In the Framework of the IEA EBC Annex68 Subtask 1 working subject, we aimed at defining an indoor air quality index for residential buildings based on long- and short-term exposure limit values. This paper compares 8 indoor air quality indices (IEI, LHVP, CLIM2000, BILGA, GAPI, IEI Taiwan, QUAD-BBC and DALY) by using the French IAQ Observatory database that includes pollutant concentration measurements performed in 567 dwellings between 2003 and 2005. This comparison allows to make a relevant analysis of each index and determines their pros and cons i.e. the calculation method, selected pollutants, threshold concentrations, sub-indices and their aggregation. From this analysis, a new index is proposed in order to be as consistent as possible in regards of health impacts by taking both long- and short-term exposure limit values into account.