#NO 11788 Indoor air quality and the use of energy in buildings.
Baldwin R (ed.)
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1996, EUR 16367 - European collaborative action 'Indoor air quality and its impact on man': Indoor Air Quality and the Use of Energy in Buildings, Environment and quality of life series, 68 pp, 3 figs, 7 tabs, ISBN 92 827 6347 1.
This report provides information and advice to policy and decision makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on (i) strategies for achieving a satisfactory balance between good indoor quality air (IAQ) and the rational use of energy, (ii) guidelines on the use of energy in buildings and IAQ currently available, (iii) significant trends in the building sector with implications for IAQ and energy use and (iv) current research concerns.
The report discussed the relationships and potential conflicts between the IAQ and the efficient use of energy in buildings and related factors such as the influence of occupancy and occupant activities, energy use and sustainability, indoor air pollution and its control, and health and comfort aspects of indoor air quality and climate. The influence of climatic conditions and their variations across Europe on IAQ and energy use, socio-economic costs of poor IAQ and its relation to the use of energy and trends for the future in the building sector are also briefly addressed. Current research concerns in the field of IAQ and energy use in buildings are highlighted and gaps in knowledge and research needs are identified.
Key elements of a strategy by which designers, engineers, manufacturers and other decision makers can achieve a good balance between energy use in buildings and indoor air quality (IAQ) are proposed. Following the recommended procedure will reduce the risk of poor IAQ and waste of energy.
indoor air quality, energy use, occupant behaviour
#NO 11857 Harnessing technology for sustainable development. CIBSE National Conference '98.
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, 384 pp.
Papers are divided into sections on: design; sustainable design; water; renewables; ventilation; comfort and productivity; professional issues; project management; facilities management; life cycle issues; low energy cooling; education; and poster papers.
building design, sustainability, ventilation, cooling
#NO 11858 A holistic approach to a new superstore environment for the next millennium.
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 1-8, 4 figs, 3 tabs, 10 refs.
A concept design is proposed for a new generation of superstores, which addresses the global problem of Carbon Dioxide emissions and the demand of retail traders for increasing economies in energy. The new superstore building has been engineered from the ground up to incorporate the current best practice in environmental design. With application of suitable energy conservation technologies it is proposed that this approach will provide a retail environment fit for the next millennium and achieve a 50% reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions over a conventional supermarket. The new superstore is designed to achieve an excellent rating for Carbon Dioxide reduction measures under the BREEAM environmental assessment method.
retail building, large building, environmental design
#NO 11859 A comparison of predictive techniques for natural displacement ventilation of buildings.
Howell S A, Potts I
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 156-164, figs, refs.
Previous work by Linden, Lane-Serff and Smeed (1990) has developed a simple mathematical model for natural displacement ventilation of an enclosure. The work also introduced the experimental salt-bath technique, which uses salt solutions and fresh water to generate buoyancy forces that are analogous to those found in naturally ventilated buildings. The work claims that a good correlation exists between the predictions of the simple mathematical model and the results obtained using the salt-bath technique.
The present paper reports further, independent experimental work using a test enclosure with air as the working fluid. A Computational Fluid Dynamics computer package is also used to predict the flow through the enclosure. The potential of each of the predictive techniques investigated is discussed. Although a simple mathematical model would be desirable, the conclusion of this paper is that such a model is not suitable for use in a design situation, and that alternative predictive techniques are preferred.
displacement ventilation, prediction, natural ventilation, mathematical modelling, computational fluid dynamics
#NO 11860 NatVent(TM): Overcoming technical barriers to low-energy natural ventilation in office-type buildings - an overview.
Kukadia V, Perera M D A E S
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 165-173, figs, refs.
This paper gives an overview of the European NatVent project on 'Overcoming Technical Barriers to Low Energy Natural Ventilation in Office Type Buildings in Moderate and Cold Climates'. The project was targeted at countries like the UK with low winter and moderate summer temperatures where summer overheating from solar and internal gain can be significantly reduced by low-energy design and good natural ventilation. In addition, the project addressed natural ventilation solutions to buildings located in urban areas where external air pollution and noise levels are usually regarded as being high. In this paper, the background to the project together with the objectives have been outlined and a brief account of the various research areas studied, solutions provided and products resulting from each area have been given.
natural ventilation, office building, cooling
#NO 11861 Performance of heat recovery in passive stack ventilation systems.
