Use of vegetation to clean indoor air
#NO 3339 Comparative measurements of indoor climate.
Vergleichsmeisingen des Inneklimas.
AUTHOR Hauser G
BIBINF HLH, Vol 40, No 1, January 1989, pp7-12, 16 figs, 23 refs. #DATE 00:01:1989 in German
ABSTRACT Influence of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration on the room air by green solar architecture. The influence of plants on top of buildings on the O2 resp. CO2 concentration of the room air has been investigated on the administration building of an enterprise in Fulda, Germany. Within the scope of measurement recordings on a building extension constructed according to the principles of green solar architecture, the influence on the concentration had to be investigated beside the heating energy consumption, the thermal and hygro behaviour, and the supply of daylight. From Sept.16, 1986, to May 31,1988, the concentration within the extension building and, for comparison, within the adjoining air conditioned office area of the same enterprise, as well as in the outside air, have been measured and recorded.
KEYWORDS oxygen, carbon dioxide, solar
#NO 4217 Deposition of nitrogen dioxide to porous biological surfaces.
AUTHOR Bonem M L, Scheff P A
BIBINF in: The human equation: health and comfort proceedings IAQ 89, pp151-155, 8 figs, 3 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT For this study, a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was constructed and used to study the deposition of nitrogen dioxide onto plant and soil surfaces. Spider plants were chosen for study because they are a common house plant and nitrogen dioxide was chosen because it is an indoor air pollutant of major importance. Four separate surfaces were tested in this project: the polyethylene surface of the reactor chamber, empty clay pots, pots with soil, and spider plants (with and without exposure of the pots and soil). Deposition to all of the surfaces was clearly observed. With chamber, pot, soil, and plant surfaces exposed, the inlet concentration of 0.54 ppm was reduced to 0.16 ppm. Based on linear relationships between concentration and deposition, the estimated deposition for the experiment with pots, soil, and plants was within 15% of the measured total. Evaluation of the results showed that the data were better explained by a non-linear model. For the run with the pots, soil, and plants, it was found that the predicted deposition based on the non-linear model was within 5% of themeasured deposition. A computer simulation was used to determine if plants can be a significant mechanism to remove nitrogen dioxide from indoor air; however, it was found that the plants will not make a significant difference in indoor concentration.
KEYWORDS nitrogen dioxide, indoor air quality
#NO 4428 Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air.
AUTHOR Owen M K, Ensor D S, Sparks L E
BIBINF Canada, Indoor Air '90, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Toronto, 29 July -3 August 1990, Volume 2 "Characteristics of Indoor Air", pp 79-84. #DATE 00:07:1990 in English
ABSTRACT As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. Particle diameters must be known to predict dose or soiling and to determine efficient mitigation techniques. This paper summarizes the results of a literature search into the sources,sizes, and concentrations of indoor particulates, including the various types: plant, animal,mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figure, has been gathered for use in designing test methodologies for air cleaners and other mitigation approaches and to aid in the selection of air cleaners.
KEYWORDS particulate, indoor air quality
#NO 4737 Plant cure for sick buildings.
AUTHOR Newnham A
BIBINF UK, HAC, January 1991, p37. #DATE 00:01:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Reports on a company which has come up with an environmentally friendly and aesthetically pleasing solution to the problem.
KEYWORDS sick building syndrome, indoor air quality
#NO 5777 Can plants help clean up the indoor air?
BIBINF Healthy Buildings International, Vol 2, No 1, 1992, pp 10-11. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English
ABSTRACT Describes a study carried out by HBI on behalf of the Associated Landscape Contractors of America to test the theory that in an ordinary office environment, plants could reduce common indoor pollutants. An office building was required where twoidentically furnished floors were run on entirely separate but identical ventilation systems, preferably sharing a common outside air intake. The study was carried out over a one yearperiod.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, vegetation, office building, pollutant
#NO 6306 Evaporative cooling effects in hot and humid urban spaces.
