Passive Solar Design
#NO 10740 North Sun: solar energy at high latitudes. Proceedings.
MacGregor K, Porteous C
UK, James and James, 1994, 456pp.
The constant theme of the North Sun series of conferences is solar energy at high latitudes. The proceedings are divided into sessions covering solar water heating, active solar heating, photovoltaic applications, solar modelling and design tools, solar buildings including sunspaces and greenhouses, solar pre-heat for ventilation and solar insulation, windows and solar lighting, solar policy and implementation.
passive solar design, sunspace
#NO 10886 A general model for cooling design.
In: Workshop on Passive Cooling, held Ispra 2-4 April 1990, edited by E Aranovitch, E de Oliveira Fernandes, T C Steemers, pp 263-271, 6 figs, 5 refs.
To increase of diffusion on the bioclimatic architecture is necessary to make the calculation method easy to use for designers. In particular the available calculation method for analytical, based on transfer functions or finite elements method, or those made for simplified calculations, are generally very complex to use. Is necessary to develop methods of analytical type and simplified more "friendly" to use. The present work shows the results obtained with a simulation model in respect with the previous conditions, to estimate heating and cooling systems performance, and also a simplified method, in which operative graphs are used, for passive solar systems calculations and in progress partial results of a method for passive cooling.
cooling, calculation techniques
#NO 10993 Enhancing the market deployment of energy technology: a survey of eight technologies.
OECD/IEA 1997, 231pp.
This is a study of energy technology deployment and the policy issues associated with it in IEA Member countries. Following an overview of the subject in Chapter 1, eight "Technology Deployment Profiles" are presented. Each of these eight cases focuses on an important area of energy technology and provides: a description of new technologies that are in the process of being deployed or are likely to be available for deployment in the near future; information on the extent to which these technologies have already been deployed; the identification and discussion of obstacles that may lengthen the deployment process or even prevent it; and a discussion of policy measures and programmes used to deal with such obstacles. The technologies considered are: wind power; photovoltaics; biomass; small scale hydro; clean coal technologies; lighting; refrigeration; active and passive solar design.
#NO 11157 Implementation of Artificial Intelligence techniques in Thermal comfort control for passive solar buildings
Dounis A I, Santamouris M J, Lefas C C
Energy Conservation Management Vol 33, No 3 pp175-182, 1992
Artificial Intelligence techniques are used to control thermal comfort levels in a passive solar building. The controller, as well as the necessary group of rules, are described and analysed. Fuzzy logic is used for the first time in a passive building control.
fuzzy logic, passive solar
#NO 11169 Probe 13: Charities Aid Foundation.
The Probe Team
UK, Building Services Journal, February 1998, pp35-39, 3 figs, 4 refs.
Describes the headquarters building for the Charities Aid Foundation, which incorporates natural ventilation, adiabatic cooling and passive solar architecture. A number of problems were identified, as reported by the occupants such as draughts, cold and noise problems.
passive solar building, cooling, building case study
#NO 11211 PV roof on a low energy office in the UK.
CADDET Renewable Energy Newsletter, February 1998, pp 21-23.
Describes the restoration and conversion of old derelict farm buildings at Whittle Hill Farm near Loughborough, UK, which has provided Beacon Energy Limited with low energy offices complete with a photovoltaic (PV) integrated roof. The offices have now been in use for two years, and have proved themselves to be a successful and comfortable working environment. Solar powered air conditioning is the latest addition to the system. The passive solar cooling system was designed by the Institute of Building Technology at Nottingham University. The design of the system is unique in that there are no active components such as compressors or pumps. The refrigerant used is water, making the system entirely environmentally friendly. In summer the system will provide about 6.5 kW of cooling and in winter about 13 kW of heating.
active solar building, roof, office building
#NO 11492 Computer Effort Saving Methods in Unsteady Calculations of Room Airflows and Thermal Environments
Onishi J, Koga S, Mizuno M, Takeya N, Kitagawa K
Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 1, pp 117-124.
In the unsteady calculations of room thermal environments, two simple and effective methods were introduced to reduce computer efforts through two case studies. One method (method-A) was applied to a passive solar room analysis (case A) and another method ( method-B) was applied to estimation of energy consumption in an air-conditioned room (case B). In method-A, flow fields are calculated intermittently, namely, calculated every Nts time step while temperature fields are calculated every time step, here, Nts _ 1. In method-B, only flow fields are calculated every Nts time step as method-A, however, several flow patterns stored in the computer mass storage in previous calculations are used according as the supply air temperature level. In the calculations, CFD code 'SCIENCE' developed by authors was used. In both cases CPU times were saved efficiently without distorting results.
calculation techniques, air flow
#NO 11566 Ventilation strategies for thermal performance improvement of an attached sunspace.
Koinakis C, Chrisomallidou N
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 323-332.
In this paper ventilation strategies are examined in order to improve the thermal performance of an attached sunspace of a two-storey semi-detached house in the area of Athens Greece. The ventilation strategies examined are cross and single-sided ventilation through the vertical windows of the sunspace. Simulations were conducted implementing multizone ventilation model COMIS coupled with the thermal simulation model Suncode. Wind pressure distribution is estimated using a wind pressure parametrical model and results of wind tunnel experiments.
