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LL 29: Design for fire/smoke movement

AIVC, 2001
Bibliographic info: LL29
Languages: English

Design for fire/smoke movement

#NO 8904 Review of tunnel fire and smoke simulations. 

AUTHOR Rhodes N 

BIBINF Aerodynamics and ventilation of vehicle tunnels. Conference proceedings, Liverpool, July 1994, Cockram I.Ed., MEP, 471-486, 9 figs, 13 refs. 

ABSTRACT Describes a mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics used for prediction of smoke movement. The model provides the numerical solution of the basic equations governing two and three-dimensional transient flow with prescribed boundary conditions and includes the effects of turbulence, combustion and radiation. The model has been used to investigate the effects of the major parameters associated with tunnel ventilation design. Describes the effects of fire size, development time and ventilation arrangement on smoke behaviour for several tunnel and underground railway geometries. 

KEYWORDS smoke ventilation, motor vehicle

#NO 8946 Housing experiment Haringkavel shows the value of atrium and integrated heating and ventilation systems. 47 energiezuinige houtskeletwoningen: Praktijkexperiment Haringkavel. 

AUTHOR Engelen M T J, Donze G J 

BIBINF Netherlands, TVVL Magazine, No 8, 1995, pp 34-38,3 figs, 1 tab, 6 refs. 

ABSTRACT The housing experiment Haringkavel exists of two building blocks connected by a fully glazed atrium. The houses have a multi-functional system for air heating, balanced ventilation and domestic water. This article gives the design concepts and the results of the technical and inhabitants assessment. The atrium is regarded as a sound-and wind-sheltered, socially and visually appreciated environment which is fire-safe. Overheating is avoided without individual gas consumption for space-heating is low: 555 m3 natural gas. Reduction of the support energy and maintenance as well as improvement of the climate control is desired. experiences from the Haringkavel project (1989) are being used in practice. 

KEYWORDS energy efficiency, residential building, atrium, balanced ventilation

#NO 9026 Building services engineering. 

AUTHOR Chadderton D V 

BIBINF UK, Building Services Research and Information Association, (BSRIA), E&FN Spon, 1991, 320pp. 

ABSTRACT A compilation of information aimed at undergraduates on building orientated courses. The reader is challenged to become actively engaged in the design calculations carried out by the buildings services engineer, through step by step introduction of each stage. Considers the built environment, energy economies, heat loss calculations, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, hot and cold water supplies, soil and waste systems, surface water drainage, below ground drainage, condensation in buildings, lighting, gas electrical installations, mechanical transport, fire protection, refuse disposal, plant and service areas and solving problems with programmable calculation and micro-computers. 

KEYWORDS building design, maintenance

#NO 9034 Development of smoke management systems. 


BIBINF USA, Ashrae J, August 1995, pp 36-40, 1 tab, 19 refs. 

ABSTRACT This paper describes recent events which have contributed to the current state of smoke management design. It concerns information about fire size, smoke production and assessing the risk of occupants to be used in designing smoke management systems. The information applies especially to atria and other large volume spaces, including covered shopping malls. It is intended to explain work performed since the 1960 s to help understand the current state of smoke management system practice and design. Considers high rise, building pressurization, natural ventilating. stairway pressurization, atria, occupant risk and system evaluation. 

KEYWORDS smoke control, stack effect, ventilation system

#NO 9035 Computer aided design for smoke management. 

AUTHOR Milke J A, Mowrer F W 

BIBINF USA, Ashrae J, August 1995, pp 153-156, 4 figs. 

ABSTRACT Describes a recently developed computer model that can aid in evaluating the adequacy of a smoke management system in an atrium or covered mall. Algebraic equation-based design aids are applicable for conducting a comprehensive, first order analysis of the adequacy of a smoke management system design for atria and covered malls. A computer-based method may be preferred in cases involving changes in geometry, time-dependent fire behaviour or delayed actuation of the smoke management system. The examples included in this review demonstrate the advantages of FMD as compared to the algebraic equations. 

KEYWORDS smoke control, building design, atrium, enclosed shopping mall

#NO 9036 Problems and possible solution for the removal of fire smoke. Problemstellung und Loesungsmoeglichkeit bei der Brandrauchentlueftung. 


BIBINF Germany, HLH, Vol 46, No 8, August, 1995, pp 443-447, 11 figs, in German. 

ABSTRACT The smoke damage to burnt properties, frequently represents the major problem for the fire brigade when they arrive at the location. Where this is concerned, it is necessary to determine the cause and to provide good preconditions for firefighting for the fire brigades. This type of endeavour is described here. The author, who is responsible for safety at an automobile manufacturer, reaches the conclusion that it is sensible to integrate the possible actions of the specified technical solution in the firefighting concept in larger buildings of all types both in the design, conversion and extension as well as in the given situation. 

KEYWORDS smoke control, ventilation system

#NO 9108 Ventilation and Infiltration Characteristics of Lift Shafts and Stair Wells - A Selected Bibliography. 


BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, AIVC Bibliog 

ABSTRACT The stack effect provides the driving force for vertical air movement within buildings. Its effects are especially pronounced in high rise developments, where the air leakage associated with elevators, stairs and service shafts can be a major concern. Stairwells and lift shafts themselves provide occupant access to those floors above or below ground level as well as providing routes for the movement of air. A knowledge therefore of the air movement characteristics if such shafts is vital in understanding the ventilation and leakage patterns in medium and high rise buildings. Such work has been particularly helpful in the prediction and evaluation of smoke control procedures. This review attempts to outline the main areas of research that have been undertaken in the evaluation and understanding of air leakage characteristics of both stairwells and lift shafts. 

KEYWORDS elevator shaft, stairwell, air infiltration

#NO 9124 Measurement of turbulence statistics in a model fire room by LDV. 

AUTHOR Murakami S, Kato S, Yoshie R 

BIBINF USA, Ashrae Transactions, 1995, Vol 101, Pt 2, preprint, 15pp, 14 figs, refs. 

ABSTRACT Precise measurement of turbulence statistics of flow and temperature fields in model fire room was conducted using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and a fine thermocouple measuring 12 um in diameter. The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the turbulence structure of the flow and temperature fields within a room having a large temperature distribution and also to obtain data for verifying the numerical simulation of a turbulent flow field where significant density variation caused by a large temperature distribution is expected. The phenomenon of smoke movement within a building on fire corresponds to such floor and temperature fields. This experiment quantitatively clarifies the turbulence characteristics of velocity and temperature, such as Reynolds stress, turbulent heat flux, and so on, which have hardly been measured in previous studies related to this problem. The results of this experiment provide valuable data for verifying three-dimensional turbulent flow and temperature simulation with density variation. 

KEYWORDS turbulence, smoke control, air movement

#NO 9220 Kitchen ventilation. 

AUTHOR Kelso R M, Rousseau C 

BIBINF USA, Ashrae Journal, September 1995, pp 32-36, 2 tabs. 

ABSTRACT Surveys a new Ashrae handbook chapter which deals with kitchen ventilation. Kitchen ventilation centers around the capture and removal of airborne contaminants that are generated during the cooking process. These contaminants are poorly characterized at the time of writing, but research is underway to further study them. They include gases, vapors, heat and particulates such as liquid grease droplets. Heat from cooking causes a rising column or air called a plume which contains most of the contaminants. A hood is used to receive and contain the plume and its contaminants and direct them into a duct to be filtered and removed, of sometimes recirculated. The design and construction of hoods are strongly controlled by fire and building codes and sometimes other local codes. The chapter categorizes hoods into Type I hoods for handling grease-laden air and Type II for handling steam, heat and odours. Type I hoods may be designed and constructed to meet code requirements, or they may be listed by a recognized testing agency. Listed hoods may not meet the standards code requirements - for instance they may be operated at a lower airflow rate - but are usually accepted by local code authorities. Goes on to describe in detail type I and II hoods. 

KEYWORDS kitchen, ventilation system, pollutant 

#NO 9255 Excessive moisture, eroding fire retardant lead to major problems. 


BIBINF USA, Indoor Air Quality Update, December 1995, pp 8-9. 

ABSTRACT Describes a case study which involves a new public building, where improper design and unsuccessful early remediation attempts have led to thousands of occupant complaints, some serious environmental illness, and much expense. The report concludes that the problems stemmed from two sources: excessive interior humidity, caused by introducing large amounts of unconditioned air into conditioned ceiling plenums; and unencapsulated fire retardant eroding inside the plenum. 

KEYWORDS condensation, indoor air quality, occupant reaction, moisture

#NO 9293 Smoke ventilation. 


BIBINF UK, Building Services and Environmental Engineer, October 1995, p9. 

ABSTRACT Smoke ventilation is an essential weapon in aiding escape from a building and minimising damage. As buildings become increasingly innovative, complex fire engineering solutions are often the only way that adequate levels of safety, as required by the Building Regulations can be achieved. But this also means specifiers taking greater care to ensure that the correct standards are applied to systems intended for life-safety use. 

KEYWORDS smoke movement, ventilation system

#NO 9294 Smoke dampers: do they provide the life safety we count on? 

AUTHOR Rosenfeld S I 

BIBINF Heat. Pip. Air Condit., May 1995, Vol 67, No 5, pp 51-53. 

ABSTRACT Discusses design issues to help achieve the protection expected from smoke dampers. Deals with one-way minimum velocity, the situation when fans are off, supply duct installation, exhaust duct installation, return duct installation, smoke dampers in series, smoke dampers in VAV, small duct installation, smoke dampers and energy, closing smoke dampers, the possibility of VAV without smoke dampers. 

KEYWORDS smoke movement, ventilation system, duct

#NO 9331 House depressurization/backdrafting/carbon monoxide poisoning. 

AUTHOR Greiner T H, Wiggers K 

BIBINF USA, Energy Efficient Building Association, EEBA, 1995, proceedings of the 1995 Excellence in Housing conference, Innovations for Performance , held Minneapolis Hilton and Towers, Minnesota, USA, March 8-11, 1995, pp D27-D36. 

