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Ventilation Planning for Mid-sized Japanese Commercial Kitchens and Calculation Method of Ventilation Rate Using Building Information Modeling

In the design of a commercial kitchen ventilation system, it is very important to maintain the capture efficiency of exhaust hoods and ensure smooth removal of heat, moisture, and odor. The capture efficiency is affected by the kitchen ventilation system and the cooking appliance usage condition. To identify an appropriate ventilation system design method for commercial kitchens in Japan, surveys were conducted as follows. 

BIM-integrated Design tool for in-line recommended ventilation rates with Demand Controlled Ventilation strategy

Use of Demand Controlled ventilation (DCV) can potentially save more than 50% of energy use for ventilation purposes compared to constant air volume (CAV) ventilation. Correct and updated calculation of preset minimum (Vmin) and maximum (Vmax) airflow rates are important to maximize energy saving and to ensure good indoor quality. Furthermore, earlier studies have shown that controlling units' ability to actually handle V min is lacking and causes instability in the DCV systems 

Overview of what the EU is doing in relation to BIM

The European Commission’s Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)  manages parts of the Horizon 2020 framework programme for research, innovation and market uptake (2014-2020), including for energy efficiency in the buildings sector. The Agency supports projects under this programme and ensures that their results are fed to policymaking teams within the European Commission.  

Estimated distributions of PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchens of the English housing stock for infiltration and mechanical ventilation scenarios

Exposures to elevated concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) have been linked to multiple negative health effects. Investigations into PM2.5 exposures primarily focus on external concentrations, which are easier to monitor. However, there is a growing interest in indoor exposures, as people spend up to 70% of their time at home, concentrations in dwellings may have a greater influence on personal exposures.

Assessment of Range Hoods based on Exposure

Cooking can be a major source of exposure to particulate matter. Range hoods can be used to reduce odours, moisture and contaminants resulting from cooking. The capture efficiency with regard to these contaminants is determined by the thermal plume and the aerodynamic properties of the range hood. There is a new ASTM (an international standards organization) test method: ASTM E3087. It measures capture efficiency under specific conditions that permits standardized comparison of range hoods under controlled laboratory conditions.

Measured Pollutant Performance of Island Overhead Kitchen Exhaust

Cooking is one of the most substantial sources of indoor air pollution in most residences.  This is mitigated most often by exhaust devices located near cooking surfaces.  In this study, we measured the efficacy of one type of kitchen ventilation device: an island overhead kitchen exhaust.  Laboratory tests using tracer gas capture were performed on a full-scale mock-up of a kitchen with a cooktop in an island. The results show that the Capture Efficiency (CE) varies greatly from about 10% to nearly 100%.

An intervention study of PM2.5 concentrations measured in domestic kitchens

Exposures to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) are linked to multiple acute and chronic health effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. As people spend up to 70% in their own homes, exposures to pollutants indoors could have a greater impact on health than exposure outdoors. Cooking is a primary emission source of PM2.5 in dwellings, and is of interest as it is an activity conducted several times a day in most households.

Thermal comfort, IAQ and Energy use in Bedrooms

The research question of this report is “Is it possible to save energy by lowering the bedroom temperatures in winter”. In this paper first the literature on optimum sleeping temperatures is investigated. Then bedroom temperatures and CO2 levels in a cold week in March 2018 are investigated in 16 bedrooms of students of the Master course Technoledge Climate Desing in 2017-2018 of the faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of the Delft University of Technology. This study shows that it must be possible to save energy by lowering the bedroom temperature in winter.

Isolation Rooms - CFD Simulations of Airborne Contamination Through Doors During Passage

There has been an increase in diseases caused by airborne infections such as influenza A/H1N1 or SARS in the recent years. Airborne infection isolation rooms are commonly used to limit the spread of airborne infections. The challenge today is that there is only a limited number of airborne infection isolation rooms in each hospital (class P4). The rooms are expensive to build and airflow control to avoid contamination is often complicated.

Case study : comparison between a central and a decentral ventilation unit in a school building from the 80’s

Ventilation and healthy classes are a recurring problem. Continuously increasing the air flow rate improves the living environment, but is unacceptable in terms of higher costs and energy loss, which is why a different approach is needed. The research question asked in this study is : Is a central ventilation system operating at low power, but combined with a decentralised ventilation system with heat recovery, more economical and energy efficient and at the same time does it provide the premises with a constant and good air quality?

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