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LL 26: Effects of outdoor air pollution on indoor air

AIVC, 2001
AIVC | LL
Bibliographic info: LL 26
Languages: English

Effects of outdoor air pollution on indoor air

#NO 2639 Indoor air pollution and ventilation.

AUTHOR Warren P R

BIBINF CIBSE Technical Conference 1987, Supplement, 1-2 June 1987, p1-13, 2 figs, 4 tabs, 70 refs. #DATE 00:06:1987 in English

ABSTRACT Since the early 1950s considerable attention has been paid to outdoor air pollution, particulary in relation to sulphur dioxide, smoke and, more recently, photochemical smog. However, people generally spend much more time inside buildings than outside. A recent survey in the United Kingdom has shown that the average person spends 90% of his time indoors, and 75% in the home, confirming similar occupancy patterns found in a number of other countries by Szalai. Some groups, such as the elderly, very young children and non working wives may spend even longer in the home. This has lead to the realization that in determining total exposure to a given pollutant the indoor component may be important, and will be the dominant component where indoor levels exceed those generally found in the outdoor air. Indoor air pollution is a complex topic which involves the expertise of professional disciplines ranging from building services engineering through the pure sciences to medicine. A combination of factors, including the use of new building materials, improved measurment techniques, recognition of previously ignored pollutants and reconsideration of ventilation standards in the light of theneed to use energy efficiently, has led to a rapid increase in the interest in this field over the past 5 to 10 years. This paper gives a broad review of the major indoor air pollutants and identifies the most appropriate approaches to control where it is required.

KEYWORDS standard pollutant, building material

#NO 2807 Proposed method of indoor air pollution control by dilution with outside air.

AUTHOR Guttmann K

BIBINF in: Indoor Air'87, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Berlin (West), 17-21 August 1987, Vol 3, Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, 1987, p198-202, 3 figs. #DATE 00:00:1987 in English

ABSTRACT Gaseous pollutants generated within the air conditioned space can be controlled by dilution. This is recognized in ASHRAE Standard 62-1981R, but no practical methodology is presented to compute the required percentage of outside air. This paper proposes such a method.

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, pollutant, outdoor air, standard, calculation technique

#NO 3118 Ventilation strategies in the case of polluted outdoor air situations.

AUTHOR Trepte L

BIBINF in: "Effective Ventilation", 9th AIVC Conference, Gent, Belgium, 12-15 September, 1988. #DATE 00:09:1988 in English

ABSTRACT Outdoor air pollution can have a bearing on the effectiveness of indoor air and the quality of ventilation. There is a pressing need to reflect on the potential type and effect of occurrences (e.g. smog, or chemical accidents) and to develop technical, operational and organisational measures which must be taken with mechanical ventilation units in the case of polluted outdoor air situations. A polluted outdoor air situation is present when a ventilation process leads to the intake of pollutants in the interior and to the enrichment of these pollutants to an unacceptably high concentration. The measures to recommend will primarily depend on the specific outdoor air situation, type and quality (leaks) of the building and the type of mechanical ventilation unit in use.

KEYWORDS ventilation system, ventilation strategy, outdoor air, pollution

#NO 4237 Ventilation in smog situations.

Luftung in Smogsituationen.

AUTHOR Trepte L

BIBINF West Germany, Ki Klima Kalte Heizung, No 5, 1990, pp222-225, 2 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs. #DATE 00:05:1990 in German

ABSTRACT When and wherever smog occurs or smog warning is given, the question will arise how to operate mechanical ventilation systems and how to handle natural ventilation to avoid negative consequences for persons during smog episodes or at least to minimize these. We are faced with the same question "what to do? " also in all other cases of high outdoor air pollution's concentration. Then the ventilation process, the exchange of indoor with outdoor air, neither more nor less makes any true sense. Also the smallest air exchange by ventilation or infiltration will impair indoor air quality. In general inappropriate operation of mechanical ventilation systems will be much worse than no ventilation at all. All over the world experts try to develop recommendations for the behaviour of occupants and the operation of ventilation systems. In the Federal Republic of Germany the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Association of German Engineers) will present the draft of a guideline in the near future, which describes efficient measures against temporary outdoor air pollution.

KEYWORDS mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation, outdoor air

#NO 6349 Predictive models based on personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure.

AUTHOR Hosein R, Corey P, Silverman F, Ayiomamitis A, Urch R B, Alexis N

BIBINF Denmark, Indoor Air, No 4, 1991, pp 457-464, 5 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English

ABSTRACT Portable air pollution samplers were used to measure sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) in a study of a group of nineteen asthmatics during two periods in the winter and summer respectively. One sampler was carried by each subject, one was placed in the home indoors, and one outdoors by the home. In addition, similar pollutants were measured at a central stationary site within a 15 km radius during the same time periods. Samplers were not placed, however, in other indoor spaces where subjects spent part(s) of the day. We used the data from all the sampling sites to develop predictive models for personal exposure. With 330 person-days of exposure data, multiple regression of these "fixed site" measures of pollution against the personal exposure measures revealed a predictive relationship whose power increased proportionally to the time the subjects spent indoors. This relationship was limited, however, since samplers were not placed at other indoor spaces, thus leaving the predictive model incomplete. A pollution index in which these indoor and outdoor pollutant measures were weighted by the time spent at home indoors and outdoors was predictive of personal exposure for NO2 and RSP (R=0.78,0.44 respectively); the SO2 levels were too low to be used in the comparative analyses (R=0.19).

KEYWORDS sampler, nitrogen dioxide, particulate, outdoor air, allergies

#NO 6534 A perspective on indoor and outdoor air pollution.

AUTHOR Spengler J D, Samet J M

BIBINF in "Indoor Air Pollution: a Health Perspective", edited by J M Samet and J D Spengler, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp 1-32. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English

ABSTRACT Describes the origins of indoor pollution and the special problems of today's indoor pollutants, including a table of air quality standards or guidelines for contaminants. Also considers outdoor air pollutants worldwide.

KEYWORDS outdoor air, pollutant, indoor air quality

#NO 6535 Sources and concentrations of indoor air pollution.