ABSTRACT Four separate families were poisoned by carbon monoxide in North Central Iowa in a seven day period during the winter of 1993-1994, resulting in ten hospitalisations and two deaths. An investigative team consisting of an Iowa State University associate professor and the owner/operator/president of an environmental consulting/mitigation firm investigated three of the cases. The first case involved a relatively new house with two natural gas natural draft furnaces and a water heater. The family had been subjected to elevated carbon monoxide levels several times. The owner/occupant was frustrated with local heating contractors who were unable to correct the carbon monoxide problem, and was frightened when carbon monoxide episodes continued after being told the problem had been fixed. Investigation showed depressurization from furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, and/or exhaust fans caused reverse flow from the water heater, the two furnaces, and/or the gas fireplace. The owner installed sealed combustion, a water heater and furnaces. In two other cases numerous design and maintenance problems contributed to the poisonings. These problems were not recognised by local utility employees, the fire department, local authorities, or heating contractors. 

KEYWORDS depressurisation, carbon monoxide, toxic gas, residential building, maintenance, installation techniques

#NO 9339 The ideal house: integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance. 


BIBINF USA, Energy Efficient Building Association, EEBA, 1995, proceedings of the 1995 Excellence in Housing conference, Innovations for Performance , held Minneapolis Hilton and Towers, Minnesota, USA, March 8-11, 1995, pp F60-F73. 

ABSTRACT Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of energy efficiency, affordability, indoor air quality, sustainability and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two-storey structure. The first floor would be constructed using an insulated, strong, high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second storey would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimise thermal bridging across studs. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. Optimising floor plan living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction, selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation, and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as duct selection, design and location; radon barriers, omission of carpeting, ventilation, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts,and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence are addressed in this paper. 

KEYWORDS building design, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, thermal mass

#NO 9620 Controlling stack pressure in high rise buildings by compartmenting the building.

AUTHOR Rousseau M J

BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, March 1996, 40pp.

ABSTRACT An investigation was conducted of the effect of decreasing the air leakage area across internal partitions of a typical modern high-rise apartment. The objective of this work was to study the practicality of increased compartmentalization or separation of the living units from each other and from the corridors and vertical shafts in the building. Typically, the main barrier to air movement through a high-rise apartment building is the exterior skin or envelope. Walls and doors between corridors, units and elevator shafts and stairwells are much less airtight, and significant volumes of air can move between these different areas of the building interior under relatively small pressure differences. Some disadvantages of this arrangement are that individual occupants can affect air movement through the entire building by leaving windows or balcony doors open in their units, odours and pollutants produced in one area of the building may be transferred to other areas, exterior walls and windows have large pressure differences across them which drives air and rain through any defect, and special measures to control smoke migration during fires must be provided. The objectives of this study were to measure the actual pressure differences across various separations within a high-rise apartment building, to generate and analyze potential ways of reducing the air leakage through these separations, and to draw conclusions on their effects on air movement in the building, including changes in operation of typical current ventilation strategies and fire and smoke control measures.

KEYWORDS stack effect, high rise building

#NO 9787 Directing of the air flow in industrial hall during fire ventilation operation.

AUTHOR Mizielinski B, Hendiger J

BIBINF Japan, proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, Roomvent '96, held Yokohama, Japan, 17-19 July, 1996, Volume 2, pp 337-341.

ABSTRACT In first part of fire, when smoke expel can be dominating, fast operating of the fire ventilation is required. In industrial, airtight hall, after turning on outlet ventilators, an underpressure appears. Larger amount of outdoor air will get inside. To ensure proper smoke removal process, outdoor air flows must be properly directed. It is necessary to design appropriate air inlets, mounted inside the hall. Resigning of control over indoor airflow can lead to smoke spread in whole room and decrease efficiency of life-saving activities. Problems of air movement in large capacity room in case of fire ventilation operation are presented in this paper.

KEYWORDS air flow, industrial building, smoke movement

#NO 9908 Application of computational fluid dynamics in building services engineering.

Chow W K

Building and Environment, Vol 31, No 5, 1996, pp 425-436, 12 figs, 36 refs.

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to building services design is illustrated and reviewed. Principal areas of application are designs requiring an understanding of the air flow pattern, such as design of smoke control systems and air distribution in a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system. In such an approach, the indoor air motion is described by a set of partial differential equations describing conservation of mass, momentum, enthalpy and chemical species concentration, if any. The air flow pattern, temperature contour, and chemical species concentration distribution induced by thermal sources are predicted by solving that system of equations using the finite difference method. Assessment of the longitudinal ventilation in a tunnel, smoke filling in an atrium, and the interaction between the air flow induced by a fire and a sprinkler water spray are illustrated in the area of fire engineering. Simulation of the combustion process is briefly reviewed. Calculation of the macroscopic flow parameters in an air conditioned gymnasium and an office is demonstrated.

computational fluid dynamics, smoke control, atrium

#NO 10151 BRE housing design handbook: energy and internal layout.

Energy Efficiency Office

UK, Building Research Establishment, BR 253, 1993, 295pp.

Aimed at helping those involved in the process of house building to appreciate the wide range of user requirements that must be dressed in the design of housing. A useful reference source for checking that housing design criteria have been met adequately. Chapters cover occupants' requirements; site layout, built form and microclimate; orientation, sunlight and solar gain; orientation and daylight; privacy and noise; security; fire; safety; energy efficient design; thermal insulation; space and water heating; internal environment; services and drainage; circulation living rooms and bedrooms; kitchens; utility areas; and bathrooms.

building design, energy consumption

#NO 10363 Experimental and numerical study on natural convection in a model fire room.

