AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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air quality

Theoretical model for relating indoor pollutant concentrations to those outside.

Discusses in detail a general ventilation model, which relates indoor pollutant concentrations to those outside. When the time interval associated with changes in the outdoor concentration islong compared to that required either to change the air within the building or to remove the pollutant by internal means, the indoor concentration of pollutant can be related to the outdoor concentration by means of a simple expression. Finds good agreement between theory and experiment. Suggests method for reducing indoor ozone levels in California.

Well insulated airtight buildings, energy consumption, indoor climate, ventilation and air infiltration.

Reports study of indoor climate-primarily air quality-and energy consumption in a number of detached houses in a group housing area. All the houses were pressure-tested over three years; 1977-1980 and a relatively larger increase in air leakage was measured after the houses had been occupied for approximately one year. Suggests this is due to the drying out of timber, producing cracks. Two types of houses, a and b were investigated when studying indoor climate. both were mechanically ventilated.

Consideration of the requirements of air-renewal in rooms taking into account the sealing requirements of windows. Betrachtung der Anforderungen an die Lufterneuerung in Raumen unter Berucksichtigung der Dichtigkeits-anforderungen an Fenster

Considers the rate of natural ventilation required in a room to maintain a healthy concentration of oxygen given the efficient sealing of windows against draughts. Includes a nomogram toassist the calculation of a rate of air introduction according to the height of the building, wind loads, and type of window construction.

Ventilation in buildings.

Gives regulations and performance guidelines for the ventilation of buildings. Includes guidelines for air quality and gives recommended supply and return air volumes for different rooms of a building.

Indoor/outdoor air quality relationships

Reports measurements of air pollutants inside and outside three pairs of structures for different seasons of the year. Four pollutants were measured, suspended particulate, soiling particulate, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Describes instrumentation and gives results. Concludes that in homes withgas heating and cooking, the heating system has no effect on CO levels but gas stoves had a significant effect.

Ventilation and air quality.

Briefly reviews ways of ventilating buildings. Discusses control of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and control of odours and airborne particles. Concludes ventilation is an essential element in the design of a building and its services.

A study of indoor air quality.

Reports an indoor/outdoor sampling program for NO, NO2 and CO in four private houses which had gas stoves. Pollutant gases were measured essentially simultaneously at three indoor locations and one outdoor location. Shows that indoor levels of NO and NO2are directly related to stove use. In some instances levels of NO2 and CO in the kitchen exceeded the air quality standards for these pollutants if data for the sampling periods were typicalof an entire year.

Exhalation of radon-222 from building materials

Reports some results of field measurements of radon levels in apartments and houses and shows that summer measurements with high natural ventilation rates are generally lower than winter measurements. Suggests exhalation of radon from building materials can be studied by placing samples of material in closed vessels and following the growth of activity in the vessels. Shows that a ventilation rate of one air change per hour will lower the theoretical maximum level to 0.008 of the unventilated maximum value.

Ventilation requirements in relation to the emanation of Radon from building materials.

Radon is a radioactive gas which diffuses naturally from all mineral based building materials. States for most homes, concentration of radon is approximately inversely proportional to the ventilation, although this is not valid for very low or very high air change rates. Gives brief results of measurements of concentration of radon in dwellings. Outlines health risks from radon and daughters. Reviews norms laid down in some countries for specific situations. Discusses ways of reducing radon concentrations.

Hazards from products of combustion and oxygen depletion in occupied spaces.

Reviews hazards from excess carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in poorly ventilated spaces. Discusses ventilation rates needed to keep concentrations below safe levels. Reviews toxicity studies of portable fuel-fired appliances and gives simple guidelines for the use of such equipment.