It was concluded among others that ventilation strategies appear to be important for the energy control and for the formation of the temperature variations in the attached sunspace. Incorrect use of the windows could turn over the benefits of the bioclimatic design. Keeping the windows closed during winter makes the sunspace energy efficient and energy independent in most hours of the day for almost all of the examined mild climates (Greek and USA cities). In some of the examined climates the risk of overheating is likely to happen even in winter. The ventilation strategies during the summer period affect temperature variations significantly less, mainly because of the shading devices used to block direct incoming solar radiation. As it was derived from the thermal balance diagrams in most cases the attached sunspace contributes significantly to the heating demands of the house.
passive solar gains, modelling, window opening behaviour
#NO 11581 Active envelopes - essential in urban areas?
Saelens D, Hens H
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 467-476.
Today, the development of new technologies to improve building-envelope performances are highly encouraged and provide a clear challenge for designers and researchers. In this context several typologies of active envelopes are becoming very popular amongst designers and architects. They are the favourite choice in offices and many advantages are claimed in the professional literature. Especially in urban areas, designers choose for active envelopes because of the good sheltering from the high external pollution and noise load. Reading some one-sided articles a designer could get the idea that if he uses an active envelope, he automatically gets an energy-efficient and highly comfortable building.
To improve energy-efficiency, active envelopes should act as an active solar collector in summer, decreasing the cooling loads. In winter they should behave like an air-air heat exchanger, recovering heat losses and gather the solar energy to use this energy in the HVAC-system. A higher glass to wall ratio provides more daylight and the extra pane improves the sound insulation. Although active envelopes might offer high potential in improving energy efficiency and in thermal and acoustical comfort performance, the expectations are not nearly always achieved.
The performances of the airflow window of the DVV-headquarters building Brussels were the subject of a performance based assessment. The paper presents the experimental data and the model used to quantify the thermal and acoustical properties. The attention is drawn on correctly dividing the radiation and convection balances, the impact of a bad workmanship, the unclear meaning of the equivalent U-value and the Solar Coefficient and the importance of absorbing the short wave solar radiation to realise a good solar coefficient.
Concluding, once could say that the high expectations (i.e. the performances) are not always fulfilled due to a wrong choice of typology, doubtful models and bad workmanship. Secondly, designers should be aware that even huge efforts could lead to disappointing small results and that the overall energetic, economical and ecological performance could be very discouraging. Even if, in some cases, the performances are achieved one could ask whether the extra costs count for the, sometimes small, benefits.
building envelope, passive solar gains
#NO 11637 No heating at all? Is it possible in a Swedish climate?
Sweden, Swedish Building Research, 3/98, pp 2-6.
Describes houses in Gothenburg, Malmo and Hannover which are so energy efficient that they need no special system for heating . The terraced two-storey plus attic houses are currently under construction. They are very airtight and have very thick insulation with highly insulating windows and energy efficient electrical appliances and lighting. The technology is not new, but is applied with great attention to detail. The project forms part of an EU project "Cost Effective Passive Housing for European Standards (CEPHEUS)" supported by the EU Thermie programme. They utilise passive solar heating and very thick insulation. Leakage of heat is limited by an airtight layer. The requirement is 0.5 ach at a negative pressure of 50 Pa, with 0.2 ach when unoccupied.
heating, terraced house, zero energy house
#NO 11646 Probe 16: Marston book services.
The Probe Team
UK, Building Services Journal, August 1998, pp 27-32, 5 refs.
Analyses how well a building has performed as a result of the installation of a passive solar system. The Interactive Window System by Colt International was aimed at developing an integrated and modular product for use in naturally ventilated buildings.
passive solar gains, window design
#NO 11727 Digital control systems for passive solar buildings.
van Paassen A H C, Liem S H, Lute P J
Netherlands, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, 1990, CEC-Project "Pastor", Contract Nr. EN35-0036-NL.
Three control system designs for passive solar buildings have been developed. The design of the TU Delft is intended for an office buildings while the designs of the French partners are intended for domestic buildings and dwellings. A simulator has been developed to test the control systems. This simulator contains a number of local weather data sets based on CEC-TRY, a preprocessor that converts the solar radiation into transmitted solar gain and illumination and a number of building models. Moreover this simulator contains reduced models of the natural ventilation and sun protecting devices such as an awning and indoor Venetian blinds.
passive solar building, building controls
#NO 11728 Benefits of adjustable shutters, shading devices and vent windows in passive solar buildings.
Lute P J, Liem S H, van Paassen A H C
in: International Symposium on Energy, Moisture and Climate in Buildings, 3-6 September 1990, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Passive solar building are developed to take advantage of the solar heat to reduce the cost of heating. This is obtained by windows with large glass areas in the facade of the building. This idea has some disadvantages. The large window area gives large transmission losses and during warm periods of the year overheating can occur.
These disadvantages can be overcome by adding extra window components to the building, like a shutter, shading devices and vent windows. In order to study the capabilities of the building and the various components a computer simulation is developed. This paper shows the results, energy consumption and overheating, of simulations with different buildings and components.
shading, passive solar building
#NO 11729 Control of passive solar system.
van Paassen A H C
in: 2nd European Conference on Architecture, 4-8 December 1989, Paris France, 376-379, 3 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs.