Yoshie R, Murakami S, Kato S

Japan, University of Tokyo, IIS Annual Report of Group Research Activity on Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows, No 11, 1996, pp 88-95, 11 figs, 1 tab, refs.

Natural convection in a model fire room with a large temperature distribution was numerically simulated. The results were compared with the experiment conducted by the present authors. In the experiment,turbulent statistics of flow and temperature field were precisely measured using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a fine thermocouple of 12pm in diameter. Low-Reynolds number k -e model with variable density which considers the buoyancy dumping effect of vertical turbulent flux was used for the simulation. The correspondence between the results of the numerical simulation and those of the experiment was reasonably good.

numerical modelling, smoke movement

#NO 10374 Use of computational fluid dynamics to analyse indoor air quality issues.

Emmerich S J

USA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, NISTIR 5997, April 1997, 44 pp, refs.

The potential for using a large eddy simulation (LES) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to analyze building indoor air quality (IAQ)and ventilation problems was investigated. The LES model was developed by the Fire Service Division of NIST to simulate the transport of smoke and hot gases during a fire in an enclosure. Based on an extensive literature review, the application of the LES model to a test case, and discussions with building industry contacts, it was determined that this model offers unique capabilities compared to other available CFD models and could be used to make a significant contribution in studying issues of current interest in the IAQ and ventilation field. Recommendations for future work include evaluation of the predictive of CFD, analysis of topics that take advantage of transient simulation capability of this model, and development of a strategy for U.S. industry to apply CFD in the design process.

computational fluid dynamics, indoor air quality, smoke movement

#NO 10477 The Memorial Tunnel fire ventilation test program.

Giblin K A

USA, Ashrae Journal, February 1997, pp 26-30, 2 figs.

Describes a six year, $38 million program which has just been completed consisting of full scale fire tests conducted in an abandoned highway tunnel in West Virginia, known as the Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program. The objectives of the test plan were to: develop a comprehensive database regarding temperature and smoke movement from full-scale fire ventilation tests which would permit a definitive comparative evaluation of the capabilities of transverse and longitudinal ventilation systems to manage smoke and heat in a fire emergency; and to determine, under full-scale fire test conditions, the relative effectiveness of various ventilation system configurations,ventilation rates, and operating modes in the management of the spread of smoke and heat for tunnel fires of varying intensities. To accomplish the objectives, the various fan systems were tested for fire sizes of10, 20, 50, and 100 megawatts. Variations were also made in air flow quantity, longitudinal air velocity near the fire, and fan response time. The article goes on to comment on full transverse ventilation tests, partial transverse exhaust ventilation, partial transverse supply ventilation, two-zone partial transverse ventilation, partial transverse ventilation with single point extraction, partial transverse ventilation with oversized exhaust ports, point supply and point exhaust operations,longitudinal ventilation with jet fans, natural ventilation, and foam suppression system tests.

smoke control, tunnel ventilation

#NO 10519 Prediction of smoke movement in atria: Part I Physical concepts.

Klote J H

USA, Ashrae Transactions, Vol 103, Part 2, 1997, proceedings of the Ashrae Summer Meeting, Boston, 29 June - 2 July, 1997 [preprint].

smoke movement, atrium

#NO 10520 Prediction of smoke movement in atria: Part II Application to smoke management.

Klote J

USA, Ashrae Transactions, Vol 103, Part 2, 1997, proceedings of the Ashrae Summer Meeting, Boston, 29 June - 2 July, 1997 [preprint].

smoke movement, atrium

#NO 10535 Review on using the time constant for studying the atrium smoke filling processes.

Chow W K

USA, Ashrae Transactions, Vol 103, Part 2, 1997, proceedings of the Ashrae Summer Meeting, Boston, 29 June - 2 July, 1997 [preprint].

A time constant has been previously proposed to characterise the smoke filling time in an atrium space for design purposes. Another time constant using the plume equation proposed by Zukoski is used and the concept is further evaluated in this paper using the zone models FIRST, CFAST and CCFM.VENTS developed at the Building and Fire Research Laboratory, NIST, USA and the BR12 developed at the Building Research Institute, Ministry of Construction. A design fire of thermal power and area related to the volume of the atrium space is proposed in order to evaluate the time constant.

smoke control, atrium

#NO 10645 EC 2000 high performance buildings that reduce or avoid air conditioning.

Burton S, Doggart J

France, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, proceedings of the Second International Conference on Buildings and the Environment, held Paris, June 9-12 1997, Volume 2, pp 385-392.

This paper outlines progress in the THERMIE Target project Energy Comfort 2000 after three and a half years. Seven of the eight buildings are under construction and the eighth will be starting on site in May 1997. The project covers the design, construction, commissioning and monitoring of the buildings which are offices, university buildings, and public and recreational buildings, together with "horizontal activities" which link the projects together. All buildings have been designed to save at least 50% of the energy consumption of conventional buildings and to avoid or minimise the use of air-conditioning, by passive design methods. Results from monitoring of the first completed building show that it has saved 74% of the energy of an equivalent air-conditioned building, with the majority of the occupants believing that the building provides comfortable internal conditions. The many useful results from EC2000 are being produced for dissemination in the form of "Information Dossiers", subject to date include fire safety in atria, natural ventilation design, control strategies and windows.

thermal comfort, public building, atrium, natural ventilation

#NO 10912 Smoke control basics.


