing the arcades with windows and doors) in order to reduce discomfort outside and inside the building sand save energy.

TVOC, formaldehyde and ammonia levels in two new blocks of flats

Two new blocks of flats have been built for people with respiratory diseases. A number of points were taken into particular account during the design and construction of the buildings. For example, the project designers and builders were given training in prevention of problems with indoor air, only building materials that had been tested and found to have low emissions were used, and a supply/exhaust ventilation system and a central vacuum-cleaning system were installed.

Indoor and outdoor particle measurements in a street canyon in Copenhagen

Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured in the living room of an unoccupied apartment located in a street canyon in central Copenhagen, in the street, and at a nearby urban background station. A simple dispersion model was used to calculate the particle concentrations outside a window facing the street from where most of the ventilation air was supplied. The penetration efficiencies and the deposition rates were estimated using the concentration rate balance, ignoring indoor sources.

Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors: existing data and data needs

Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors.

A tool for thermal analysis of conceptual design

In contemporary architectural design, the indoor climate receives little attention. Most architects are not familiar with the typical problems and solutions involved in climate design. However, it is this relation that provides much control over the initial climate conditions and can prevent costly artificial solutions. As a result, many design decisions are made without insight into the consequences on the indoor climate.

Simulation study on the summer thermal performance of a typical Chinese traditional residential building Anhui residence

Traditional residential buildings in Anhui, Southern China, maintain comfortable indoor thermal conditions in the summer without any air-conditioning. To understand this phenomenon, the building thermal environment was simulated to study the physical principles for maintaining natural thermal comfort. Measured data such as outside temperatures, solar radiation intensities, the thermal characteristics of the structure, and the interior gain were used as the boundary conditions.

Office building ministry of transport at Terneuzen, The Netherlands: low energy, high thermal comfort and high sustainability in one concept

The new office building of the Ministry of Transport at Terneuzen in the Netherlands is a sustainable and energy efficient building with a good indoor environment. The building is constructed of sustainable materials, well insulated, utilises maximum daylight and is equipped with a minimum of building services. Passive and natural sources have been utilised as much as possible. An advanced natural ventilation system provides fresh air and controls the thermal comfort in summer.

Program of energy audit for residential and public buildings

An energy audit calculation procedure has been developed for existing buildings. It allows to estimate which measures have to be taken to improve the thermal performance of building envelope. An example of the application of this calculation procedure is presented.

Particle penetration through windows

Two aluminium windows were tested to determine the fractional penetration of airborne particles. Results show that mainly particles of 0.2 to 3 microns enter through both windows.

The exploitation of solar energy for energy-saving ventilation

Performance of solar systems used to preheat ventilation air was investigated through long-term (several years) measurements on three buildings in Czech Republic. Buildings and results are described.