Shao L, Riffat S B, Gan G
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 174-181, 4 figs, 1 tab, 5 refs.
The large heat loss from Passive-stack ventilation (PSV) systems quite often makes natural ventilation systems unattractive and it is therefore desirable to implement heat recovery in PSV stacks. As the stack pressure is usually about a few Pascal, it is crucial that the heat recovery unit used in a PSV system produces an even lower pressure loss, which is extremely difficult to achieve with the conventional plate heat exchangers. This work is concerned with a low pressure-loss heat recovery device based on heat pipes. The heat pipe is a completely passive device without power consumption and its simple construction also means that it also has a low initial cost. Experimental investigation has been carried out using four types of heat pipe heat exchangers. Heat recovery efficiency of over 60% has been obtained using two banks of exchangers. It was also found that the efficiency decreases with the increasing air velocity. Spine fin exchangers proved much lower efficiency than plain fin systems. Louver fined system produced the greatest efficiency but also the largest pressure loss. The wire-fin type produced a lower pressure loss than the plain fin type although its efficiency was also slightly lower. It was concluded that the wire fin type provided the optimum balance between the requirements for low pressure loss and high efficiency.
heat recovery, passive stack ventilation, heat exchanger
#NO 11862 Improved workplace productivity through improved indoor air quality - who is going to buy it?
Geens A J, Griffiths O
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 182-188, 3 figs, 10 refs.
This paper reports on the findings of a research exercise that has aimed to crystallise the current state of the Indoor Air Quality debate across a broad spectrum of the industry. The findings are discussed and conclusions drawn on whether there is evidence that the industry's efforts towards delivering good Indoor Air Quality is well received by building owners and operators in appreciable numbers.
productivity improvements, indoor air quality, questionnaire
#NO 11863 Passive thermal design strategies for improved thermal comfort in schools in Pakistan.
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 315-325, 14 figs, refs.
This paper gives an account of a project to test the effectiveness of simple passive strategies to improve thermal comfort in Government Primary Schools in Pakistan. Changes for improved thermal performance were carried out on five schools which were monitored both before and after modification. Schools are simple and minimally serviced. Improvements were controlled (as far as possible) to one strategy per classroom to make evaluation as straightforward as possible. An effectiveness score for a range of options has been developed.
passive design, school, thermal comfort
#NO 11864 Modelling energy use in UK buildings: statistics showing the way forward.
Boyle S P, Shorrock L, Willder J, Pout C
UK, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1998, Proceedings of "Harnessing technology for sustainable development", CIBSE National Conference '98, held Bournemouth International Conference Centre, 18-20 October 1998, pp 356-363, 3 figs, 3 tabs, 11 refs.
The present Government has a target for reduction of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions of 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2010, which is in fact greater than the legal commitment set at the Kyoto summit on climate change in December 1997. Energy use in buildings accounts for approximately half of UK's annual carbon dioxide emissions and thus a reduction in the energy used in buildings is vital for this target to be achieved. A detailed knowledge of how energy is currently used is essential for assessing the potential for reducing the UK's CO2 emissions. To this end, the Building Research Establishment, funded by the Global Atmosphere and the Research, Analysis and Evaluation Divisions of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, has developed two stock models - one for domestic buildings (BREHOMES) and one for the non-domestic sector (N-DEEM). This paper describes both these models and how they can be used to investigate current and future energy use scenarios including their ability to determine the potential for cost effective energy savings within the sector. More emphasis is given herein to the service sector, as this has been less widely published than equivalent data for housing.
modelling, energy use
#NO 11951 Whole-wall building sustainability index for IEA Annex 32 Integral Building Performance.
Perlack B, Christian J, Schexnayder S
USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 5.261-5.277, 2 figs, 4 tabs, refs.