USA, Ashrae, video tape, 1996.

Video of a presentation on the basics of smoke control. Covers "Basic approaches to smoke management", "Considerations in the application, selection, and specification of fire safety related dampers", "Smoke control systems damper components requirements", "Smoke management system design - where to start?"

smoke, air movement

#NO 10913 Smoke control basics.


USA, Ashrae, notes to accompany video of presentation, 1996.

Accompanying notes for 10912.

smoke, air movement

#NO 10914 Design of smoke management systems.

Klote J H, Milke J A

USA, Ashrae, 1992, 223pp.

Systematically presents the available data and calculation procedures necessary to design smoke control systems. Covers material on toxicity, visibility, and tenability; the fundamentals of plume dynamics and airflow influences; issues related to temperature effects and geometry; deals with large enclosed volumes such as stadiums, arenas, malls, atria; and discusses elevator protection and the elements of refuge areas, among others.

smoke, air movement

#NO 11180 Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting.

Tuomisaari M

Finland, Technical Research Centre, TRC 1997, 53pp, 25 figs, 2 tabs, 14 refs.

Ventilating a fire compartment during operational fire fighting procedures may have unpredictable consequences. In some cases the ventilation is advantageous: the hot gases are removed from the fire enclosure, the visibility improves and the enclosure cools down. In some cases the opposite happens: with the accelerated burning rate, more smoke is spread around, and the temperatures rise. The most dramatic consequence is the initiation of a backdraft, where the pyrolyzed gases ignite instantaneously, in the worse case causing a severe explosion. The effect of ventilating the fire compartment was studied systematically by quarter scale laboratory tests. The fire was initiated in a one-storey three-room compartment subject to different horizontal ventilation conditions. Both natural and positive pressure ventilation (PPV) were applied. The tests revealed many critical factors affecting the success of the attack. When properly used, PPV clearly improves the survival probability in the compartment: the visibility dramatically improves, and the temperatures are low everywhere outside the fire room. A fire spread zone modal code (BRI2T) was applied to a few principal test scenarios. The model simulates well scenarios with no vigorous turbulent mixing of the gas layers, but predicting dependencies between different parameters is tedious because the model (like all zone models) does not contain a feedback between varying ventilation conditions and the heat release rate. Due to these limitations, the available zone models are not suitable for PPV applications.

smoke control, smoke movement

#NO 11181 Fire safety codes for Hong Kong: inadequacy for atrium design.

Chow W K, Wong L T

UK, Building Serv Eng Res Technol, Vol 19, No 2, 1998, pp 93-99, 1 fig, 2 tabs, 24 refs.

The fire safety codes for buildings in Hong Kong are reviewed in terms of building type, building interior layout, construction materials, occupancy levels, circulation patterns, access and escape routes, fire detection and firefighting systems. The fire safety codes are valid only for traditional buildings in Hong Kong. Following these codes in modern buildings might lead to 'over-design' or to providing safety systems which are not workable in case of fire. The prescriptive approach is found to be insufficient to design fire safety for an atrium. It is timely to review the fire codes, to identify and revise those parts which are not workable. The possibility of implementing engineering performance-based fire codes is discussed. The fire safety requirements in atria are taken as an illustrative example. An engineering approach to designing fire safety is strongly advocated.

smoke control, atrium, fire regulations

#NO 11266 Building Simulation '97. Volume 1.

Spitler J D, Hensen J L M (eds.)

International Building Performance Simulation Association, (IBSPA), 1997, Proceedings of the Fifth International IBSPA Conference, held September 8-10, 1997, in Prague, Czech Republic, Volume I, 392pp.

Computer simulation techniques are increasingly used in the design of buildings, in the design of space conditioning, safety, and structural components, in the evaluation and monitoring of the thermal performance of the equipment, and in the control of the building system during operation. Computer based techniques are rapidly evolving, and techniques not feasible several years ago are now commonplace. These proceedings present many innovative approaches to building performance simulation, including fundamentals of building processes - modelling of phenomena in buildings such as moisture, heat and air flow, lighting, fire, thermal comfort and IAQ; building operation - plant and control system modelling, optimisation, fault detection; computer implementation - modelling approaches, simulation environments, validation, and object-oriented simulation; simulation applications - simulation in practice, design methods for building systems, multi-discipline integrated tools, and user needs and experiences. The proceedings contain a total of 119 papers.

simulation, indoor air quality

#NO 11457 Energy efficient ventilation of large enclosures. Technical Synthesis Report. IEA ECBCS Annex 26.

Moser A, et al

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 1998, 35pp.

