AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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air quality

Residential ventilation with heat recovery improving indoor air quality and saving energy

Discusses the problem of increased levels of indoor air pollution due to reduced ventilation. Suggests ways of lowering pollutant concentrations without compromising energy conservation. One promising method is to mechanically ventilate a residence and recover heat from the exhausted air with an air-to-air heat exchanger.

Radon in swedish buildings.

Outlines problem of radon in buildings and current state of knowledge. Suggests reduction of radon by a) more efficient ventilation, b) use of diffusion resistant films to seal wall surfaces and c) elimination of certain active materials. A research project at the Swedish Council for Building Research is currently investigating the problem.

Theoretical model for relating indoor pollutant concentrations to those outside.

Discusses in detail a general ventilation model, which relates indoor pollutant concentrations to those outside. When the time interval associated with changes in the outdoor concentration islong compared to that required either to change the air within the building or to remove the pollutant by internal means, the indoor concentration of pollutant can be related to the outdoor concentration by means of a simple expression. Finds good agreement between theory and experiment. Suggests method for reducing indoor ozone levels in California.

Well insulated airtight buildings, energy consumption, indoor climate, ventilation and air infiltration.

Reports study of indoor climate-primarily air quality-and energy consumption in a number of detached houses in a group housing area. All the houses were pressure-tested over three years; 1977-1980 and a relatively larger increase in air leakage was measured after the houses had been occupied for approximately one year. Suggests this is due to the drying out of timber, producing cracks. Two types of houses, a and b were investigated when studying indoor climate. both were mechanically ventilated.

Consideration of the requirements of air-renewal in rooms taking into account the sealing requirements of windows. Betrachtung der Anforderungen an die Lufterneuerung in Raumen unter Berucksichtigung der Dichtigkeits-anforderungen an Fenster

Considers the rate of natural ventilation required in a room to maintain a healthy concentration of oxygen given the efficient sealing of windows against draughts. Includes a nomogram toassist the calculation of a rate of air introduction according to the height of the building, wind loads, and type of window construction.

Ventilation in buildings.

Gives regulations and performance guidelines for the ventilation of buildings. Includes guidelines for air quality and gives recommended supply and return air volumes for different rooms of a building.

Indoor/outdoor air quality relationships

Reports measurements of air pollutants inside and outside three pairs of structures for different seasons of the year. Four pollutants were measured, suspended particulate, soiling particulate, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Describes instrumentation and gives results. Concludes that in homes withgas heating and cooking, the heating system has no effect on CO levels but gas stoves had a significant effect.

Ventilation and air quality.

Briefly reviews ways of ventilating buildings. Discusses control of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and control of odours and airborne particles. Concludes ventilation is an essential element in the design of a building and its services.

A study of indoor air quality.

Reports an indoor/outdoor sampling program for NO, NO2 and CO in four private houses which had gas stoves. Pollutant gases were measured essentially simultaneously at three indoor locations and one outdoor location. Shows that indoor levels of NO and NO2are directly related to stove use. In some instances levels of NO2 and CO in the kitchen exceeded the air quality standards for these pollutants if data for the sampling periods were typicalof an entire year.

Exhalation of radon-222 from building materials

Reports some results of field measurements of radon levels in apartments and houses and shows that summer measurements with high natural ventilation rates are generally lower than winter measurements. Suggests exhalation of radon from building materials can be studied by placing samples of material in closed vessels and following the growth of activity in the vessels. Shows that a ventilation rate of one air change per hour will lower the theoretical maximum level to 0.008 of the unventilated maximum value.