Without control high solar fractions are difficult to obtain from Trombe walls, direct solar gains, and rock bins. Integration of all these techniques by control is absolutely necessary. A short review is given of the available sensors, actuators, and control systems. The control of individual solar techniques as well as several combinations are discussed; for instance, the control strategy for the combination of direct solar gains and Trombe Wall. Based on literature general conclusions are given about the energy efficiency of these systems in relation with the control strategy. A more detailed analysis is made of a cost effective simple passive solar system with adjustable window devices such as insulating rolling shutters, shading devices and vent windows. The benefits of modern control such as predictive control are compared with respect to simple and straightforward control strategies. Emphasis is put on the application of controlled ventilation for the maintenance of comfort in summer. Natural ventilation is strongly recommended here because of its passive character. In this paper special attention is given to the various digital control systems designed in a concerted action of the project PASTOR of the commission of the European Communities.
passive solar building, building controls
#NO 11735 Installations in low energy houses.
van Paassen A H C, Kouffeld R W J, Swinkels E J H
in: Architecture and Urban Planning. 2nd European Conference on Architecture, Florence, Italy, 17-21 May 1993.
This article describes a study aiming at the design of air-conditioning equipment for an apartment complex optimised to reduce energy consumption to a minimum. The study related to a specific object, called "Urban Villa Amstelveen" which consists of 42 apartments and an atrium. The ultimate design uses passive solar energy for heating, a solar boiler system for hot tap water, balanced ventilation with heat recovery and natural ventilation with adjustable ventilation opening for effective cooling. A digital control system is used to realise the low energy consumption and to prevent room temperatures from becoming too high. The effect of the various parts of the installation on energy consumption and/or comfort was studied by means of computer simulations.
low energy building, apartment building
#NO 11736 Zero energy housing.
ter Horst E
USA, Northeast Sun, Vol 16, No 2, Summer 1998, 26-27, 39.
Dutch thinking about sustainability ascribes considerable importance to zero energy housing. A number of pilot projects have already demonstrated the practical feasibility of the concept. The zero energy concept is that the annual energy consumption of a house or building should be equal to the amount of energy produced by it. It assumes that all energy will be generated by sustainable methods and that energy consumption will be dept as low as possible. Energy production may be achieved, for example, by using passive solar energy for space heating, solar collectors for water heating and photovoltaic (pv) modules for electricity. Energy demand is reduced by extensive thermal insulation and energy-efficient systems and appliances. Since no concessions are made as regards comfort, zero energy housing is a realistic basis for 21st century architecture.
zero energy housing, sustainability
#NO 11808 Solar air systems: built examples.
Hastings S R (ed.)
UK, James & James, 1999, Solar Heating and Cooling Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA), 218 pp.
Aims to share the experiences from a wide range of building projects. The multitude and diversity of projects should help convince building clients of the maturity and reliability of solar air systems. They have unique advantages for space heating and tempering ventilation air. In contrast to passive systems, active air systems provide better heat distribution and hence improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains. They also fit naturally into mechanically ventilated buildings and mechanical ventilation is increasingly common. Six different types of solar air systems are reported.
passive solar design
#NO 11828 Environmentally friendly cities. Proceedings of PLEA 98 Passive and Low Energy Architecture, 1998.
Maldonado E, Yannas S (Eds.)
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of PLEA 98 conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, 691 pp.
Universal expositions are opportunities to create something unique and innovative in terms of town planning, and in formal terms, they mark the urban development of the cities where they are held.
The holding of the 1998 World Exposition - EXPO'98 - in Lisbon, is accompanied by the urban renewal of the Redevelopment Area (RA), where the Exposition will not be a short-lived ephemeral event standing outside urban concepts, objectives and strategies, but rather an act of "city-building".
EXPO'98 is thus an opportunity not only to improve and renew the city in urban and environmental terms, but also to modernise and internationalise the city of Lisbon.
Environmental valorisation is part of the overall objective of the Urban Plan (UP) and has been taken into account throughout the definition of planning concepts and strategies. Environmentally relevant factors were the subject of specific studies, which were then taken as the basis for the plans and projects developed.
The urban planning stage had to provide a support framework and ensure the harmonious integration of the many contributions, responding to the challenge of implementing urban and environmental renewal within the concepts as expressed. Now that the World Exposition will definitely be held in accordance with the proposed urban development, it is universally acknowledged that the urban planning process is a guarantee of the environmental and energy sustainablity desired by everyone.
low energy building, passive solar building, urban planning, bioclimatic design, retrofitting, daylighting, passive cooling, natural ventilation, building materials, design tools
#NO 11829 Indoor air quality and passive solar buildings.
Woods J E
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 23-28, 4 figs, 3 tabs, 28 refs.
Passive solar buildings are expected to provide their intended functions, safely and without adverse health effects, and at substantial energy savings compared to conventional buildings. Moreover, passive solar buildings are frequently considered as appropriate technology in parts of the world where the incidence rates of diseases associated with indoor exposures may be the highest. It is therefore critically important to understand both the health and economic consequences of applying "appropriate" passive solar technologies available today to residential, educational, health care, and commercial facilities. In this paper, environmental characteristics of buildings are reviewed; the two basic strategies of source and exposure control are examined; and a method of assuring the "health" of passive and low energy buildings is described. It is concluded in this paper that all buildings contain both active and passive systems; that acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved and maintained in passive and low energy buildings through the process of continuous accountability; and that building diagnostics procedures can be used to assure the performance of "healthy" passive and low energy buildings during their design, construction and operations phases.
passive solar building, human comfort, health, controls
#NO 11830 A more environmentally conscious design of passive solar buildings: the role of acoustical insulation with reference to traffic noise.
Nucara A, Pietrafesa M, Rizzo G, Rodono G
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 59-62, 4 figs, 3 tabs, 2 refs.