Large enclosures have become a major feature of modern building design. Spaces such as atria and covered areas are used in all varieties of buildings including office complexes, shopping malls, airports and public buildings. Essentially they create an environment protected from the outdoor climate in which a wide range of activities is possible. However such spaces demand very careful design to ensure good indoor air quality and thermal comfort and to protect occupants from the risk of fire and smoke spread. Describes the Annex 26 project and summarises information about proven technology for the design of ventilation in such spaces. The report covers analysis and prediction techniques; measurement techniques; case studies; and lessons learned.

large building, energy efficiency, atrium

#NO 11463 Guidelines for ventilation during the repairing process of ship-hull in an VLCC.

Kong H C, Sun H, Xu W Q, Koh C N

Morocco, Marrakesh, ITEEC 1997, proceedings of ITEEC 97 International Thermal Energy and Environment Congress, held 9-12 June 1997, Marrakesh, Morocco, pp 447-452, 5 figs, 7 tabs, 4 refs.

During the repairing process of the ship hull of a very large crude carrier (VLCC), large amounts of smoke, heat and harmful gases are generated. In order to improve the productivity of the workers, their health condition and safety, ventilation is needed to have better indoor air quality. A new ventilation system is proposed which basically transfers fresh air from the deck (top) to the bottom of the ship-hull via an air duct and then spread to the entire ship hull by an air-distributor before being sucked out at the deck. A set of design and usage guidelines for this ventilation system was prepared for the convenience of engineers' use. It caters for ship hulls of different dimensions and the number of air distributors, supply and suction fans to be used. It is characteristic for different ship hulls, that the correct configuration must be selected from the guidelines.

large building, ship, toxic gas, smoke movement

#NO 11757 Reducing fire hazards in small buildings.

Sultan M A

Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, Small Buildings Technology in Transition, proceedings of Building Science Insight '90, pp 3-15, 9 figs, 14 refs.

This paper addresses four main aspects of reducing fire hazards: controlling fire within a compartment, controlling the spread of fire between compartments through interior separations, controlling the spread of fire between compartments through openings in exterior walls, and providing early warning to building occupants.

smoke movement, building envelope

#NO 11772 Current issues, alternative concepts and design criteria for subway ventilation systems.

Miclea P C

in: USA, Littleton, Colo. Soc. for Mining Metallu. and Expl., proc. Int. Minc Ventilation Congress 6th, Vol 6, 1997, pp 64-69, 1 tab, 20 refs.

With the growing urban population and the concern for traffic congestion and pollution (emissions control), public transportation is becoming more and more attractive to both city dwellers and managers. To gain access to the central area of the city, the subway remains the most viable alternative, despite its higher cost when compared to above ground or elevated transportation systems. There are relatively few regulations and criteria for subway ventilation, particularly when compared with mine ventilation. This paper presents the current issues in subway ventilation, as shared by the public transit community around the world, together with modern alternative design concepts vis-a-vis the more stringent emerging Fire-Life Safety criteria. Examples of recent studies and ventilation systems design are provided.

tunnel ventilation, vehicle emissions

#NO 11819 The mystery of the burnt toast.


UK, HAC, February 1999, pp 18-19.

Describes how a new control for kitchen ventilation in student accommodation has reduced false fire alarms. The new design, called a "Cooker Miser" switches the cooker hood ventilator on automatically when cooking appliances are in use, and runs on automatically for a predetermined time period. It is energy efficient, and has the added advantage of reminding occupants to switch off appliances when cooking is finished.

smoke movement, cooker hood, kitchen, communal housing

#NO 11897 CFD simulations of the effects of HVAC-induced flows on smoke detector response.

Klote J H

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 15 pp, 8 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

Rapid activation of fire protection systems in response to a growing fire is one of the important factors required to provide for life safety and property protection, Airflow due to the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can significantly modify the flow of smoke along the ceiling and must be taken into consideration when a particular system is designed. At present, the standards used to guide the design of fire protection systems contain very little quantitative information concerning the impact of airflow produced by HVAC systems. This paper describes the results of a project that used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate smoke movement in response to HVAC-induced airflows. The HVAC simulations included ceiling-mounted slot diffusers, wall-mounted slot diffusers, high sidewall diffusers, and ceiling diffusers from which airflow drops to the floor, in combination with rectangular and slot returns. The CFD model was modified to calculate smoke detector activation times throughout the fire-driven flow field.

computational fluid dynamics, smoke movement, air flow

#NO 11899 Predicting the position of the smoke layer interface height using NFPA 92B calculation methods and a CFD fire model.

Brooks W N

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 12 pp, 11 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

NFPA Standard 92B presents computational methods for determining the position of a smoke layer in a large-volume space. Although NFPA 92B is a guide to smoke management design, the methods have been adopted, with certain modifications, by model building codes and are mandated for use in atriums and large-volume spaces. This paper makes use of a recently developed CFD fire model to assess the NFPA 92B calculation methods. A total of 13 simulated tests were conducted. Results suggest that the NFPA 92B Equation 9 method may not predict the fastest filling of an enclosure within the range of aspect ratios provided in NFPA 92B.

smoke movement, prediction, computational fluid dynamics, fire modelling

#NO 11900 Large eddy simulations of smoke movement.

McGrattan K B, Baum H R, Rehm R G

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 11 pp, 7 figs, 1 tab, refs.