AUTHOR Spengler J D

BIBINF in "Indoor Air Pollution: a Health Perspective", edited by J M Samet and J D Spengler, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp 33-67. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English

ABSTRACT Concentrations indoors vary not only with the strength of the pollution sources, but with the volume of the polluted space, the rate of air exchange between indoor and outdoor air, and other factors that affect removal. Health risks from indoor pollution depend not only on indoor concentrations, but on patterns of human activity and source use, which, along with indoor concentrations, determine personal and source use, which, along with indoor concentrations, determine personal exposures. For some health effects, short-term patterns of source emissions may be relevant whereas long-term patterns may be more pertinent for others. Thus, to assess and control the health effects of indoor air pollution, the contributions of indoor sources to personal exposures must be characterized. However, sources of indoor air pollution are myriad and may vary with age, race, and ethnicity of a home's occupants and with climate and geology. For example, inner city residents may have much greater exposure to cockroach antigen than persons residing in the suburbs.

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, pollutant

#NO 6541 Carbon monoxide.

AUTHOR Coultas D B, Lambert W E

BIBINF in "Indoor Air Pollution: a Health Perspective", edited by J M Samet and J D Spengler, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp 187-208. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English

ABSTRACT Exposure to CO as an indoor air pollutant is reviewed. Since health data based directly on indoor exposures are limited, information from outdoor exposures or experimental exposures which reflect levels of CO that may be found indoors has been included. The pathophysiology of CO is presented in the first section. This is followed by a description of the sources and levels of exposure to CO. Finally, manifestations of CO intoxication and the health effects of exposure to low levels of CO are reviewed.

KEYWORDS carbon monoxide, pollutant

#NO 6724 Indoor air pollution: radon, bioaerosols and VOCs.

AUTHOR Kay J G, Keller G E, Miller J F

BIBINF USA, Chelsea, 1991, 259pp. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English

ABSTRACT The book is a result of the symposium "Indoor Air Pollution: Its Causes, Its Measurement, and Possible Solutions", presented at the 198th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Subject areas of the papers featured include biological pollutants, indoor and outdoor concentrations of organic compounds, indoor ozone exposures resulting from the infiltration of outdoor ozone, building "bake-outs", air cleaners, radon.

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, radon, aerosol, organic compound

#NO 6730 Indoor and outdoor concentrations of organic compounds associated with airborne particles: results using a novel solvent system.

AUTHOR Naik D V, Weschler C J, Shields H C

BIBINF USA, Chelsea MI, Lewis, 1992 "Indoor Air Pollution, Radon, Bioaerosols and VOCs", pp 59-70. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English

ABSTRACT An extraction method, using a mixed solvent, has been developed for the identification of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) associated with airborne particles. The procedure yields a single extract, suitable for gas chroatographic analysis, that contains both polar and nonpolar compounds. The solvent is aone-to-one mixture of cyclohexane and 1-chlorobutane. The liquids are miscible and have virtually identical boiling points, which permits refluxing as well as evaporative concentration. The extraction procedure, followed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GS/MS) analysis, has been used to examine SVOCs associated with size-fractionated airborne particles. The particles were collected indoors and outdoors, for a 6-week period, at a site in Neenah, Wisconsin. The procedure adequately extracts the major organic compounds associated with these particles. The results indicate that there are strong indoor sources for certain branched and n-alkalines, fatty acids, and phthalate esters at the Neenah site. It is also apparent that the organic compounds associated with indoor coarse particles have indoor sources. This study reaffirms the earlier observation that partitioning between the vapour phase and the surface of airborne particles is more pronounced indoors than outdoors.

KEYWORDS organic compound, particle, outdoor air, indoor air quality

#NO 6731 Methods for chemical characterization of air samples PTEAM prepilot study.

AUTHOR Sheldon L S, Whitaker D, Sickles J, Pellizzari E, Westerdahl D, Wiener R

BIBINF USA, Chelsea MI, Lewis, 1992 "Indoor Air Pollution, Radon, Bioaerosols and VOCs", pp 71-82. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English

ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study was to evaluate sampling and analysis methods for monitoring selected chemical species in indoor and outdoor air samples. The selected approach was to perform a nine-home chemical characterisation study using the proposed monitoring methods. Indoor and outdoor fixed site monitoring were performed for all chemical groups in all nine homes for two 12 hour periods.

KEYWORDS sampling, residential building, pollutant

#NO 6732 Indoor ozone exposures resulting from the infiltration of outdoor ozone.

AUTHOR Weschler C J, Naik D V, Shields H C

BIBINF USA, Chelsea MI, Lewis, 1992 "Indoor Air Pollution, Radon, Bioaerosols and VOCs", pp 83-100. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English

ABSTRACT Indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations were measured from late May through October at three office buildings with very different ventilation rates. The indoor values closely tracked the outdoor values, and, depending on the ventilation rate, were 20 to 80% of those outdoors. The indoor/outdoor data are adequately described with a mass balance model. The model can also be coupled with reported air exchange rates to estimate indoor/outdoor ratios for other structures. The results from this and previous studies indicate that indoor concentrations are frequently a significant fraction of outdoor values. These observations, and the fact that most people spend greater than 90% of their time indoors, indicate that indoor ozone exposure (concentration x time) is greater than outdoor exposure for many people. Relatively inexpensive strategies exist to reduce indoor ozone levels, and these could be implemented to reduce the public's total ozone exposure.

KEYWORDS ozone, outdoor air, indoor air quality, modelling

#NO 7083 Chemical contamination of indoor air in schools and office buildings in milan, italy.

AUTHOR Cavallo D, Alcini D, De Bortoli M, Carrettoni D, Carrer P, Bersani M, Maroni M

BIBINF Finland, Helsinki, Indoor Air '93, proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 1993, Vol 2, pp 45-50. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English

ABSTRACT Air samples, collected indoors and outdoors from naturally ventilated schools and mechanically ventilated office buildings, were studied for: VOCs, formaldehyde, NO2, particulate matter and fiber concentrations. Indoor inorganic contaminants were found to be directly related to outdoor pollution. Indoor VOC concentrations greatly exceeded the recommended values and the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 1 to 15. The presence of VOC was related to indoor emission sources represented by cleaning materials in schools and by carpeting and furnitures in office buildings. Results of the study indicate that mechanical ventilation system reduce the particulate matter, but does not affect the concentration of other contaminants with respect to outdoor air. Particularly in urban areas with high out-door air pollution, HVAC systems should be designed to decrease the levels of all indoor pollutants.

