AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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air quality

Ventilation in relation to toxic and flammable gases in buildings.

Discusses toxic and flammable gases and vapours that lead to hazards in buildings. Examines trends in accidental deaths in the home in England and Wales from gas poisoning. Discusses influence of buoyancy on the dilution by ventilation air of accidental leaks of toxic and flammable gases and shows where buoyancy dominates layers can readily form. Presents theoretical results for controlling gas hazards in buildings by ventilation for a wide range of practical situations.

Air change rates in dwellings. Luftwechsel in Wohnungen.

Points out that increased levels of thermal insulation in dwellings make ventilation heat loss an increasingly significant proportion of total dwelling heat loss and of great significance for sizing heating installations and selecting their control equipment. Treats attempts to reduce ventilation loss by specifying greater tightness of building structures, especially windows.

Air management in energy conserving passive solar houses

Analyses the problem of air management in energy conserving passive solar houses and discusses cost effectiveness of various alternative scheme. Use of polythene sheeting to form anair-tight membrane aims to reduce uncontrolled ventilation rate to 0.05 air changes per hour. Discusses problem of indoor air pollution and suggests adding venting windows and air-to-air heat exchangers. The need for internal air circulation is answered by ceiling fans or a central forced air system.

Standards for natural and mechanical ventilation

Defines ventilation requirements for spaces intended for human occupancy and specifies minimum and recommended air quantities for the preservation of the occupants health, safety and well-being. Recommendations are given for different rooms in alltypes of building in terms of the outdoor air supply per minute. Also gives maximum concentrations of various contaminents. States that outdoor air requirement can be reduced if air is recirculated, purified or odour or gas removal equipment used, but in no case should be less than 5 c.f.m per person.

Impact of reduced infiltration and ventilation on indoor air quality

Notes that reduced infiltration and ventilation rates in buildings can lead to higher levels of indoor air pollution. Discusses three indoor-generated pollutants : nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and radon. Suggest ways of circumventing increased health risks without compromising energy conservation considerations, including setting standards for minimum levels, filtering recirculated air and sealing source material.

Ventilation, health and energy consumption: a status report.

U.S. ventilation systems have been reported to require as much as 50-60% of total energy consumed in buildings and have become popular targets for energy conservation methods. Notes serious concern that arbitrary changes to codes and standards are being proposed in the name of energy conservation which could jeopardise health, safety or welfare of building occupants. Traces evolution of ventilation codes and standards in us.Treats difficulties encountered with measurement and direct control of indoor air quality. Notes common guide values for air contamination used.

Savings through CO2 based ventilation.

Suggests many ways of reducing outdoor air admitted to a building. Notes importance of measuring minimum air flow to ensure adequate ventilation. Suggests measuring the concentration of CO2 in indoor atmosphere and using the results to control incoming ventilation. Describes simple and inexpensive implementation of the technique.

Ventilation measurements in the Norris Cotton Federal Office Building in Manchester, NH

Reports measurements of ventilation rate in specially designed low energy office building. Air change rates were measured using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas and air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide. Gives tables of results. Discusses analysis of ventilation from CO2 data. Concludes that most of the spaces in the building were operating at or above recommended levels.

Draught free housing requires comprehensive solution of indoor climate problems. Lufttata hus pa ratt satt kraver helhetslosning av inomhusklimatet

Stresses importance of building draught-free housing to conserve energy. This poses problems for heating and ventilating engineer. Lists effects on microclimate. Explains interplay between freedom from draughts and ventilation. proposes a list of terms with definitions related to infiltration and draught prevention.

Ventilation in single family dwellings - a system analysis. Ventilation i smahus - ett systemanalys.

Describes sealing houses against air infiltration to allow controlled ventilation. Notes inherent risks in poor ventilation such as high radon content and its associated decay products, poor air quality, moisture, condensation, mould and allergy-producing dust particles. Treats requirements in swedish building code and stipulated minimum air change rate. Comprehensive series of graphs illustrates air change rate as function of wind speed and different grades of building air tightness.