IEA Annex 32 Integral Building Envelope Performance is developing a number of test procedures and measures that can be used to compare and rate the thermal performance of alternative whole-wall construction technologies for residential structures. In this paper, we address sustainability issues and potential impacts building materials may have on the environment. Specifically, we describe the development of a whole-wall sustainability index. The index is based on a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective that encompasses the extraction of resources used in the manufacture of building materials, the impacts during construction, the impacts over building service life (including thermal performance), and the impacts associated with the disposition and recycling of the whole-wall components. To illustrate, we provide an example whole-wall sustainability index for two competing systems - a standard 2x4 dimensional lumber-framed whole-wall and a conventional cold form steel-framed whole-wall. In the future, we expect to develop databases, refine the sustainablity index, and apply it to most of the 40 advanced wall systems already thermally evaluated. We also review related work by the American Institute of Architects (AIA), National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada.
sustainability, building performance
#NO 12017 Climatic design of a new housing area.
Kristensen P E
in: UK, James and James, 1998, European directory of sustainable and energy efficient building 1998. Components, services, materials, pp 29-33, 10 figs, 6 refs.
Describes a project initiated in Frederikshavn in northern Jutland, Denmark, for the climatic design of a new housing area. The site is particularly exposed to strong winds all the year round and one of the major tasks was to design the overall building site and the buildings so that major improvements in the exterior wind environment were achieved. Furthermore, the design brief called for an overall climatic design, where low-energy solutions were combined with consideration of the exterior environment near the buildings. The main results from an analysis of improvement of the comfort for people outdoors were that out of 900 sunshine hours during summertime it is comfortable to remain outside on terraces and the like for 70 hours if there are no shelter belts and 170 hours if there are shelter belts present. Comfortable strolling outside is possible for approximately 370 hours if without shelter belts, rising to approximately 520 hours, out of a total of 900 sunshine hours, if there are shelter belts. Model testing was carried out in a wind tunnel and provided a good basis for developing a good building and site layout, and thus a significant improvement of the local wind environment in the pilot project was achieved. This was confirmed both by wind monitoring in the area, and by the subjective evaluation of the users.
residential building, outdoor air, wind effects, wind break
#NO 12018 Sustainable and energy-efficient buildings.
in: UK, James and James, 1998, European directory of sustainable and energy efficient building 1998. Components, services, materials, pp 102-105, 5 figs.
The heat energy flows through a building are bound to balance the input and the output. For efficiency, the inputs derived from fossil fuel must be kept at a minimum. Then by good thermal design, the minimum heat inputs must be able to keep the building warm on the coldest day. Electricity for miscellaneous use must be minimised by developing efficient appliances, freezers, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions, computers and so on. Electricity for lighting is minimised by using efficient light sources, avoiding excessive indirect lighting and incandescent lamps. Buildings must be designed with appropriate window openings so that people do not need to use electric light when there is adequate natural light, even on a cloudy day. Considers shutters, ventilation, and outlines brief case studies of Sparrow Grove, Otterbourne, Hampshire; International Headquarters for RMC PLC, Egham; new offices for the Building Research Establishment, Garston; Goetz Sol-Skin Headquarters, Wuerzburg; and the Indoor Cricket School at Lord's Cricket Ground, London.
energy efficiency, thermal design, domestic appliance
#NO 12019 European directory of sustainable and energy efficient building 1998. Components, services, materials.
UK, James and James, 1998, 320 pp.
Lists over 3,000 companies from across Europe who are active in the field, both alphabetically and by product, and a range of projects is covered in a number of informative articles. The subject areas covered are: solar and climatic design; photovoltaics and solar thermal; integrated design; energy conservation; sustainable building and materials selection; energy efficient building services and controls; software/resources.
survey, sustainability, energy efficiency
#NO 12030 European studies on natural ventilation.
Limam K, Allard F, Dascalaki E, Abadie M
in: James & James, European Directory of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Building, 1998, pp 20-25, 5 figs, 12 refs.
Discusses prediction methods, the AIOLOS software, diagnostic techniques, critical barriers, design guidelines and technical solutions, and case studies of naturally ventilated buildings. Concludes that recent European research projects have demonstrated how useful natural ventilation strategies can be in ensuring good indoor air quality, but that the projects have also pointed out critical barriers to the effective use of such technical solutions and the difficulties in designing and dimensioning efficient systems for natural ventilation.
natural ventilation, research
#NO 12130 Indoor environment quality in buildings and its impact on the outdoor environment.