In the past, passive solar buildings were specifically designed with respect to energy and thermal comfort requirements. Within the framework a facade able to collect solar energy and bring indoor suitable conditions for occupants was thought of as an optimal building device. On the contrary, little attention was paid to their acoustic behaviour.
In general, a high value of the overall thermal transmittance is applied to a solar wall; if, particularly, this feature is combined with high values of surface density, with the aim of guaranteeing appreciable delays of heat transfer (like in storage walls), the wall generally assures a high level of noise insulation as well.
Nowadays technicians are becoming more and more interested in this feature in order to increase the spreading of the use of solar buildings in urban areas: a storage wall, in fact, besides capturing great amounts of solar energy, can also reduce the rising level of external noise (particularly due to the traffic of transportation systems) that enter dwellings causing annoyance to people.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that if storage walls are combined with large glazed surfaces, they reduce their acoustic properties greatly..
Moreover, if the passive element is totally represented by a glazed surface, such as a greenhouse, the high value of its transmittance is combined with a low value of its surface density, obtaining fast heat transfer but poor sound insulation.
This evidence makes it necessary to describe the physical behaviour of a passive element both from a thermal and an acoustic point of view.
Of course, such a description should be effected for every building module. In fact, due to the little attention paid to the comprehensive problem in the original design, buildings greatly modified to overcome acoustic problems are becoming widespread in urban areas.
In this paper some guidelines will be proposed for a method which is able to evaluate the above-cited characteristics in passive solar buildings, compared to conventional buildings, in order to maintain indoor comfort conditions,. It would represent an effective procedure for a more environmentally conscious design of solar buildings within urban areas.
passive solar building, noise pollution, insulation
#NO 11832 Bioclimatic desert house. A critical view.
Meir I A
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 245-248, 4 figs, 9 refs.
The paper presents a bioclimatic house in the Negev Desert, Israel, as a case study through which it attempts to present a comprehensive and critical view of bioclimatic architecture, design support tools, and appropriate details vis-a-vis common construction technologies and practices, assessing their relative impact and limitations. A number of topics are examined from different aspects, such as insulation and thermal mass, window systems incorporating double glazing, insulated shutters and window screens, vis-a-vis solar gains, ventilation and infiltration. Although interesting in themselves, topics such as desert gardening, runoff harvesting, soil types and graywater recycling, are not dealt with in this paper.
desert climate, dry climate, insulation, thermal mass, passive solar
#NO 11836 Integrated solar thermal upgrading of multi-storey housing blocks in Glasgow.
Sharpe T R, Porteous C D A, MacGregor W J K
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 287-290, 6 figs, 2 tabs, 12 refs.
This paper will describe a proposal to upgrade a thermally sub-standard multi-storey housing block (Type T84), where height and climatic exposure are significant, to demonstrate the effectiveness of passive, active and hybrid solar techniques to minimise space and water heating loads while enhancing the quality of air in both shared and private spaces. Proposals include large scale freeze tolerant SDHW array, multi-storey, part-glazed, part opaque, permeable solar air collectors delivering pre-warmed air to a north-facing cavity wall, small window-integrated, east/west facing vertical solar air collectors and glazed-in east/west facing recessed balconies, and heat recovery from the extract system for kitchens and bathrooms.
apartment building, thermal performance, passive solar, active solar, hybrid solar, heat recovery
#NO 11852 Hybrid ventilation in a hospital building.
de Santoli L, lo Giudice G M
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 487-490, 5 figs, 1 tab, 5 refs.
The use of air solar collector realised on the north facade of a new hospital building in Rome is hereby described. The integration of solar and structural element has been studied during the design phase; the development of air gaps integrated within enclosures is related to the possibility to activate both natural (ejecting indoor air outside) and forced (preheating outside air incoming to the air handling units) ventilation. The energy gained by the solar elements has been evaluated.
hybrid ventilation, hospital, passive solar, forced ventilation, natural ventilation
#NO 11856 Energy comfort 2000 - A THERMIE demonstration project of eight passive and low energy non-domestic buildings.
Burton S, Sorensen H, Boonstra C, et al
UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 673-678.
Energy Comfort 2000 is a THERMIE supported Target project in which seven non-domestic buildings have been designed, built and are being monitored. An eighth building was designed but unfortunately has not finally been built. All are Passive and Low Energy buildings, designed to avoid or minimise the use of air-conditioning, by using the architectural design and construction of the building to produce adequate internal comfort conditions. Overall energy consumption is calculated to be less than 50% compared with traditional buildings and early monitoring has confirmed these predictions. Internal comfort is being checked by measurements and occupant surveys and overall environmental performance by the Environmental Preference Method and BREEAM. Dissemination of the conclusions of the project form an important part of the project and brochures, posters and Information Dossiers are available focusing on how replication can be achieved at all levels. EC2000 has produced exemplar buildings, facts and figures on performance, and a pool of knowledge and experience which can all be used in future developments and initiatives such as the City of Tomorrow.
low energy building, passive solar, energy efficiency
#NO 12138 Passive retrofitting of office buildings: the office project.
Santamouris M, Dascalaki E, Koronakis I
EPIC '98, Volume 1, pp 261-266.