KEYWORDS school, office building, pollutant, indoor air quality

#NO 7087 Indoor air VOC pollution caused by gasoline spill.

AUTHOR Braathen O-A, Schmidbauer N

BIBINF Finland, Helsinki, Indoor Air '93, proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 1993, Vol 2, pp 177-182. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English

ABSTRACT Due to a gasoline spill in the Alvdal area in Norway, the concentrations of organic compounds in indoor air in six buildings were measured. The spill occurred in July 1990. In January 1992, the total concentration of the included components was as high as 53 640 ug/m3 in the building closest to the site of the spill. The remediating steps taken and the movement of the gasoline have reduced the concentrations to the extent that in December 1992 the highest total concentration that was measured was 1675 ug/m3.

KEYWORDS organic compound, indoor air pollution, outdoor air

#NO 7091 Intentional indoor air-pollution, pesticides.

AUTHOR Sherman J D

BIBINF Finland, Helsinki, Indoor Air '93, proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 1993, Vol 2, pp 219-226. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English

ABSTRACT Serious, irreversible harm has been documented in 106 persons, resulting from household or work-place contamination with two families of pesticides, the organophosphates (OPO4) and the chlorinated-cyclodienes (C1-CD), the latter represented by chlordane/heptachlor (C/H). All of the cases were evaluated in the context of medical-legal proceedings. A plea to stop the interior use of pesticides is made, supported by review of the physical and economic burdens suffered by these representative persons, and by the literature.

KEYWORDS pollutant, health, outdoor air

#NO 7627 Dispersion of pollutants from low velocity sources near building.

AUTHOR Yablonsky K, Datsuk T.

BIBINF Finland, FINVAC, 1994, proceedings of the Cold Climate HVAC '94 Conference, held March 15-18, 1994, Rovaniemi, Finland,Edited by J Sateri and E Kainlauri, pp 271-277.#DATE 00:03:1994 in English

ABSTRACT Indoor air quality depends on outdoor pollution level close to building. Mathematical models are used to estimate the quantity of substances entering the building by ventilation and infiltration, based on average concentration. Indeed, sources located into building cavity produce high concentration that is 10 or more times greater than the average values. The flow pattern near building models, cavity parameters (length and residential time) have been studied experimentally in windtunnels, and were used to estimate the average concentrations into cavity. Dispersion features of emissions from local sources into cavity have been studied and the maximum concentration for worst conditions have been obtained. The measured maximum concentrations are compared with the average values and those calculated using several standard formulas.

KEYWORDS Indoor air quality, outdoor air, mathematical modelling.

#NO 8437 The effects of air conditioning components on pollution in intake air. 

AUTHOR Holcombe J K, Kalika P W 

BIBINF Ashrae Trans, 1971, Vol 77, part 1, pp 33-49, 4 diags, 7 tabs, 33 refs. 

ABSTRACT The principal objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the information available concerning the ability of commercial air conditioning equipment to reduce concentrations of pollutants in the outdoor air drawn into a building; (2) to determine the probable effects of various combinations of equipment and compare these predictions with measurements made in selected existing situations. These objectives were accomplished largely by a comprehensive literature search, a survey of equipment manufacturers, and contacts with researchers in industry, government and universities. In addition, data available from an ongoing study with the National Air Pollution Control Administration was combined with theoretical techniques to assess the value of mathematical modelling in predicting indoor/outdoor pollutant relationships. 

KEYWORDS outdoor air, pollutant, air conditioning

#NO 8442 Contravention of building bylaws for HVAC systems and bad maintenance as causes of indoor air pollution. 

AUTHOR Ferahian R H 

BIBINF Proceedings of IAQ 86, Managing indoor air for health and energy conservation, USA American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, 20-23 April, 1986, pp 251-257, 1 fig, 7 refs. 

ABSTRACT Bad maintenance and violation of Building Byelaws and Standards for HVAC systems are major contributors to indoor air pollution. Contamination of outdoor air intakes by exhausts due to proximity of the intakes and exhausts, adjacent building and aerodynamic interaction of the building and the winds at the site cause problems not covered by the codes. PCB-cooled transformers and capacitors may produce dioxins and furans in the event of fire or explosion. Examples of PCB contamination caused by fires are presented. The drive towards energy conservation in buildings and the subsequent reduction of outdoor ventilating air are discussed. Interruption of fan operation for energy conservation sometimes cover up malfunctions in the HVAC system. Mandatory good maintenance of the HVAC system is urgently needed as a part of our laws. 

KEYWORDS maintenance, indoor air quality

#NO 8897 A suggested approach on ventilation standard based on the characteristics of outdoor and indoor air quality 

AUTHOR Ho E T S. 

BIBINF Canada, proceedings Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings , Second International Conference, held May 9-12, 1995, Montreal, edited by Fariborz Haghighat, Volume 2, pp987-996. 

ABSTRACT There are two conventional approaches in developing ventilation guidelines. The first approach is quantitatively based which uses the outdoor and indoor concentration levels of pollutants in calculating the required ventilation rate. This approach is good in accounting for outdoor air quality (OAC but weak in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ). The second approach is qualitatively based which uses a panel of judges (trained or untrained) to decide on the perceived air quality. This approach appears to be good in representing IAQ but has practical limitations with reference to OAQ and IAQ. A third approach is suggested in this paper. To obtain the advantages of the two conventional methods, this hybrid approach which quantifies the OAQ by concentration levels and the IAQ qualitatively. A gas phase titration experiment is introduced to make the quantification derived from the two conventional approaches to be compatible. The experiment draws outdoor air with known concentration to pass through sources with known pollution strength. The airflow rate is modulated to achieve a predetermined level of acceptance. Some correlations were found between the concentration levels and the required flow rate. This hybrid approach should be further investigated. 

KEYWORDS outdoor air, indoor air quality, ventilation rate

#NO 9098 Experiences of measures taken to improve the air quality in schools. 

AUTHOR Gusten J, Strindehag O 

BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration Review, Vol 16, No 3, June 1995, pp 5-8, 5 figs, 3 refs. 