AUTHOR Kimura K-I
BIBINF Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991, proceedings "PLEA 91: Architecture and Urban Space", Ninth International PLEA Conference, Seville, Spain, September 24-27 1991, pp 631-636. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Two different natures of evaporative cooling effects on indoor and outdoor spaces in hot and humid regions are described in view of the devices in traditional architecture with some examples of measured results. One of the evaporative cooling means can be found in a traditional way by spraying water in the garden or fountains to make the air cooled through vegetation. This will give the air of one or two degrees lower in temperature than the ambient air, which was measured with a house in Japan. This will contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort to a considerable extent owing to a certain air movement along the skin surfaces of human body, though therelative humidity of the air becomes higher. The other can beseen also in traditional houses with thatched roofs or tiledroofs. The rain water soaked by those roofs will be evaporated by strong solar radiation whereby the inside surface temperature becomes much lower than the case with the roof which does not soak rain water. This was examined by laboratory experiments and a field study with an earth sheltered building.
KEYWORDS cooling, hot climate, humidity, occupant reaction
#NO 7821 Indoor air quality for people and plants
AUTHOR Baird J C, Berglund B, Jackson W T
BIBINF Sweden, Stockholm, Swedish Council for Building Research, Document D1: 1991, 190 pp #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The contents of this book are based on talks and discussions at an international conference held at Minary Centre of Dartmouth college, USA. The authors as well as those attending the conference are all behavioral scientists and researchers in hygiene and plant physiology. All are engaged in the indoor air quality problem area. The book covers the subject areas air quality in sick buildings and dose-effect relationships for airborne substances in plants and common insects.Owing to its interdisciplinary approach, the material is unique not only in relation to research into the indoor climate, but also in relation to the interaction with plant physiologists. The material contains information on e.g. the way in which plants could be used as sensitive indicators of deterioration in indoor climate in existing buildings, or the way in which buildings,system components or individual buildings materials could be tested in advance. There is also a discussion of how plants and reports of symptoms by people cold together form a sensitive warning system for deterioration in indoor climate.
KEYWORDS Indoor air quality, human comfort, sick building syndrome
#NO 7822 The use of plants to assess the quality of indoor air
AUTHOR Heck W w
BIBINF Sweden, Stockholm, Swedish Council for Building Research, Document Pli 1991, pp 113-127, 2 tabs, refs #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT This paper summarizes several ambient monitoring programs used to assert air pollution effects on biological systems. It also develops a rationale for use of these techniques to assess the possible biological impact on indoor air quality
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, pollution
#NO 7823 Use of plants to control the atmosphere in spacecraft
AUTHOR Knott W M
BIBINF Sweden, Stockholm, Swedish Council for Building Research Document D1: 1991, pp 159-168, 1 tab, ref #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The purposes of this paper are to summarize briefly some of the results from analysis made of gas samples collected in the shuttle, to review research that has provided baseline data on atmospheric gases in sealed recycling chambers, to present results that document the influence that plants may have on these gases, and to describe briefly the capabilities of the newly constructed large sealed plant growth chamber of the CELSS Breadboard Project. The implications that this research may have for problems on indoor air pollution within closed facilities on earth will be discussed.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, pollution
#NO 7965 Water evaporation of five common indoor plants under various climate conditions.
AUTHOR Strickler B
BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 1994, "The Role of Ventilation", proceedings of 15th AIVC Conference, held Buxton, UK, 27-30 September 1994, Volume 1, pp151-162.
ABSTRACT In recent years plants have increasingly become an intergral part of building interior design. Greened office space and large enclosures can provide a better human environment not only because of psychological reasons. Due to photosynthesis, plants interact with the "aerial" environment. Water evaporation affects room air humidity and temperature. Water uptake rates of five common plants in typical indoor conditions have been studied. Water evaporation of these plants can now be predicted in architectural design studies. Simulation of a typical office room in summer and winter show that intensive planting can significantly increase air humidity. As a conclusion, this extra humidity should be removed by natural ventilation in summer while in winter it helps to provide comfortable air conditions. The study shows that the effect of indoor plants' water evaporation on air temperature is little.
KEYWORDS (humidity, occupant reaction, temperature)
#NO 8659 The potential of natural ventilation and passive cooling alternatives for improving ambient comfort conditions and achieving energy savings. A case study for an educational building retrofit.
AUTHOR Garcia-Chavez J R
BIBINF Israel, The Desert Architecture Unit, J Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 1994, edited by Y Etzion, E Erell, I A Meir and D Pearlmutter, proceedings of 11th PLEA International conference, "Architecture of the Extremes", held 3-8 July 1994, Dead Sea, Israel, 79-87.