This paper describes a methodology for simulating the transport of smoke and hot gases in buildings. The approach is based on the use of efficient CFD techniques and high-performance computers to solve a form of the Navier-Stokes equations specialized to the smoke movement problem. The fire is prescribed in a manner consistent with a mixture fraction-based approach to combustion, but the combustion phenomena themselves are not simulated. The mixing and transport of smoke and hot gases are calculated directly from an approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations. The computations are three-dimensional and time-dependent and are limited only by the spatial resolution of the underlying grid. Due to the efficiency of the algorithm, calculations employing over a million computational cells are routinely performed on workstations. Convective motion is resolved down to scales one-hundredth the size of the characteristic length of the enclosure. For residential rooms or hotel units, this corresponds to 3-5 centimetre resolution, and for industrial applications, 10-20 centimetres. Fire-related phenomena such as radiative heat transfer, flame spread, and sprinkler spray dynamics have been added to the model, enabling simulations of large-scale fire experiments. Examples of how the model is used in this regard are presented.

smoke movement, simulation, modelling

#NO 11910 Smoke movement and detector activation in high bay spaces.

Davis W D

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 13 pp, 9 figs, 7 tabs, refs.

A series of fire experiments were conducted in two aircraft hangars with ceiling heights of 15 m (50 ft) and 22 m (73 ft). The purpose of the experiments was to analyze the activation characteristics of smoke and heat detectors in response to JP-5 and JP-8 pool fires. The 15 m (50 ft) hangar was located in Hawaii, where ambient temperatures were approximately 30 Deg.C (86 Deg.F). The 15 m (50 ft) experiments used fire sizes that ranged from 100 kW (95 btu/s) to 7.7 MW (7300 Btu/s). Experiments were conducted with and without draft curtains in the 15 m (50 ft) hangar. The 22 m (73 ft) hangar was located in Iceland, where ambient temperatures were approximately 12 Deg.C (54 Deg.F). The 22 m (73 ft) experiments used fire sizes that ranged from 100 kW (95 Btu/s) to 33 MW (31000 Btu/s). Draft curtains were present for all the 22 m (73 ft) experiments. Open- and closed-door fire experiments were conducted in both hangars.

Commercial detectors used in the series of experiments included spot smoke and heat detectors, bulb and fusible link elements, projected beam smoke detectors, UV/IR optical flame detectors, and a line-type heat detector. Other instrumentation included thermocouples, mass flow meters, and radiometers.

The analysis of these experiments has led to the following observations:

1. Draft curtains improved the response time of heat detectors and sprinklers at these ceiling heights and reduced the size of the threshold fire needed for activation. Both the plume centerline temperature and the ceiling jet temperature increased in response to the growing smoke layer.

2. Standard response sprinklers were either activated substantially slower or not at all when compared to the activation of quick-response sprinklers at these heights.

3. Trouble windows used for beam-type smoke detectors gave false trouble signals in the presence of dense smoke from JP-5 fires.

4. Tests conducted in the presence of wind and open hangar doors showed that ceiling jet temperatures were substantially reduced but that downwind smoke detectors continued to activate for small fire sizes. Wind speeds inside the hangar ranged from 2 km/h to 32 km/h (1mph to 20 mph).

Based on the observed detector activation, spacing for both spot smoke and heat detectors at these heights was analyzed.

smoke movement, large building, aircraft hangar

#NO 11911 Large-scale physical model studies for an atrium smoke exhaust system.

Lougheed G D, Hadjisophocleous G V, et al

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 23 pp, 23 figs, 1 tab, refs.

This paper presents results of a project initiated by ASHRAE and the National Research Council of Canada. The project applies both physical and numerical modeling to atrium smoke exhaust systems to investigate the effectiveness of such systems and to develop guidelines for their design.

In this paper, results were obtained from a series of tests conducted using a large-scale physical model., The results from the physical model studies are used to investigate the effect of various parameters including fire size, volumetric flow rate for the smoke exhaust system, and the number and location of the exhaust inlets on the conditions in the atrium.

atrium, smoke movement, modelling

#NO 12024 What's new in atrium smoke management?

Klote J H

UK, HPAC, Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, April 1999, pp 28-31, 5 figs, 5 refs.

Outlines methods of smoke management used in various countries. States that the designer needs to be sure that smoke management systems are designed and built so that they will work as intended when a fire occurs. For some atria, a smoke filling system can be built that eliminates the need for atrium exhaust. In the UK and Australia, natural venting is often used where in the US a fan-powered smoke exhaust would be used. The former approach has certain advantages. The "plugholing" of outside air into the smoke exhaust has the potential of exposing occupants to smoke. A method of preventing it has been developed, and it will be incorporated in design publications in the near future. A pre-stratified hot air layer under an atrium ceiling can prevent activation of ceiling-mounted smoke detectors. One solution for this problem uses beam smoke detectors. Scale modelling and CFD can be used when the usual design equations for atrium smoke management are not appropriate.

atrium, fire risks, smoke management

#NO 12025 Fire issues for natural ventilation.

Harrison R, Morgan H, Williams C, Perera E

UK, Building Services Journal, March 1999, pp 52-53, 1 fig, 1 tab.