ABSTRACT The ventilation standard was investigated in a large number of school buildings located in Gothenburg, Sweden as part of a current large-scale renovation programme. This article reports on experiences from the reconstruction work involved. Results from air quality measurements comprising TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) and CO2 measurements are presented. The results show that the indoor air quality is considerably influenced by outdoor contamination sources and that cleaning products and floor polish can, temporarily, add to the pollution content in classrooms. Furthermore, reconstruction work, such as painting interior walls and ceilings should be followed by an airing period of several weeks before the rooms are suitable for use. 

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, school, organic compound, carbon dioxide

#NO 9222 Use of passive dosimeters for evaluation of the quality of indoor and outdoor air. 

AUTHOR Kozdron-Zabiegala B, Namiesnik J, Przyjazny A 

BIBINF Indoor Envrion, No 4, 1995, pp 189-203, 6 tabs, 61 refs. 

ABSTRACT This review summarises literature concerned with the application of passive dosimeters used for the estimation of the extent of pollution of outdoor and indoor air by organic compounds. The effect of parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, air movement, and fluctuation in the concentration of the analytes during pre-concentration in two fundamental types of dosimeters (diffusion and permeation devices) is discussed. Examples of the use of commercially available dosimeters for air sampling combined with the simultaneous enrichment of the analytes prior to their final determination by various analytical techniques are given. 

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, outdoor air, measurement technique, organic compound, sampling


#NO 9341 Indoor-outdoor comparison on VOCs: infiltration from outdoor air. 

AUTHOR Gebefuegi I L, Calogirou A, Grassmann M, Loerinci G, Kettrup A 

BIBINF Switzerland, Indoor Air International, 1994, proceedings of Indoor Air Pollution: Innenraumschadstoffbelastung , held at the University of Ulm, Germany, 5-7 October, 1994, pp 11-18. 

ABSTRACT The indoor-outdoor comparison of volatile organic compounds was made in 52 private homes in the City of Munich, Germany. The VOC concentrations were measured by trapping with activated charcoal tubes and analyzed by capillary GC. The infiltrated NO was monitored in the indoor air. It can be concluded the benzene concentration in the indoor air is controlled by the outdoor one in approximately 30% in the investigated cases. 

KEYWORDS organic compound, outdoor air, measurement technique

#NO 9441 Indoor/outdoor measurements of VOCs in developing countries. 

AUTHOR Gee I L, Perry R 

BIBINF UK, Indoor Air International, 1995, proceedings of the Second International Conference on Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment, held London, 7-9 November 1995, edited by J J Knight and R Perry, pp 247-252. 

ABSTRACT The problems of developing countries are often very different to those of the industrialised regions of the world. The impact of VOC pollution in large cities in developing countries has not been adequately considered. Many of these cities have rapidly growing numbers of motor vehicles in climates that promote the formation of photochemical smog. The health implications of this, together with the cancer risks associated with several VOCs have not yet been properly evaluated. The levels of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured in several cities in Asia;Bangkok, Manila and Beijing, and in South America, Sao Paulo, Santiago and Caracas. Preliminary results of studies in these countries have indicated that VOC levels are higher than normally encountered in European counties and that indoor levels are not significantly different to those outdoors. It is likely that the majority of VOCs measured indoors and outdoors are attributable to motor vehicles, although the results of samples currently being analysed will enable a more detailed analysis to be given. 

KEYWORDS organic compound, carbon monoxide

#NO 9442 Volatile organic compounds in the indoor and outdoor environment. 

AUTHOR Lagoudi A, Loizidou M 

BIBINF UK, Indoor Air International, 1995, proceedings of the Second International Conference on Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment, held London, 7-9 November 1995, edited by J J Knight and R Perry, pp 269-278. Measurements of VOCs were carried out in the indoor and outdoor air in six office buildings, along with the measurement of other chemical, sensory and physical parameters. The number of VOCs found in each building was higher than sixty. The most abundant VOCs were aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The VOCs detected in the outdoor air show a strong relation to the traffic existing in the nearby area. Correlation of the concentrations found in the indoor and outdoor air shows that the outdoor air contributes significantly to the chemical pollution of the indoor air in some of the buildings. The dominant indoor sources emitting VOCs were permanent ones such as building materials and furniture. 

KEYWORDS organic compound, outdoor air, indoor air quality


#NO 9833 The effect of external atmospheric pollution on indoor air quality.

Kukadia V, Palmer J

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC), 1996, proceedings of 17th AIVC Conference, "Optimum Ventilation and Air Flow Control in Buildings", Volume 1, held 17-20 September 1996, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp 41-53.

This paper reports the findings of a pilot field study carried out to investigate the internal and external air pollution levels of two adjacent buildings, one naturally-ventilated and the other air-conditioned in an urban area, to investigate their relative attenuation of external pollution levels and to compare internal levels with existing air quality guidelines. Concentration levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were monitored, Simultaneously, measurements of ventilation rates within the buildings and periodic video recordings of the traffic were also carried out. As expected the concentration of external pollutants in the buildings followed the daily external variation, but at reduced levels. Generally, pollutant levels were higher in the naturally ventilated building than in the air-conditioned building. However, on a number of occasions, combustion products from heating boilers were entrained into the air-conditioned building via the high level air intake of the ventilation system raising the levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide inside the building to higher than those found externally. A comparison of the results with existing air quality guidelines or standards for exposure showed that in both buildings the level of contamination was less than the relevant standard, except during a limited period at the weekend when combustion products were possibly entrained into the air-conditioned building. There is thus no clear distinction between the two types of ventilation strategies in terms of providing adequate indoor air quality to the occupants of the buildings. 

outdoor air, pollutant, ventilation rate, combustion product

#NO 10033 Indoor air pollution as a function of indoor and outdoor sources in a typical Israeli apartment.

Lokshin E, Mamane Y

Indoor Air '96, proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Japan, Volume 1, pp 953-958.

It is the aim of this study to develop a mathematical model, describing indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of indoor and outdoor sources. The work was carried out in two directions: development of a multi-zone air flow mode, and a transport model defining the pollutant concentrations in each zone of a building as a function of time. Data for simulation experiments were obtained from a typical Israeli apartments, constant outdoor concentrations, and assumed emission factors. It was found that indoor air quality is affected by meteorological conditions (wind), emissions from indoor sources, and the air tightness of a given building. The configuration of the staircase (open or closed and the presence of the vent top) also affects indoor air concentrations.

outdoor air, apartment building, pollutant

#NO 10053 Wind effect and human movement on airborne particulate concentration at office entrance areas.