ABSTRACT Natural ventilation and passive cooling alternatives offer real opportunities for improving the ambient comfort conditions in large educational buildings located in temperate climates of Mexico, whilst reducing the energy consumption due to the use of mechanical systems for space climatisation. This research will examine the potential of natural ventilation and passive cooling alternatives in a library, with an occupancy of 1500 persons. Interviews carried out with users confirmed the unsuitable ambient comfort conditions within the space, which in turn affect their school work activities. The alternatives proposed for investigation consist of a "stack effect" convective air flow system, using existing service ducts; a new fenestration system on the south facade; implementation of an integrated energy efficient lighting system (lamps, luminaires, ballasts and controls); and landscaping design using vegetation, as well as a controlled water stream and a fountain outdoors, for a more favorable microclimate next to the building, thus providing a net precooling effect. Selected plant materials were also integrated indoor, to contribute in the relaxation and well-being of the occupants. It is expected that the alternatives proposed for investigation provide an improvement of the ambient comfort conditions of the occupants, as well as energy savings, with a satisfactory payback period. It is also expected that the results of this work can be useful for other buildings with similar conditions in Mexico.
KEYWORDS natural ventilation, passive cooling, thermal comfort, retrofitting
#NO 8964 Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments.
AUTHOR Rasa S H
BIBINF Indoor Environment, No 4, 1995, pp 58-61, 4 tabs, 11 refs.
ABSTRACT This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic life forms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11 degrees C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63 - 75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, temperature, carbon dioxide
#NO 9659 La climatizzazione del Cenacolo vinciano in Santa Maria delle Grazie. The air conditioning of the "Cenacolo" at Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
AUTHOR Sacchi E
BIBINF Italy, CDA, No 4, April 1996, pp 485-498, 16 figs, 15 refs.
ABSTRACT The environment of the "Cenacolo" by Leonardo da Vinci has recently been drained to coincide with the restoration of the painting, which is now being carried on. We are going to describe the status quo ante of the environment, the plant interventions applied, compared with the aims stated by the Monuments and Fine Arts Office, and the survey of the area concerning both the hygrothermometric conditions and the air suspended particles, as well as the micropollutants concentrations of potential corrosiveness. At the end of the article we give a summary of the results achieved.
KEYWORDS air conditioning, museum, indoor air quality
#NO 10075 Developing interior foliage plants for the improvement of air quality and the indoor environment.
Wood R A, Burchett M D
Indoor Air '96, proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Japan, Volume 3, pp 253-258.
Most of the people responsible for buildings and their interior design and management, probably agree that indoor plants and interior plantscaping contribute to environmental quality. There has been relatively little scientific research however, on the ability of indoor plants to reduce indoor air pollution. It had been proposed that plants may function as "green livers" and act as sinks for many trace contaminants, through the metabolism of such chemicals. This proposal is analogous to the concept of plants as the "green lungs" of the earth due to the production of oxygen through photosynthesis. During the course of evolution, the higher plants have developed an effective defense system to protect labile macromolecules against attack by scavenging free radicals and hydrogen peroxide, which are formed as a result of oxidative stresses such as extremes of temperature or air pollution. The responses of indoor plants to pollutants may provide a simple method of monitoring gaseous pollutants, as well as providing pollution abatement to improve the quality of the air for building occupants. Indoor plants have also been shown to have a positive effect on relative humidity in an office environment. In recent years, researchers from several disciplines including plant physiology, plant biochemistry, environmental psychology, clinical psychology and behavioural medicine have been investigating the benefits of contact with plants. A recent study at the University of Technology, Sydney, demonstrated enhanced alpha EEG (Occipital Electroencephalograph), in the presence of plants. The plant significantly enhanced alpha waves (9-12Hz) in the right hemisphere. No significant differences were seen in the left hemisphere.
indoor air quality, humidity
#NO 11599 Performance characteristics of Palmes diffusion tubes used for measurement of nitrogen dioxide outside residential sites.
Colome S D, Lambert W E, Castaneda N, Baker P E
in: proceedings of Indoor Air '90, the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Totonto, 29 July - 2 August 1990, pp 400-403, 2 tabs, 2 refs.
