At the conceptual design stage, one needs to pay considerable attention to both the energy as well as indoor air quality (IAQ) requirements. Often, designers tend to overlook ventilation and IAQ issues and conceptualise the HVAC design more from energy considerations. An energy efficient design of airconditioning system in hot and humid climates is quite challenging in view of the high humidity levels prevailing all-year round. This paper outlines some of the key factors that could lead to inadequate or inefficient ventilation and, thereby, poor IAQ. An overview of some integrated IAQ-energy audit case studies conducted in Singapore in the mid nineties is presented. Finally, a couple of emerging technologies related to air-conditioning and air distribution that are particularly ideal for hot and humid climate are presented.