Describes a software model developed by the Fire Research Station which aims to provide a solution to the problem of predicting the movement of smoke in a naturally ventilated building. 

natural ventilation, fire risks, air movement, modelling, building design

#NO 12032 Oversized kitchen fans - an exhausting problem.

Manclark B

USA, Home Energy, January/February 1999, pp 37-41, 2 figs.

In the US commercial sized kitchen fans are becoming more and more popular in domestic kitchens. Residential kitchens are not regulated in the way commercial ones are, and this causes potential hazards when the large fans are used. The ASHRAE minimum requirement is 100 CFM. Until recently the biggest domestic fans were around 350 CFM, but the latest large fans range from 600 to 1500 CFM. Fans this size are likely to induce backdrafting from other appliances that typically exhaust air. Commercial fans are powerful because they need to remove all contaminants which would otherwise be deposited as grease thus creating a fire hazard. Also, in residential kitchens there is likely to be insufficient make-up air. Finally gives an outline of how the homeowner can design a makeup air system.

kitchen, domestic appliance, cooker hood, exhaust, fan

#NO 12052 Olympic arena - concept and design development.

Ghete P, Kent J, Ayoub M

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 33-40, 12 figs.

This paper presents an original air conditioning concept and design development elaborated for a large arena, designed to accommodate the indoor sporting events during the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia.

An air conditioning system, which provides a great level of flexibility and economical operation, has been developed and its performance studied in detail by the use of our computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software.

The CFD analysis has confirmed the advantages of the system by achieving a uniform temperature distribution and appropriate air velocities in the occupied areas, under all operational situations.

The proposed concept is also a key element of the smoke management strategy for the arena. Hence the study has been extended to incorporate evaluations of smoke concentrations for various fire scenarios.

air conditioning, computational fluid dynamics, public building

#NO 12250 Servicing the Millennium Dome.

Cripps A J, McLaughlin T, Carmichael K

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 2, pp 374-375.

With a diameter of 320m, and a height of 50m the Millennium Dome is one of the World's largest enclosed spaces, probably the largest among those intended for public use. This paper briefly discusses some of the Building Services issues involved in the design and construction of the Dome, concentrating on the ventilation, and heating/cooling of the building. Buro Happold are the engineers for the Dome responsible for Structural, Building Services, Fire and Access Engineering of the main structure and many of the exhibitions within it. We are also monitoring the performance of the building to provide data for comparison with the models used to help design it.

large building

#NO 12503 Brandschutz im Millennium Tower. Fire protection in the Millennium Tower.

Grossmayer R

Germany, HLH, Vol 50, No 8, 1999, pp S3-S6, 4 figs.

The Millennium Tower, which is, at the same time, the centre of attraction of the Handelskai Centre Project, can be said to be one of the most remarkable structures to be built in Vienna at the end of the Second Millennium.

smoke movement

#NO 12504 Maschinelle Rauchabzugsanlagen (MRA). Mechanical smoke extraction systems (MRA).

Schuhen D J

Germany, HLH, Vol 50, No 8, pp S14-S17, 4 figs.

In addition to natural outlets (RWA), mechanical smoke extractors are used for removing the smoke from fires in buildings. They are used where it is not possible, in principle, to use RWA: In underground car parks, internal stairwells, basements etc.

smoke movement

#NO 12505 Fire and smoke control: an historical perspective.

Klote J H

USA, ASHRAE Journal, July 1994, pp 46-50, 10 refs.

Describes how ASHRAE's involvement in fire and smoke control has greatly increased since the first ASHRAE symposium on this topic was held in 1968.

smoke movement

#NO 12745 Smoke movement for sprinklered fires.

Lougheed G D, McCartney C, Taber B C

USA, ASHRAE Transactions, Winter Meeting 2000, Dallas, 15 pp, 12 figs, 1 tab, refs.

This paper presents the initial results of a project initiated by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the National Research Council of Canada to investigate smoke movement resulting from a sprinklered fire in a communicating space into an adjacent large open area such as an atrium or retail mall. Recent research on the interaction of sprinkler spray with a smoke layer is also reviewed. In addition, information in the literature from fullscale fire tests of mercantile and office occupancies is discussed. As part of the joint project, a largescale test facility was established to investigate smoke flow for sprinklered fires. This facility is described in the paper. The results of steadystate fire tests using a propane burner system are discussed. These tests indicate that two smoke flow regimes can occur depending on the fire size. For fires with low heat release rates, the smoke temperature was uniform over the height of the compartment opening and was near ambient. Under this condition, the smoke was nonbuoyant and accumulated near the opening. With higher heat release rates, a twozone air and smoke flow regime resulted. The smoke exited the compartment in the hot upper layer. The fire test results were used to determine approximate limits for the smoke flow regimes. Preliminary tests were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of opposed airflow systems in limiting smoke flow between the test compartment and the adjacent area. Initial results are also provided for this portion of the investigation. 

smoke, fire, air flow

#NO 12885 New modelling tool for predicting smoke movement in high-rise buildings.


Canada, Construction Innovation, Spring 2000, p 7.

Recent IRC research indicates that verified numerical models can provide a tool that can be used to predict smoke movement in high rise buildings. 

smoke movement, high rise building, modelling

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