Chao C Y H, Tung T C W, Chan D W T

Indoor Air '96, proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Japan, Volume 2, pp 423-428.

Field measurement has been conducted to study the PM-10 level at several office entrance areas inside the Hong Kong Polytechnic University which is located close to automobile pollution sources. One building was selected for detailed investigation. Both indoor and outdoor dust levels were measured at the entrance. A simple expression has been used to indicate the influence of human movement and wind speed on the indoor and outdoor PM-10 ratio. It has been found that high wind speed corresponds to almost identical indoor and outdoor dust concentrations. The higher indoor population density results in higher indoor to outdoor PM-10 ratio.

wind effects, particulate, outdoor air, pollutant

#NO 10078 A study of the impacts of outdoor air and living behaviour patterns on indoor air quality - case studies of apartments in Taiwan.

Chiang C M, Chou P C, Wang W A, Chao N T

Indoor Air '96, proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Japan, Volume 3, pp 735-740.

The indoor air quality issue in Taiwan has received more and more attention due to degradation of the outdoor environment. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter 10 (PM) were two major pollutants, showed the high Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) level reading from public monitoring station in Taiwan. The concentration of carbon dioxide CO2), as taken in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, is termed as an index for indoor air pollution. This study intends to identify the impacts from both of outdoor air and living behaviour patterns on indoor air quality by field measurement and questionnaire survey.

outdoor air, occupant behaviour, apartment building

#NO 10305 Air pollution levels inside buildings in urban areas: a pilot study. 

Kukadia V, Palmer J, Littler J, Woolliscroft R, Watkins R, Ridley I 

UK, CIBSE, 1996, proceedings of CIBSE/ASHRAE Joint National Conference Part Two, held Harrogate, 29 September - 1 October 1996, Volume 1, pp322-332. 

This paper reports the findings of a pilot field study carried out to investigate the internal and external pollution levels in two buildings, one naturally-ventilated and the other airconditioned and to investigate their relative attenuation of external pollution levels. The study is a precursor to more extensive studies aimed at providing guidelines for the design of energy-efficient buildings with a good indoor environment in urban areas. Concerns about energy usage and CO2 emissions from buildings require that adequate indoor air quality is obtained in an optimal manner within low-energy design criteria. There is thus an increasing number of buildings employing natural ventilation strategies. At present, however, little is known about the interaction between indoor air quality and external air pollution. Therefore, no formal guidelines exist on designing for natural ventilation in nondomestic buildings in urban areas with respect to external air and noise pollution. The buildings investigated were adjacent to one another and located near a major road in a city centre where the local air pollution levels were known to be relatively high. During the study, concentration levels of typical urban pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were monitored. Concurrently, measurements of carbon dioxide, ventilation rates, humidity and temperature within the buildings including some measurements of noise and particles were also carried out. Analysis of the data reveals a number of interesting points. The concentrations of external pollutants in the buildings follow the daily external variation, but at reduced levels. Generally, pollutant levels were higher in the naturally ventilated building than in the mechanically ventilated building. However, on a number of occasions, combustion products from heating boilers were entrained into the air-conditioned building via the high level air intake of the ventilation system. This raised the levels of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide inside the building to higher than those found externally. 

outdoor air, pollutant, natural ventilation


#NO 10426 Volatile organic compounds in office buildings. 2. Identification of pollution sources in indoor air.

Lagoudi A, Loizidou M, Asimakopoulos D

Indoor and Built Environment, No 5, 1996, pp 348-354, 2 figs, 6 tabs, 25 refs.

A great number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in the indoor air of office buildings, emitted mainly by the building materials, the consumer products used, the furnishing, office equipment, smoking, mechanical ventilation systems and outdoor air pollution. An attempt has been made to identify the strongest sources of VOCs in the indoor and outdoor air of six office buildings in Greece. Analysis of the results showed that the VOCs in the outdoor air were strongly related to the traffic in the area. Correlation of the concentrations found in both the indoor and outdoor air showed that the outdoor air contributes significantly to the chemical pollution load of the indoor air in some of the buildings. Also, a significant intercorrelation was found among the concentration patterns of aromatic and a number of aliphatic compounds, which showed that these compounds were emitted by similar sources. However, since these compounds are not emitted exclusively by car exhausts, the identification of their source is difficult. The dominant indoor sources of VOCs were permanent ones such as building materials and furniture.

organic compound, office building

#NO 10627 A new reactive model for indoor air quality analysis.

Blondeau P, Sperandio M, Allard F, Haghighat F

France, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, proceedings of the Second International Conference on Buildings and the Environment, held Paris, June 9-12 1997, Volume 1, pp 357-364.

Indoor Air Quality analysis needs at first an accurate prediction of indoor pollutant concentration levels. However, most pollutant concentration prediction models consider the pollutants as passive elements. Our study introduces the more common gas-phase chemical reactions occurring in indoor spaces. We developed a model taking into account more than 20 different reactions influencing the concentration level prediction of NOx compounds, ozone, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide from the knowledge acquired in the field of tropospheric chemistry. As the model was designed to assess the dynamic variations of indoor solar actinic irradiance, it particularly can deal with the photochemical dissociation reaction of NO2. A case study using real outdoor pollution and climatic data enables us to show the large influence of these homogeneous processes on the indoor pollutant concentration prediction, and demonstrates the necessity of taking them into account in the frame of an healthy air quality analysis.

modelling, indoor air quality, nitrogen dioxide

#NO 10870 Low energy strategies in urban areas.

Twinn C

in: Ventilation and air pollution: buildings located in urban and city centres. Proceedings. edited by V Kukadia, UK, Building Research Establishment, June 1997, Seminar, CR 133/97.

In urban areas where traffic fumes contaminate the outdoor air, there seems less incentive to install natural ventilation systems. However the new generation of naturally ventilated buildings prove that good indoor air quality can indeed be supplied. The priority must be to design the building fabric as the primary internal climate modifier, and introducing building engineering systems to assist the building fabric to recycle ambient energy. The New Parliamentary Building being constructed in Westminster, London addresses these points. Starting with the prerequisite of a sealed facade, the design fully uses the passive abilities of the building's materials and form to maintain the indoor climate. Subsequently building services systems were chosen to enhance these abilities and introduce energy saving measures.

outdoor air, motor vehicle, pollutant, natural ventilation, energy conservation

#NO 11131 The significance of urban pollution in relation to ventilation air supply.