France, Lyon, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, 1998; proceedings of EPIC '98, 2nd European Conference on Energy Performance and Indoor Climate in Buildings and 3rd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings, held Lyon, France, 19-21 November 1998, edited by G Guarracino, Volume 1, first paper, 8 figs, 1 tab, refs.
The main purpose of buildings is to provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This includes, among others, thermal, visual and acoustic comfort as well as indoor air quality. Except during the fifties and sixties, it has always been considered important that an excess use of energy should be avoided in the construction and the management of a building, sometimes even at the cost of user comfort. Energy saving is however not the main purpose of the building. Indeed, if it were really so, the largest energy savings would be obtained by not erecting the building in the first place.
Since the Rio conference, there have been more and more incentives to save energy and lower the impact of buildings on the environment. Therefore there is no excuse for the building sector not to adopt a sustainable development policy.
Some energy is required to control the indoor climate and indoor air quality. Therefore, it is often suspected that energy savings result in poorer indoor environment quality, or, on the contrary, that a high comfort level is the result of high technology and high energy consumption. This is not true. It is now generally admitted among building scientists that high quality energy services do not necessarily incur a high energy use, and that good environment quality can be obtained with a reasonable amount of energy and power, and with a low environmental impact.
The presentation brings some evidence from past and current research to support this assertion.
outdoor air, indoor air quality, energy efficiency
#NO 12172 Low-energy cooling conception in office buildings.
Pagliano L, Flahaut D, Beccali M, Caponio R, et al
EPIC '98, Volume 3, pp 788-793, 1 fig, 5 tabs.
Air conditioning is widely used in the office building sector in the French Mediterranean region. Though often a ½sine qua non+ for renting office space, there is however a widespread feeling that operating and maintaining air-conditioning systems can be troublesome (unreliability, regulation and maintenance difficulties, non uniform comfort conditions, high prices are frequently lamented). With European support we aimed to explore how the market might adjust to these conflicting customer demands and provide actors in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (PACA) region with improved tools (customised analysis and design, packages of retrofit solutions) which could lead evolution toward building stock of improved comfort, higher energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.
office building, low energy cooling, energy audit, building envelope
#NO 12241 Comparison of mechanical and natural ventilation using long-term evaluation model for indoor air quality, thermal environment, and energy consumption.
Takemasa T, Moser A
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 2, pp 84-89.
There are often tradeoffs among improving IAQ (Indoor Air Quality), maintaining the thermal comfort and reducing energy consumption for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) systems. A prediction model that can simultaneously treat these factors is required to realise good design of sustainable buildings. For this paper, a concept of Occupant Contaminant Inhalation is used for long-term assessment of IAQ. A long -term evaluation indicator for other factors such as air temperature is also introduced (Occupancy-weighted Accumulated Deviation from thresholds). The paper also describes a long-term simulation model for evaluating IAQ, the thermal environment and energy consumption. The model takes vertical temperature distribution within rooms and unsteady phenomena due to the thermal storage capacity of buildings into account. Case studies are made using this model to compare the performance of mechanical and natural ventilation in a normal office space in Tokyo. It is shown that natural ventilation is effective to reduce energy consumption for HVAC systems and to improve IAQ while maintaining the thermal comfort when ventilation strategies are appropriate. The proposed design tool will help to create buildings with low energy consumption without compromising comfort and occupant health.
mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation
#NO 12334 How good is Ekoporten? Evaluation of a sustainable refurbishment project.
Sweden, Swedish Building Research, no 2, 1999, pp 2-4.
Ekoporten is a block of flats converted into an experimental sustainable building which is now 2.5 years old. The building is one of the most visited and debated projects carried out in Sweden in recent years. Describes how with the support of the Swedish Council for Building Research, researchers from the Faculty of Architecture, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (KTH) have followed up and documented the experiment.
apartment building, sustainability, refurbishment
#NO 12339 Towards sustainable buildings - a workshop on defining collaborative R&D needs. Workshop Proceedings
USA, Washington, Morse Associates, Inc., proceedings of a workshop held August 31 - September 3, 1998, Hilton Head, South Carolina, USA, organised by the International Energy Agency, Buildings-Related Programs and the Future Buildings Forum, 50 pp.