OFFICE is a research project partly funded by the CEC dealing with the passive retrofitting of office buildings to improve their energy performance and indoor working conditions. The project is coordinated by the University of Athens with the participation of organisations and research institutes from eight European countries. The aim of the project is to develop global retrofitting strategies, tools and design guidelines in order to promote successful and cost effective implementation of passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures to office buildings. Within the frame of the project, ten office buildings located in different climatic zones around Europe are studied extensively. Case studies are carried out for the selected buildings including energy audits and monitoring activities, specific experiments as well as an assessment of the potential of proposed retrofitting scenarios for each building, with regards to the issues of energy conservation and cost effectiveness.
The final deliverables of the project are:
a) Case studies presenting high quality examples of representative retrofitted office buildings in various parts of Europe b) a Rating Methodology classifying office buildings according to their energy consumption, CO2 production and indoor thermal and visual comfort
c) an Atlas describing the technical and economical potential for energy conservation of selected retrofitting scenarios for defined types of office buildings in different climatic zones of Europe
d) Design Guidelines, performance criteria and methodologies for best practice giving credit for renewable energy sources incorporated into office buildings, all presented in the form of a Handbook. Results from the assessment of the potential of various retrofitting scenarios proposed for each case study are included in the Handbook in the form of brochures.
This paper gives an analytical description of the activities carried out within the frame of the project and describes the resulting final deliverables.
retrofitting, office building, passive cooling
#NO 12139 Examination of low energy retrofit measures in European office buildings.
EPIC '98, Volume 1, pp 267-273, 3 tabs.
This paper describes the methodology used in the Design and Evaluation Group in the project 'OFFICE - Passive Retrofitting of Office Buildings to Improve their Energy Performance and Indoor Working Conditions' funded by the European Commission under the JOULE III Programme. The objectives of the OFFICE project are to promote passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures in office buildings. This is done by examining different low energy retrofitting measures in terms of energy, indoor environment and economy and based on this develop global retrofitting strategies and design guidelines. Ten European office buildings are included in the project situated respectively in England, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland. To exemplify the type of results and analysis produced in the project, selected results from the Danish and the Greek case study buildings are presented.
retrofitting, office building, passive solar design
#NO 12153 Energy comfort 2000 - the application of low energy technologies to seven new non-domestic buildings.
EPIC '98, Volume 2, pp 473-478.
This paper describes the results coming out of the European Commission supported THERMIE Target Project Energy Comfort 2000. This was the first Target project, containing eight non-domestic buildings, started in July 1993 and to be completed at the end of 1998. The project aimed to design and construct buildings which use less than 50% of the energy of a traditional equivalent, by using passive methods, particularly to avoid the need for air conditioning. High quality internal conditions were to be achieved. The overall conclusions are that 50% savings in energy use can be readily achieved in a variety of buildings, whilst maintaining good quality internal comfort conditions.
passive solar, daylighting, natural ventilation, shading, building controls, atrium, thermal mass, night cooling
#NO 12156 A passive solar energy building for the University of La Pampa in Argentina.
Beascochea A, Filippin C
EPIC '98, Volume 2, pp 504-509, 4 figs, 4 tabs, refs.
During 1997, an energy efficient building was designed, featuring energy conservation, passive solar heating, natural cooling and daylighting strategies. It is located in the province of La Pampa, in the temperate semi-arid region of central Argentina. The resulting compact design houses takes 634m2 of useful floor area with main spaces. An audience class, two laboratories, four research offices, one simple class and services make up the building. Solar windows are provided for all main spaces, except in the audience class. Clerestories contribute to add solar gains and natural lighting. Summer cooling strategies include: natural ventilation reinforced with Aeolian suction pipes in covering. Shading devices in the north elevation protect all windows in summer. Along the design stage, simulation analysis was performed through standard computer models, in order to asses the environmental energy performance and daylighting of the design alternatives considered. The thermal performance shows an important stability during the simulated stage.
passive solar energy, educational building, thermal mass, building envelope
#NO 12389 Solar air systems. Product catalogue.
Hastings S R, Rostvik H N
UK, James & James, International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme.
Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet effective way of using solar energy for space heating and tempering ventilation air. They offer some unique advantages over solar water systems, can offer improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains than passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated building. They can be economical, with short payback periods and can act not only as space heating or ventilation air heating but also for water pre-heating, sunshading, electricity generation and can help induce cooling. The booklet provides an outline of the types of system used, and then a description of the components needed; collectors, storage, fans and dampers, controls and heat exchangers. Their uses and typology are outlined, criteria and guidance for selection are suggested and samples of product sheets from manufacturers are provided.
ventilation air preheating, mechanical ventilation
#NO 12429 Experts continue to assess building energy analysis tools.
USA, Solar Update, No 33, August 1999, pp 1-4.
The IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme's Task 22 "Building Energy Analysis Tools", aims to evaluate and document building energy analysis tools to assess their accuracy for predicting the performance of widely used solar and low energy concepts. The work is divided into two parts - tool evaluation and model documentation. The tool evaluation activities are based on analytical, comparative and empirical methodologies. The emphasis in this area has been on blind empirical validation using measured data from test rooms or full-scale buildings. The work on documenting existing engineering models is based on the Neutral Model Format (NMF), a standard format for "hard", that is computer readable, model documentation. The article discusses HVAC BESTEST and building simulation tools, and introduces Task 22 products IDA Indoor Climate and Energy, NMF Models Library, and SIMONE (Simulation Model Network).
passive solar building, tools, models
#NO 12480 Solar air heater applications in India.
Bansal N K
Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd, 1998, proceedings of "Renewable Energy: Energy Efficiency, Policy and the Environment", World Renewable Energy Congress V, 20-25 September 1998, Florence, Italy, edited by A A M Sayigh, Volume 2, pp 618-623, 3 figs, 6 tabs, refs.