Ajiboye P, Hesketh M, Willan P

UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 1997, proceedings of CIBSE National Conference held Alexandra Palace, London, UK, 5-7 October 1997, Volume 2, pp 215-224, 5 figs, 7 tabs, 4 refs.

The present paper identifies the significance of pollution at five sites amongst the worst on the British mainland, hence indicative of other polluted areas within Europe. Three sites are located in London and one each in Birmingham and Cardiff. The pollutants examined are NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10. Newly proposed DOE figures defining poor air quality have been used to examine the frequency of excess pollution events between 1992 and 1995. The results identify the most appropriate periods for natural ventilation of offices in urban areas. Preliminary in-situ experiments also demonstrate that both PM10 and NO2 concentrations decrease with increasing height from a busy road.

outdoor air, indoor air quality

#NO 11245 Traffic pollution in and around a naturally ventilated building.

Green N E, Riffat S B, Etheridge D, Clarke R

UK, Building Serv Eng Res Technol, Vol 19, No 2, 1998, pp 67-72, 7 figs, 3 tabs, 9 refs.

In two separate experiments carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were recorded at different locations in and around a naturally ventilated building in Nottingham, UK. This building is situated close to a busy road (A52). The results show that when the building was downwind of the traffic source the concentration of CO was on average four times higher in a ground-floor room than when the wind was from a large traffic-free area. The relationship between the indoor and outdoor CO concentrations was found to change during the day, as was the relationship between the concentration at ground and first-floor windows. Further measurements, based on these findings, are suggested to determine whether benefits to indoor air quality may be gained from use of intelligent ventilation strategies.

natural ventilation, motor vehicle, outdoor air

#NO 11403 A study of the atmospheric pollution produced by vehicles in car parks in Madrid, Spain.

Morillo P, dos Santos S G, Santamaria J, et al

Indoor and Built Environ, No 7, 1998, pp 156-164, 3 figs, 4 tabs, 15 refs.

The levels of different atmospheric pollutants present in two designs of car parks (with low or high vehicle occupancy) in Madrid, Spain, have been analysed. In both types of park, the concentrations of thoracic particles, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide measured were potentially dangerous to health. Control of the intensity of the ventilation based only on the concentration of carbon monoxide measurements in the car parks is not sufficient to control the level of other pollutants emitted by vehicles.

car park, motor vehicle, outdoor air, pollutant

#NO 11569 Non attendance rates among children in Swedish day care centres before, during and after cleaning the indoor air using an electrostatic air cleaning technology --a controlled trial.

Rosen K G, Richardson G

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 353-361.

To conduct a controlled trial to test the ability of a newly developed electrostatic air cleaning technology (EAC) to improve Indoor Air quality (IAQ) as defined by levels of airborne particles and to investigate the potential to reduce non-attendance rates due to illness among children in two Swedish day care centres. The EAC technology was shown to significantly reduce the indoor particulate load for very fine particles (>0.3um) caused by outdoor air pollution by 78% and to reduce the number of particles (>3.0um) produced indoors by 45%. Non-attendance was followed for two "treated" centres and two control centres during three years. The EAC technology was in operation during year two. Non-attendance rates among children in the larger day-care centre decreased by 55%, equalling those noted in family based day care. The EAC technology is cost efficient and might be a way forward to improve IAQ.

ventilation hygiene, particulates

#NO 11576 A simple interactive design tool for sizing, locating and determining pollution attenuation features of urban air inlets suitable for office buildings.

Ajiboye P

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 414-423.

The paper identifies successful ways of applying natural ventilation to non domestic buildings located in urban areas. Whilst noise and contaminant pollution sources are a problem, methods of avoiding these emissions are discussed. A review of literature has established that pollution problems arise for buildings which are in close proximity to roads, railways, airports and local industries. Location of ventilation air inlets will affect the quality of indoor air, therefore it is essential that they are located in ways that minimise the ingress of external pollutants. Potential pollution avoidance strategies include locating vents on sheltered facades and positioning central inlets at a sufficient height from emissions. Wind flow patterns around buildings have an important impact on air quality, and a simple model is discussed that determines the decrease in pollutant concentrations between emission sources and air intakes.

Adequate ventilation is required to limit the number of occasions when indoor temperatures are uncomfortable. A series of well established models are presented based on different natural ventilation concepts. These models can be used to size air inlets for any building, to provide specified ventilation rates on any floor. All issues discussed in the paper form part of an interactive design tool that provides best practice guidelines for minimising the impact of urban pollution, selecting suitable air inlets, and sizing them so as to provide adequate ventilation during the summer.

outdoor air, traffic pollution, inlet positioning, wind effects

#NO 11584 Influence of atmospheric air pollution on indoor air quality: comparison of chemical pollutants and mutagenicity levels in Santiago (Chile).

Gil L, Caceres D, Adonis M

Indoor Built Environ No 6, 1997, pp 320-330, 3 figs, 6 tabs, 33 refs.

The influence of atmospheric pollution on indoor air quality (IAQ) was studied in downtown Santiago (Chile). Carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, the mass of respirable particulate matter below 5 um (PM5 fraction) and total and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were simultaneously monitored indoors and outdoors in restaurants, offices and other places. The levels of CO changed simultaneously outdoors and indoors (r = 0.89), especially during traffic rush hours, masking the contribution of other indoor sources and showing the importance of infiltration of outdoor air indoors. CO concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 73 ppm and 0.5 to 93 ppm for indoors and outdoors, respectively. The highest running 8-hour average levels measured were 16 and 18 ppm, respectively. These levels exceeded the Chilean 8-hour standard of 9 ppm to the extent of 178% indoors and by more than 200% outdoors. PM5 concentrations were high and showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between indoors and outdoors: levels in restaurants, offices and other places were not significantly different from each other. The concentrations of total and carcinogenic PAHs were also high indoors and outdoors, outdoor levels being higher than those indoors although no significant differences (p > 0.05) in indoor levels were found between restaurants and offices and between offices and other places. Nicotine levels showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between indoor and outdoor levels. In addition, great differences (p < 0.05) in indoor levels were also found between offices and restaurants, and offices and other places. Mutagenic response in Salmonella typhimurium by organic extracts from PM5 collected in downtown Santiago in Bandera street and in a rural area showed that the extracts from the downtown samples are highly mutagenic. These results suggest that in downtown Santiago, infiltration might be the main source of indoor pollution. Symptoms and health effects probably related to air pollution in people working in Bandera street and in Curacavi, a rural area located 45 km from Santiago were surveyed. This showed clearly that people working in downtown Santiago have greater frequency of eye complaints, sneezing attacks, cough, throat dryness and rhinitis.

outdoor air, traffic pollution, particles

#NO 11599 Performance characteristics of Palmes diffusion tubes used for measurement of nitrogen dioxide outside residential sites.