This workshop aimed to identify work that would facilitate the transformation of the building sector market in IEA member countries. The workshop organisers - the IEA building-related programmes and the US Department of Energy - set out to provide a unique international forum for dialogue between government officials and their peers in building-sector businesses, technology and design fields, achieved through an imaginative and dynamic programme of presentations and working sessions. The presentations included: market needs relevant to sustainable buildings; and technology and design: current capabilities and future potential related to sustainable buildings.
sustainability, research programme, building design
#NO 12350 Handbook of sustainable building. An environmental preference method for selection of materials for use in construction and refurbishment.
Anink D, Boonstra C, Mak J
UK, James & James, 1996, 175 pp.
The handbook aims to fill the gap for a practical guide for building designers to make environmental preferences. It spells out page by page for each building component the choices facing the designer and helps them in making the best environmental choices while avoiding the worst options. The Environmental Preference Method concentrates on the consequences of selecting building materials and components. It therefore complements other environmental schemes such as BREEAM, which focus more on the effects arising during the building's use. Chapters include: background to sustainable building in practice; environmental selection of materials for use in construction; environmental selection of materials for use in refurbishment; environmental impact of materials in common use.
sustainability, environmental design
#NO 12456 A quantitative approach to the assessment of the environmental impact of building materials.
Harris D J
UK, Building and Environment, No 34, 1999, pp 751-758, 3 figs, 6 tabs, 15 refs.
The materials from which a building is constructed make a significant contribution to its overall impact on the environment. This impact is felt in a number of ways; locally, through the effects of activities such as quarrying; globally, as a result of carbon dioxide released by using energy used to manufacture the materials; and internally, in the effects on the health of the occupants of the building.
Some of these effects are easier to measure than others, and comparisons between the seriousness of the different effects are difficult to make. It therefore seems unreasonable to attempt to devise a single figure of merit for the overall environmental impact of a building; what is needed is a profile which gathers together a range of indicators, but allows them to remain separate. This article describes the development of such an environmental profile which can be used as a design aid, and illustrates its use with a case study of a typical British house.
sustainability, sustainability rating
#NO 12457 Advanced ventilation design for commercial, industrial and institutional facilities: Displacement and demand-controlled ventilation can be applied in combination with enthalpy recovery.
Turner W A
USA, Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, October 1999, pp 61-66, 6 figs.
Describes how displacement and demand-controlled ventilation can be applied in combination with enthalpy recovery. Focuses on the indoor air quality components of IEQ, and also touches on IEQ and "sustainability" concerns along the way. Brief case studies from office, educational, and industrial buildings are presented to support the design concept discussions.
heat recovery, ventilation design
#NO 12517 Building sustainability - a stakeholder approach to building design.
UK, London, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1999, Proceedings of "Engineering in the 21st century - the changing world", CIBSE National Conference '99, held 4-5 October 1999, Harrogate International Centre, pp 1-7.
This paper summarises the planned redevelopment of Webber's Yard industrial estate on Dartington Estate in Devon. It discusses the needs of different stakeholders involved in the project and outlines how the design team responded. It argues that this approach to building design and development is particularly sustainable and could be used as a model for the development of other light industrial estates.
It outlines the role of an "environmental champion", or E-Co (Environmental Co-ordinator), in ensuring that environmental issues were considered holistically during the concept design stage to promote sustainable construction.
industrial building, building design
#NO 12526 Design and operating concept for an innovative naturally ventilated library.
Cook M J, Lomas K J, Eppel H
UK, London, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), 1999, Proceedings of "Engineering in the 21st century - the changing world", CIBSE National Conference '99, held 4-5 October 1999, Harrogate International Centre, pp 500-507, 5 figs, 1 tab, refs.
Recent years have seen increased use of natural ventilation, daylighting, and cooling techniques in UK buildings. This paper describes the design and operating concept of a large, naturally ventilated and illuminated city centre library for Coventry University in the UK. The novel design concept includes four lightwells acting as ventilation inlets, each of which is fed with fresh air from a plenum below the ground floor. A central lightwell and perimeter stacks draw air across each floor plate and provide air extract routes. This strategy enables fresh air to reach the core of the building whilst keeping the external fa_ade sealed for reasons of security and preventing urban noise and pollution.