Solar air heaters of many types have been developed in India and their performance studied in detail. The application of these air heaters are limited to a few demonstration projects for food dehydration, and space heating. Some of these case studies are described in this paper. For a few cash crops, the potential of solar air heaters for the drying process has been assessed in detail. Space heating by solar air heaters and their use for natural ventilation has also been discussed and results of a theoretical study presented to make out a case for more intensive research in the fields of solar air heater applications in India.
passive solar, industrial process
#NO 12507 Advanced bioclimatic architecture for buildings.
Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd, 1998, proceedings of "Renewable Energy: Energy Efficiency, Policy and the Environment", World Renewable Energy Congress V, 20-25 September 1998, Florence, Italy, edited by A A M Sayigh, Volume 1, pp 271-276, figs, refs.
The town-planning guide for the areas of the high speed rail station of Florence, is finalised at the synthesis of a comprehensive strategic design of the overall objectives bring out by the town-planning scheme of the city. The new bioclimatic strategies realised for the new buildings involved natural lighting systems, roof developed such green areas, passive solar glazed facades, passive neutral ventilation, underground design strategies.
urban climate, environmental design
#NO 12594 An investigation into the use of a supply air window as a heat reclaim device.
Baker P H, McEvoy M E
UK, Building Serv Eng Res Technol, Vol 20, No 3, 1999, pp 105-112, 8 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs.
An 'airflow' window can be considered both as a passive solar and as a heat reclaim device. 'Supply air' airflow windows are of renewed interest given the increased volume of air needed for background ventilation in houses as stipulated in the 1995 amendment tot he Building Regulations. This study was carried out using the test cells at BRE Scotlab; it sought to establish the effect of climatic conditions on the operation of a Scandinavian 'double' window that was converted for use as a supply air window. A clear correlation was established between intensity of incident solar energy and the temperature gradient within the window. It was also evident that the window acted at night as a heat reclaim device. During the period of the test, the problem of reverse flow was encountered (similar to that found in 'passive stack vent' systems), and the influence of wind speed was investigated. Comparison was made between test cell measurements of the U-value of the standard (unventilated) triple glazed window and those derived from the program FRAME. By reference to recent work on ventilated photovoltaic glazing systems it was possible to derive a simulation method for predicting the temperature rise within the window.
ventilated window, heat recovery
#NO 12728 Low-energy building design - the process and a case study.
Torcellini P A, Hayter S J, Judkoff R
USA, ASHRAE Transactions, Annual Meeting 1999, Seattle, 9 pp, 11 figs, 2 tabs, refs.
Designing and constructing lowenergy buildings (buildings that consume 50% to 70% less energy than codecompliant buildings) require the design team to follow an energydesign process that considers how the building envelope and systems work together. A design team must set energy efficiency goals at the beginning of the predesign phase. Detailed computer simulations are then used throughout the design and construction phases to ensure the building is optimized for energy efficiency and that changes to the design do not adversely affect the energy performance. Properly commissioning the building and educating the building operators are the final steps to successfully constructing a lowenergy building. This paper defines this energydesign process and shows an actual project where energy costs were reduced by 63%. These energy savings were achieved by incorporating daylighting, passive solar heating and cooling, and energy efficiency strategies into the building design.
low energy buildings, building design, energy efficiency
#NO 12773 Modelling natural convection in a heated vertical channel for room ventilation.
Rodrigues A M, Canha da Piedade A, Lahellec A, Grandpeix J Y
Building and Environment, No 35, 2000, pp 455-469, 16 figs, 2 tabs, 23 refs.
Solar-air collectors installed on the south-facing walls of school buildings have been tried out in Portugal as a passive means of improving indoor air quality without prejudice to thermal comfort requirements. A numerical investigation of the behaviour of these systems , typified as vertical channels opened at both ends , is presented for typical geometries and outdoor conditions. The study is carried out with natural convection and assumes that the induced flow is turbulent and two-dimensional. The fully averaged equations of motion and energy, added to a two-equation turbulence model, are discretized and solved following the concepts of TEF (Transfer Evolution Formalism) using a finite volume method. Flow and temperature fields are produced and results presented in terms of temperature and velocity distributions at the exit section of the duct. These enable a better understanding of the developing flow and can be helpful in the design phase of this type of system.
school, indoor air quality, solar air collector, modelling
#NO 12906 Application of computer tools in passive solar design.
La Roche P, Machado M V
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 2, pp 591-596, 1 fig, 6 tabs, refs.
A course which implemented a computer tool "ASICLIMA", as an aid in passive solar design, was taught in the School of Architecture of the University of Zulia, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. ASICLIMA was designed by the author and used by students for the simulation of thermal conditions inside buildings. The students applied their creativity to generate ideas and the computer program to evaluate them, with the benefit of increased speed and precision over manual methods. Preliminary evaluation by grade comparison between students using the tool in their studio and others who didn't use it indicate satisfactory results. It is thought that acceptance of the computer tool by the students will be an indication of acceptance by practicing architects.
passive solar design, computer simulation
#NO 12917 The use of bioclimatic principles and geothermal energy sources in designing the hotel "Ana" in Kanjiza Spa.
Pucar M, Maric I
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 2, pp 887-891, 4 figs, refs.