Colome S D, Lambert W E, Castaneda N, Baker P E

in: proceedings of Indoor Air '90, the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Totonto, 29 July - 2 August 1990, pp 400-403, 2 tabs, 2 refs.

As part of a large-scale indoor survey of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the Los Angeles area, 120 residences were randomly selected from more than 400 homes participating during a winter sampling period. For the 102 homes agreeing to participate, one NO2 diffusion tube was placed outside on the north side of the house and another was placed outside six feet above the ground. The latter sampler was placed on a pole away from building structures and vegetation and covered by an opaque cup. A network of 19 chemiluminescence monitors was used to provide interpolated measures of outdoor NO2 concentrations for each residence. Nitrogen dioxide interpolated from the chemiluminescence monitors was better correlated with NO2 measured at the sampling poles than on the north face of the home (r2 = 0.65 and 0.51, respectively). Implications for characterising NO2 outside residences are discussed.

field monitoring, outdoor air pollution

#NO 11671 Building ventilation and indoor air quality: the impact of urban air pollution - a review.

Kukadia V, Hall D J, Walker S

UK, Building Research Establishment Ltd., July 1998, CR 135/98, 45 pp + app.

This review examines the available information relating to the ingress of external pollutants into naturally ventilated buildings. It is part of a project whose longer term aim is to provide guidance on ventilation strategies for naturally ventilated buildings in polluted urban areas. The purpose of the review is to guide this project. It covers current ventilation strategies, existing measurements of internal/external pollution levels, urban air quality and long term air quality strategies, building ventilation and the dispersion of pollutants around buildings as they affect the ingress of pollutants.

At present, there is no formal advice on ventilation strategies to minimise the ingress of pollutants into buildings located in urban areas. The use of natural ventilation for buildings in such areas is to some extent affected by this deficiency and there is a tendency to prefer forced ventilation as an 'improved' option. In practice this need not be so.

Adequate guidance cannot be developed without an understanding of:

* Typical pollutants, their sources, how they disperse in urban areas and the concentration patterns produced on building surfaces in urban areas.

* Surface pressures on buildings, ventilation and infiltration processes as experienced by a building in an urban area.

* The occurrence of common areas of high pollutant concentrations and surface pressures on buildings.

* The relationship between the indoor and outdoor pollutant levels.

Generally there are significant information deficiencies in all these areas for the present application. Part of this is due to the multi-disciplinary nature of the application, for which none of these fields has a specific remit. For example, there are no identical experiments measuring both pollutant concentrations and wind pressures on the surfaces of buildings. The two specialisms are quite separate and have little intercommunication. Similarly, the problems of internal and external pollution levels tend to be considered separately, with little intercommunication.

The review confirms the need for the investigatory part of the project, which is to monitor internal/external pollution levels and carry out a common experiment looking at pressures and concentrations on the surfaces of buildings in urban areas.

outdoor air, ventilation rate

#NO 11773 Estimating the effects of external pollution on indoor air quality.

Irving S J

UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 139-145, 5 figs, refs.

The effect of external pollution levels on indoor air quality is a subject of growing interest, especially with the increasing application of natural ventilation in urban areas. The analysis described in this paper allows the effects of varying external pollution levels to be estimated for any configuration of ventilation system, natural or mechanical. The analysis takes into account filter efficiency and position, internal pollutant sources, degree of re-circulation and varying fresh air rates. By developing simplified dynamic equations rather than steady state formulations, the effects of varying "fresh" air rates based on the external pollution level can also be examined.

indoor air quality, outdoor air, pollution, ventilation system

#NO 11774 Building ventilation and urban air pollution.

Kukadia V, Hall D, Walker S

UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 146-155, 3 figs, 13 refs.

At present, there is no formal guidance on strategies to minimise the ingress of pollutants into buildings. Adequate guidance requires an understanding of the following:

* Typical pollutants, their sources, how they disperse in urban areas and the concentration patterns produced on building surfaces.

* Surface pressures on buildings, ventilation and infiltration processes as experienced by buildings in urban layouts.

* The relationship between the indoor and outdoor pollutant levels.

This paper reviews current work at the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE) aimed at producing guidelines on effectively ventilating buildings in urban areas using low-energy technology and gives results of a recent review carried out together with preliminary results from wind tunnel studies.

outdoor air, pollution, indoor air quality

#NO 11931 Spatial variability of pollution induced by traffic in street canyon.

Flori J-P, Sacre C

in: UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference - Supplement, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998.

Concentration of pollutants produced by car traffic in a street below the roof level has large spatial variations. In a street, pollutants are diluted by the turbulent air flow which is induced by the wind speed above the roof level, and also produced by car displacement. The airflow structure is in relation with street size and building shape. Particularly strong gradients of concentrations can be observed vertically and also horizontally in front and along buildings where are set up ventilation inlets and windows. So it is necessary to take into account this variability to consider the influence of outdoor air upon indoor air quality. The street canyon case has been studied extensively in recent years by CSTB and many other authors. A bibliographical synthesis is presented, including results from field measurements, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation.

outdoor air, pollutant, motor vehicle

#NO 11973 Sulphur dioxide and asthma - a double edged sword?

Sheppard D

J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., Vol 82, 1988, pp 961-964, 27 refs.

Exposure to SO2 in indoor and outdoor ambient air and in the workplace can be an important cause of acute symptomatic bronchoconstriction in people with asthma (at or greater than 0.4 ppm). Maximum recommended concentrations for workplace exposure are too high for such people. Experiments have also found that exposure can also increase the likelihood of bronchoconstrictor responses to allergens.

sulphur dioxide, asthma, urban air pollution, factory

#NO 11976 Indoor chemistry involving O3, NO, and NO2 as evidenced by 14 months of measurements at a site in Southern California.