Computer simulation demonstrates that the building is likely to be well ventilated and thermally comfortable. The building and the analyses should increase the confidence of engineers and architects designing sustainable buildings.
natural ventilation, large building
#NO 12536 Design procedure for hybrid ventilation.
Heiselberg P, Tjelflaat P O
Australia, CSIRO and the University of Sydney, and IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 35, 1999, proceedings of Hybvent Forum '99, First International One-Day Forum on Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, held at the University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia, 28 September 1999, pp 46-52, 3 figs, refs.
Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation.
Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC. The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed.
#NO 12539 Measurements in situ of fluidodynamic parameters in the buildings with natural and hybrid ventilation.
Principi P, di Perna C, Ruffini E
Australia, CSIRO and the University of Sydney, and IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 35, 1999, proceedings of Hybvent Forum '99, First International One-Day Forum on Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, held at the University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia, 28 September 1999, pp 80-90, 22 figs, 10 refs.
The careful management of energy, in terms of ecological sustainability, in particular solar and wind energy, have a central role in the design and realisation of bioclimatic buildings. The growing demand for comfort and quality of life is proportional to the consumption of resources. The reduction of the cost of investment, of energy consumption and of building maintenance is a goal to achieve together with improvement of working conditions, avoiding further depletion of energy resources already over utilized.
The new building that Mario Cucinella Architects (MCA Paris) have designed for headquarters I Guzzini Illuminazione, company in Recanati, is an example of an innovative office building where reduction of energy consumption and environmental quality have been considered throughout the design process.
bioclimatic architecture, case study
#NO 12562 Indoor Air 99. The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Volume 4.
Raw G, Aizlewood C, Warren P (eds.)
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 4, 1147 pp.
The papers in this volume are in the following sections: air cleaning and filtration; VOCs in homes; health and the indoor environment; non-viable particles, fibres and aerosols: indoor exposure; natural ventilation; VOC measurement techniques; health effects: respiratory and general; IAQ economics, sustainability and education; improving the indoor environment; CFD and computer modelling of indoor air pollutants; natural ventilation part 2; indoor air biology: methods of detection and analysis; productivity, comfort and perceived air quality; non-viable particles, fibres and aerosols: indoor/outdoor sources; biological effects.
indoor air quality
#NO 12609 Energiebesparen, niet ten koste van het binnenmilieu. Conserving energy without compromising the comfort of the internal environment.
Netherlands, TVVL Magazine, No 11, 1999, pp 4-15, 2 figs, 2 tabs, 13 refs, in Dutch
Efforts are being made the world over to curb our growing consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, the government is introducing various measures to save energy. The introduction of the Energy Performance Standard (EPS) and the further tightening of the Energy Performance Coefficient (EPC) from 1.9 to 1.6 for office buildings are examples of this. Since buildings involve complex interactions between various standards (e.g. compliance with the Construction Decree, the Health and Safety Decree, the EPS) and sub-systems (such as installations for heating, ventilation and cooling), it is important to ensure that when one aspect of a building's performance is altered (such as its EPC) this does not have a detrimental effect on other performance-related aspects (such as overly high temperatures in summer or a deterioration in air quality). The article discusses the links between energy conservation in buildings, the tightening of the EPC and the quality of the internal environment. A strategy is proposed for achieving a satisfactory balance between the internal quality of a building and the rational consumption of energy in buildings.
To decide on the direction in which research is to proceed or which topics should be subject to research, it is important to make an inventory of developments so far. For the Users and Installations in the Built-Environment sphere, these developments consist of key innovations and technological product developments. The key innovations cover various shifts, namely: the shift from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy, the shift from prosperity to welfare, the shift from the types of market in which research institutes (such as TNO) operate and the shift from new building construction to the use of exiting buildings. Technological product developments can be divided into communication and knowledge management products, environmentally-friendly/sustainable products, products geared towards management, maintenance and renovation and performance/user-orientated products. These developments are explored in more detail in this article. A research theme is then defined: "Optimisation of energy consumption and the quality of the environment regarding buildings, construction materials and installations with an emphasis on maintenance, management and renovation". Knowledge management is a key aspect in this.
human comfort, energy conservation, standards
#NO 12731 Sainsbury's gets full marks.