The detailed urban plan of Kanjiza beside the two existing hotels at the grounds assigned for the development of the Institute of Special Medical Rehabilitation "Kanji'a Spa" comprises a plan to build a third hotel. An urbanistic solution to the complex was found, (positioning of the hotel) based on a bioclimatic study in which bioclimatic elements both in the analysis of the location and in the architectural design were taken into account.
The bioclimatic study started by considering the elements of climate and the conditions of the location. All the relevant parameters were analyzed with the aim to reduce the energy consumption and to protect the environment. The object was designed so as to use, to the maximum possible extent, the recoverable energy sources available at the location (geothermal an solar energy).
The use was foreseen of the thermal water for medical and sanitary purposes, as well as for heating and air-conditioning including the heat-pump principle. Direct capturing of the solar energy by a passive system is used - green-houses which are introduced in several forms as e.g. a lobby, wintergarten, pattisserie...
Part of this study is subject of this paper.
hotel, urban design, energy efficiency
#NO 12926 Thermal comfort in sunspaces.
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 231-236, 7 figs, refs.
Sunspaces as additional living area can be used in different ways. Self intended, it is "habitable" if the air temperature in the sunspace is not less than that of the parent house. Even at the lower temperature it can be "habitable" due to the exposition of the occupant to direct radiation: this effect is analysed in this paper.
sunspace, passive solar design
#NO 12947 Research and development of a passive solar house with airflow system in brick walls.
Nakamura M, Watanabe T, Hayashi T, et al
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 483-488, 9 figs, 3 tabs, refs.
Research and development of new-type passive solar houses are the main purpose of this paper. The proposed passive solar houses haven an air circulation system in brick walls combined with passive heating and cooling systems. A prototype model house with a solar collector and Trombe walls was constructed and its thermal performance was measured to evaluate this new system. The efficiency on the real size model house with attached green houses is discussed through thermal performance simulations.
passive solar, residential building, wall
#NO 12951 Improvements on passive ventilation: a world wide design tool and architectural mechanisms to ensure comfort in equatorial tropical humid areas.
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 515-520, 8 figs, refs.
Passive solar cooling for hot humid areas represents an important field for innovation, if we want to solve comfort needs in spaces (especially housing) designed to reduce economic, technical and health requirements.
In urban areas or deep valleys and rain forests, which are common in most of the tropical equatorial countries, external breeze is not frequent and air speeds are too low to produce cooling, using a simple cross ventilation system.
Since 1982 the author has developed new designs and constructions using passive solar techniques. After many field tests, comparative analyses and computer modelling, new combined cross/stack systems, based on overpressures flows and increased thermal flows were improved in order to ensure internal air speeds, according to the theoretical predictions.
passive ventilation, tropical climate, humidity
#NO 13044 Designs on learning.
UK, Energy and Environmental Management, July/August 2000, pp 28-29.
Discusses whether the optimum energy efficient design can be achieved within standard UK school building costs. States that it can. States that a well designed, comfortable school is not only conducive to efficient learning but also provides the opportunity to reinforce the sustainability message to learners. Describes Weobley Primary School in Leominster and Notley Green County Primary School in Essex. The former is fuelled by locally produced wood chips. The architecture is classic passive solar design using cross ventilaton and optimising use of natural daylight. A central courtyard further assists daylight and natural ventilation. There is also shading to minimise summertime heat gain. The building also utilises a 'breathing wall' system. For the second school, the client asked the design team to explore ideas which could be adapted on other projects while working within Essex Primary School Model Brief and the standard Essex budget for new school buildings. They are interested in how sustainability extends beyond construction into the use and management of the building. Features include an energy efficient plan shape; a 'breathing wall' uses recycled newspaper as insulation; masonry internal wall s will contribute to the thermal mass required to avoid summer overheating; daylighting is provided by a combination of perimeter windows and clerestory lights, and rooflights; natural ventilation and gas condensing boilers, and zoned underfloor heating.
school, sustainability, passive solar design
#NO 13071 Schaakwijk project in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Passive ventilation strategy using a sun room.
Vrins E, Oomens E
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Innovations in Ventilation Technology", 21st AIVC Annual Conference, held The Hague, Netherlands, 26-29 September 2000, paper 22.
An energy consumption of between 30 and 50 percent less than average is achieved in the 248 newly built dwellings in Schaakwijk, Utrecht. Through a combination of optimum use of the sun and a passive ventilation concept using sun rooms. This Thermie SUNH project also makes use of materials in an environmentally responsible way.
The house construction plan is part of the restructuring plan of the Zuilen district in Utrecht. Various blocks of dwellings are at the end of their useful life, in a technical and social sense. The old Schaakwijk district made way for an entirely renovated area.
36 dwellings are designed with a passive solar concept. Part of the design is the passive ventilation concept combined with night cooling to prevent against overheating in summer. These dwellings consume 50% less energy compared with the Dutch building code. In this paper the passive ventilation and night cooling concept is described in detail. Results of calculations of the concept are presented, and conclusions for future projects are drawn.
sun space, passive ventilation, new building, passive solar, residential building
#NO 13081 Sol-Vent: Development of strategies for the efficient use of solar and passive ventilation in urban buildings.
Kolokotroni M, Santamouris M, Dascalaki E, Palmer J, Allard F, Alvarez S,
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Innovations in Ventilation Technology", 21st AIVC Annual Conference, held The Hague, Netherlands, 26-29 September 2000, paper 32.