Weschler C J, Shields H C, Naik D V

Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 28, 1994, pp 2120-21326 figs, 2 tabs, 40 refs.

For more than 1 year, indoor and outdoor O3, NO, NO2 (NOx-NO), temperature, and relative humidity as well as the air exchange rate have been measured continuously at a commercial building in Burbank, CA. The indoor concentration of a given pollutant is a function of its outdoor level, the air exchange rate, the rate at which it is removed by indoor surfaces, and the rate at which it is produced or removed by indoor chemistry. Several examples of indoor chemistry are inferred from daily and seasonal variations in the collected data. These include homogeneous reactions such as those of O3 with both NO (fast) and NO2 (slow) and heterogeneous reactions such as those between NO2 and indoor surfaces. The latter ultimately contribute to indoor levels of both HONO and NO and are more likely to be observed in the absence of indoor O3. Indeed, due to the very rapid )3/NO reaction as well as other slower reactions, the presence or absence of indoor O3 strongly influences speciation among the indoor oxides of nitrogen.

ozone, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, outdoor air pollution

#NO 12168 Road traffic pollution and its effect on the internal environment of buildings.

Capper G, Currie J

EPIC '98, Volume 3, pp 730-734, 1 fig, 2 tabs, refs.

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of various pollutants were measured in a naturally ventilated building in the West End of Edinburgh during and after the period of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) to assess the effect upon indoor pollution levels of the closure of some streets in the city. The relationships between indoor and outdoor air qualities in respect of traffic-generated pollutants were studied and the building's relative attenuation of external pollution levels investigated. The peak concentrations of some of the external pollutants were attenuated by the building and the internal concentrations showed a reduction of up to 30% in some periods. During periods of reduced traffic, the early analyses indicate that the daily mean concentrations of the pollutants were not significantly different from those measured at other times.

motor vehicle, pollutants, indoor air quality

#NO 12190 Experimental studies of the air quality evaluation.

Barbat M, Richalet V, Guarracino G

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 1, pp 30-35.

Three buildings are investigated to study the indoor air quality and the impact of the outdoor air pollution. These buildings, a swimming pool, a school and a nursery are located in an urban area. So, during experimental studies, typical outdoor and indoor pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, and total volatile organic compounds are monitored. Also, the relative humidity and the temperature are carried out. The analysis allows us to reveal several points. Except for C02 and punctually TVOC, the recorded indoor pollutant concentrations are very low in comparison with standard values, despite the symptoms and discomfort perceived by occupants. Moreover, thanks to the attenuation phenomenon, outdoor pollution has an insignificant impact on the indoor air pollution. For these buildings, it seems that C02 or TVOC could be the best parameters to use for demand control ventilation system.

outdoor air, sports building, school, kindergarten, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, TVOC, humidity

#NO 12213 Simulation of indoor air quality in an office building floor: a first case study.

Parey S

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 1, pp 691-695.

In order to evaluate the impact on indoor air quality of different installation and ventilation strategies, the modelling of indoor air pollutant transfer has been developed in the CLIM2000 software (thermal and airflow code). Then, these models have been used to simulate the evolution of indoor air pollution in an office building floor for a week in winter under different ventilation strategies. The selected pollutants are CO2, CO, NO2 and HCHO and the sources are outdoor pollution for all pollutants and occupancy for CO2. So far, humidity has not been taken into account. This first simplified study pointed our the importance of post occupation ventilation and allowed to identify the main ways of modelling improvement.

office building, case study

#NO 12355 Ventilation control and traffic pollution.

Fletcher J

UK, Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA), Technical Note TN 5/98, 49 pp, 20 figs, 10 tabs, 11 refs.

Provides guidance on the use of ventilation control to reduce the effect of outdoor pollution on IAQ. In the context of this publication, ventilation control is defined as the control of ventilation as a function of outside air pollution. The guidance shows building operators how to reduce the impact of traffic emissions on the indoor air quality of their buildings, by determining if outdoor air quality is poor, assessing alternative ventilation control strategies if outdoor air quality is found to be poor, and selecting and implementing an appropriate control strategy. The publication includes detailed control configurations for use by control companies or system houses. Guidance on suitable sensors and the integration of ventilation controls with existing IAQ controls is provided based on computer modelling and the results of strategy tests in actual buildings. The first part looks at what causes poor outdoor air quality, how to assess a building and measure the relevant pollutants. The second part sets out eight different strategies and a decision tree to help select the most appropriate. Control strategy flow charts are included for each.

motor vehicle exhaust, indoor air quality, traffic emissions, ventilation control strategy, outdoor air, carbon monoxide, sensor

#NO 12615 Ventilation and air pollution: strategies for buildings located in urban areas.

Kukadia V

UK, Air Infiltration Review, Vol 18, No 3, June 1997, pp 1-4, 2 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs.

Gives a brief account of some of the parameters that are important in understanding the interactions of the external environment with the indoor environment, in order to enable the development of low energy ventilation solutions for buildings in urban locations with regard to indoor air quality and thermal comfort. Also describes work that is being carried out at the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE) in the UK to address them. Considers the building contamination process, types of external pollutants, external pollutant sources, and results from studies at BRE, together with an overview of current work.

outdoor air, urban building

#NO 12616 Minimising pollution at air intakes.

CIBSE

UK, London, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), Technical Memoranda TN21:1999, 22 pp, 33 figs, 4 tabs, 39 refs.

Intended to provide guidance on the nature and characteristics of pollutants in the outdoor air and how this impacts on indoor air quality. In particular, the document summarises the available knowledge to provide designers with information that will help in locating their ventilation inlets to minimise cross contamination from a range of polluting sources. The three main sections of the document are as follows: the first section identifies the relationship between external air pollution and indoor air quality. In particular, it summarises available information on air quality guidelines and goes on to identify the types of polluting source that are likely to impact on the built environment. The second section summarises the various methodologies that are available to help the designer minimise the effect of external polluting sources. It provides the equations and data that are needed to carry out many of the calculations. For some of the more complex methods, a brief description is given, along with references to comprehensive design manuals. The last section describes a generalised method that can be used to predict indoor air quality for any ventilation strategy and a defined profile of external air quality and internal pollution load.

air intake, pollutant, outdoor air


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