UK, HAC, Winter 1999, pp 16-18.
Discusses how the new Sainsbury's Millennium store in the UK has achieved a maximum BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) rating. Important features include natural lighting and ventilation, the use of ground water for cooling and waste heat for heating, and a number of other low energy solutions.
building design, sustainability
#NO 12732 Sustainable housing - options for independent energy, water supply and sewerage.
Smerdon T, Waggett R, Grey R
UK, Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA), 1997, Application Guide AG 26/97.
This guide is the main output resulting from a three year research project investigating the use of autonomous technologies in housing. Autonomous technologies are those which can be used to reduce the dependence of dwellings, or groups of dwellings, on mains services such as energy and water supplies, and sewerage. Chapters include technology matrices; energy supply technologies; water supply technologies; and drainage and sewerage technologies.
sustainability, residential building
#NO 12734 Holistic approach and environmental protection in IEA's new strategy.
Swedish Building Research, No 4, 1999, pp 4-5.
Describes the new strategy of the Director General of the Swedish Council for Building Research, Bertil Petersson, for building related research within the IEA. Emphasises knowledge extracted from different projects, greater coupling with sustainability; and a time plan.
energy saving research programme
#NO 12801 From ruin to rehab.
USA, Home Energy, May/June 2000, pp 24-30.
Describes how boiler mechanic Henry Gifford and architect Chris Benedict worked together to perform a major energy efficient rehabilitation exercise on several abandoned and badly deteriorated wood frame and masonry structures in New York City. The buildings had been in such poor shape that they required major rehabilitation, and the work done to them blurred the distinction between renovation and new construction. They were rehabilitated into multifamily homes of two, three or four apartments each. The work was completed despite considerable doubts on the part of the developer that introducing sustainable and energy efficient design would be too expensive, and would make the homes too difficult for the contractors to construct and for the homeowners to operate. For ventilation, constantly running individual exhaust-only systems for each apartment were chosen. Trickle ventilators were installed in each bedroom to supply fresh air. The system pulled outdoor air through the trickle ventilators in each bedroom, through the common areas, and out of each bathroom and kitchen. Occupant response was favourable. They were pleased to be able to control individual room temperatures, and noted that the houses were unusually quiet (likely due to the good air sealing). Despite the success of the project, the developer and city housing department specifically excluded energy efficient design for the next round of rehab housing the following year.
multifamily building, apartment building, rehabilitation
#NO 12802 Analysing the life-cycle energy of an Australian residential building and its householders.
Treloar G, Fay R, Love P E D, Iyer-Raniga U
Building Research and Information, Vol 28, No 3, 2000, pp 184-195, 2 figs, 7 tabs, refs.
Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) is used to assign energy values to product flows in each phase of an activity's life cycle. In the case of a residential building, this usually comprises energy embodied in the manufacture of building materials, energy used in the building's operation, and in periodic maintenance. In order to place these amounts of energy in a national context, the energy embodied in other goods and services con sumed by householders also needs to be considered. This paper uses LCEA to demonstrate the need for considering not only the life cycle energy of the building but also the life cycle energy attributable to activities being undertaken by actual users of the building. The life cycle energy of an Australian residential building as well as common activities of households are analysed and simulated over a 30 year period using a worked example of a two bedroom, brick-veneer, semi-detached unit. The importance of considering the energy embodied in the initial construction of a residential building as well as the consumption of goods and services by householders is demonstrated as having long-term implications. In order to encourage sustainable living practices it is suggested that architects more closely consider the activities of householders when designing residential buildings, especially in temperate climates. The paper concludes by identifying future areas of research for LCEA in the residential sector.
LCA, embodied energy, residential building, lifestyle
#NO 12886 Designing an affordable green housing project.
USA, Home Energy, March/April 2000, pp 39-44, 1 fig, 5 tabs.