As part of a large-scale indoor survey of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the Los Angeles area, 120 residences were randomly selected from more than 400 homes participating during a winter sampling period. For the 102 homes agreeing to participate, one NO2 diffusion tube was placed outside on the north side of the house and another was placed outside six feet above the ground. The latter sampler was placed on a pole away from building structures and vegetation and covered by an opaque cup. A network of 19 chemiluminescence monitors was used to provide interpolated measures of outdoor NO2 concentrations for each residence. Nitrogen dioxide interpolated from the chemiluminescence monitors was better correlated with NO2 measured at the sampling poles than on the north face of the home (r2 = 0.65 and 0.51, respectively). Implications for characterising NO2 outside residences are discussed.
field monitoring, outdoor air pollution
#NO 12266 Study of absorption of VOCs by commonly used indoor plants.
Wood R A, Orwell R L, Burchett M D
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 2, pp 690-694.
This study is part of an investigation of the decontamination capabilities of indoor plants. Three internationally used species, Howea forsteriana Becc (Kentia Palm), Dracaena deremensis Eng Janet Craig, and Spathiphyllum Petite (Peace Lily), were evaluated for the ability to reduce or remove benzene and n-hexane from indoor air. Plants tested in both potting media and hydroponic conditions removed the individual VOC's at concentrations equal to 2 and 5 times the maximum occupational exposure levels recommended by the Worksafe Australia Time-weighted average exposure standard (TWA), (1). The process initially took from 2-5 days, after which rates increased so that removal was achieved thereafter in 24 hours. This is typical of an enzyme induction response. The plant and potting media create a soil/plant microcosm in which normal soil microflora, possibly triggered by chemical signals from the plant, play a major role in the breakdown of volatile chemicals and hence improve indoor air quality.
#NO 12267 Removal of VOC by photocatalytic degradation involving photochemical reaction with O3 under short-wavelength UV irradiation.
Sekiguchi K, Ishitani O, Sakamoto K
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 2, pp 695-700.
This study is part of an investigation of the decontamination capabilities of indoor plants. Three internationally used species, Howea forsteriana Becc. (Kentia Palm), Dracaena deremensis Eng. Janet Craig and Spathiphyllum Petite (Peace Lily), were evaluated for the ability to reduce or remove benzene and n-hexane from indoor air. Plants tested in both rooting media and hydroponic conditions removed the individual VOC's at concentrations equal to 2 and 5 times the maximum occupational exposure levels recommended by the Worksafe Australia Time-weighted average exposure standard (TWA), (1). The process initially took from 2-5 days, after which rates increased so that removal was achieved thereafter in 24 hours. This is typical of an enzyme induction response. The plant and potting media create a soil/plant microcosm in which normal soil microflora , possibly triggered by chemical signals from the plant, play a major role in the breakdown of volatile chemicals and hence improve indoor air quality.
indoor air quality
#NO 12269 Do plants in an office have any effect on indoor air microorganisms?
Rautiala S, Haatainen S, Kallunki H, Kujanpaa L, Laitenen S, Miihkinen A, Reiman M, Seuri M
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 2, pp 704-709.
The role of indoor plants as a source of microorganisms was studied in six office rooms. Concentrations of microorganisms (both fungi and actinomycetes) were determined from indoor air and settled dust before the plants were placed in the office rooms and afterwards with the plants in the rooms. Furthermore, samples of soil from the plant pots were analysed. Concentrations of airborne microorganisms were low during the whole study (<100 cfu/cm3). There was no increase in the concentration of indoor air microorganisms neither in the amount of microorganisms sampled from flat surfaces after the plants were placed in the office rooms. Trichoderma was the main fungal genus in the soil, while Pencillium, Cladosporium, non sporing isolates and yeast's dominated in indoor air and surface samples. Trichoderma was not observed in indoor air or surface samples. The results indicate that indoor plants are not a significant source of microorganisms.
indoor plants, indoor air quality
#NO 12819 Potty idea.
UK, HAC, Spring 2000, p 6.
Describes Australian research which states that potted plants in buildings have no effect on sick building syndrome.
indoor air quality, vegetation, air cleaning
#NO 12937 Natural cooling in Hispano-Moslem residential architecture: the case-study of the Court of the Lions and the Court of Comares in the Alhambra (Granada).
Alcala B J
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 399-406, 8 figs, refs.
The XIV-century of the Lions and Comares constitute the principal residential complex of the Alhambra in Granada. Both are distributed around gardens enclosed in courtyards, originally with abundant vegetation and water. This paper includes a series of measurements carried out in the rooms and the courtyards in order to contrast the analysis of the Hispano-Moslem residential type in relation to its environmental performance.
natural cooling, hot climate, courtyard