This paper outlines work in progress to develop dissemination material to assist the appropriate application of solar and passive ventilation in urban buildings. The dissemination material (a multi-media package in the form of a website and a CD-ROM) will include information of the effect of the urban environment on urban buildings, will outline the principles of solar and passive ventilation and how these could be adapted for application in urban buildings, will describe design solutions in the form of case-study building and design components and will review how current regulations encourage/restrict the application of solar and passive ventilation in urban buildings.
The purpose of this paper is to generate feedback from ventilation experts and researchers on the information proposed for the multi-media package. The project will be completed in January 2001.
passive solar design, urban buildings, building regulations
#NO 13101 When does an atrium enhance natural ventilation?
Holford J M, Hunt G R
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Innovations in Ventilation Technology", 21st AIVC Annual Conference, held The Hague, Netherlands, 26-29 September 2000, paper 52.
This paper investigates passive displacement flows in a simple, two-compartment building that comprises a single storey connected to an atrium. Heat gains in the storey and solar gains in the atrium create a stack pressure which drives a ventilating flow. A model is developed to determine the steady flow rate and thermal stratification for a range of heat gains, storey and atrium heights, and ventilation opening areas. We show that the accumulation of warm air in the atrium serves to enhance the flow rate through the storey only if the upper atrium opening is not too small, and the lower atrium opening is not too large.
atrium, natural ventilation
#NO 13151 Low energy architecture: a vision for the future.
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 40-45.
Describes the work done over thirty years by the UK architects Feilden Clegg, who specialise in low energy building design. Highlights how their work has changed as the designs were adapted to the special demands of the UK climate.
low energy house, passive solar design
#NO 13152 Greenhouse for tropical butterflies and sport palace Sicily.
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 51-56, 4 figs.
Tropical butterflies can not be housed in air conditioned spaces. To reproduce the climate conditions of the tropical forest, at the Zoological Institute of the University of Catania a special multifaceted greenhouse was designed as to keep constant in the day and through out the seasons the natural solar heat gained.
In the tensi-structural of the sport palace of palermo, the shadowing of the fully glazed opposite ends of the building is controlled by two spectacular array of 27m long stainless steel pipes describing two different warped shapes in space. They also are functional to carry off the rain water collected by the 60m span, 100m long concave roof whose intrados by a laminar air flow naturally activated.
sports building, hot climate, animal house, passive solar design
#NO 13153 Why do we neglect the proof? More than 4000 solar homes constructed in only one middle sized town no additional cost of construction - energy bills cut by 75% whilst at the same time improving indoor climate.
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 136-138.
Discusses how solar energy can give more comfortable, healthier homes and sunnier streets, and asks why passive solar design is not daily practise all over the world. Concepts discussed are adapting to the forces of nature instead of fighting them, old principles rediscovered, large scale application surprisingly easy, passive solar houses proved to be better and asked for more, thousand of solar homes in one town on one building site, passive solar homes and solar collectors, practical experience, side effects. Discusses the Schiedam project in the Netherlands.
passive solar design, low energy house
#NO 13156 A universally valid strategy for low energy houses.
Keller B, Magyari E, Yuan T, Bodefeld S
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 377-382, 3 figs.
On the base of universally valid laws: energy conservation and the theorem of Faurier, the dynamic behaviour of a room is traced back only to most important parameters. With the aid of the so-called free-run temperature a generally valid strategy for low energy houses is deduced and its transfer to practise illustrated. With the climate surfaces, a planning tool is introduced allowing the strategic planning of low energy houses based on these two parameters. Finally the obsolescence of the passive-solar rules and strategies is demonstrated.
low energy house, passive solar
#NO 13163 Green architecture in Toushky.
Hanna G B
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 508-511, 7 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs.
This paper discusses how indoor air temperature is controlled by employing a passive solar technique able to limit the unbearable outdoor weather conditions in a New Urban desert community of Toushky. The passive system employing the "Rock Bed" integrated with a solar chimney to generate an air draft from a thermal tunnel in the ground. A thermal circuit model is developed to describe the complex patterns of heat exchanges. The Finite Difference Method (FDM) is used to estimate the cooling load and the temperature at different surfaces.
solar chimney, thermal modelling, computer simulation
#NO 13165 Bioclimatic design strategies for building in Amman, Jordan.
Nijmeh S, Baker N M W
UK, Pergamon, 2000, proceeding of "Renewable Energy. Renewables: The Energy for the 21st Century. World Renewable Energy Congress VI", edited by A A M Sayigh, held 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK, Part 1, pp 524-529, 1 fig, 2 tabs, refs.
Modern buildings have succeeded in meeting the aesthetic economical factors of the building industry, but failed in terms of the thermal performance. This is due to lack of information that takes into consideration the climate and topographic factors, to be used in design making decisions. Such information is not available for architects and builders in Jordan. Therefore, all buildings require high load of expensive energy for heating in winter, and cooling in summer. This is due to inadequate thermal performance of buildings, which are not designed according to climate design parameters. This is made worse by Jordan's composite climate. Such climate could lead to contradictory decisions and wrong guesses being made by architects regarding proper thermal design strategies. Therefore, a method for solution is proposed in this study in order to improve the situation. This is achieved through a climate data analysis to find the most suitable design approach, with a particular reference to Amman. Two techniques are employed in this work. These are the Mahoney Tables, and the Givoni Bioclimatic Chart. Conclusions and recommendations are deduced. The most preferred design strategies found were the use of ventilation, thermal mass, and passive solar heating.
LL 25: Passive Solar Design
Passive Solar Design