Describes a green (as opposed to energy efficient) building project, carried out in a moderately priced residential area of San Francisco, USA. The architects sought to show how careful selection and installation of mainstream materials - along with judicious use of recent innovations, recycled materials, and alternate construction methods - can create cost-effective, environmentally sound, affordable housing. The five specific environmental goals were to provide energy-efficient housing; provide housing that is easy and inexpensive to operate and maintain; reduce resource consumption; create a healthy indoor environment; provide a model for environmentally sound, affordable housing. The architects hoped to be able to make a quantitative comparison with other green buildings. The article considers estimating construction costs, life cycle costs, life cycle assessment, designing the structural system, operating energy, final materials and systems selection, and construction. Concludes that balancing environmental goals with budget constraints and schedule requires the commitment of the architect, contractor, and owner. The successes lay in: reducing expected total operating energy by approximately 33%; reducing emissions from operating energy that contribute to global warming by an estimated 23%; reducing emissions from operating energy that contribute to acid rain by an estimated 16%; reducing the amount of fuel used for materials production by an estimated 50%; and reducing wood framing by an estimated 19%. The building cost no more than conventional housing.
residential building, building design, sustainability
#NO 12890 Barclaycard headquarters.
the Probe Team
UK, Building Services Journal, March 2000, pp 37-42, 5 figs, 1 ref.
PROBE report on the new Barclaycard headquarters building in Northampton. The key findings were that the mixed-mode design worked without wasteful operation of the services; that Barclaycard is the first prestige office to beat good practice CO2 targets; that the building reveals key issues for manual and automatic window operation; and that overall comfort is above average despite a lack of personal control.
sustainability, environmental design, mixed-mode, office building
#NO 12907 Use of computer simulation in the design of a naturally ventilated library.
Cook M J, Lomas K J, Eppel H
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 2, pp 597-602, 3 figs, refs.
Sustainable building design has received increased attention over recent years and the use of natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings has been integral to this forward-looking issue. Natural ventilation design has been assisted by the availability of computer-based simulation techniques capable of predicting aspects of building design such as thermal comfort and air quality. Such aspects require particular attention by architects and building designers as they are more difficult to determine, and subsequently to control, in buildings which are naturally rather than mechanically ventilated. This paper describes how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and dynamic thermal simulation (DTS) programs were used to analyse an innovative new library design at Coventry University in the UK.
The building comprises four passively ventilated floors with the area of 810m2. Fresh air flows into the building via a lightwelll in each quadrant of the floor plan. Buoyancy forces then drive stale air upwards and put through a central lightwell and perimeter exhaust stacks. The simulation work reported in his paper provides an insight into the complementary use of CFD and DTS programs and shows how their results were used to inform and corroborate the design of this building.
computer simulation, natural ventilation, library
#NO 12938 Surabaya eco-house: an experiment in passive design in a tropical climate. Part 1: outline of the project and design of the experimental building.
Kodama Y, Funo S, Hokoi S, et al
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 407-412, 9 figs.
Entrusted by the Ministry of Construction, the infrastructure Development Institute Japan conducted an experiment on energy- and resource-saving collective housing jointly with the Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), the Republic of Indonesia, for the purpose of making contribution to improvement of living environment and energy conservation in developing countries.
In order to build a sustainable and recycling-based society. It is essential to improve performance of buildings themselves in the light of regional climate and to create favorable indoor environment with less dependence on energy-consuming technologies. This requirement must be fulfilled at an early date in developing countries, where energy consumption is expected to rise sharply.
The latest project is a case study designed to build future energy- and resource-saving collective housing in developing countries featured by tropical climate high temperature and humidity
passive cooling, tropical climate, humidity
#NO 12940 The potential of passive cooling strategies for improving ambient comfort conditions and achieving energy savings in a typical hot/arid climate.
Garcia-Chavez J R
in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 421-426, 2 figs, refs.
Passive cooling strategies can offer significant opportunities for improving the occupants' ambient comfort conditions whilst reducing the energy consumption in hot climates. This is particularly applicable for buildings located in hot/arid regions with large cooling loads due to the use of mechanical systems for space climatization. This research examines the potential of passive cooling strategies in a commercial building located in a typical hot/arid climate of Mexico. The main objective of this work is to achieve maximum human comfort and air quality at minimum capital and operational energy costs, whilst preserving the external environment. The results of this work can contribute to achieve a favorable multiple effect in the country for other buildings with similar conditions and this approach can be useful to provide an authentic sustainable development improving the natural environment and the quality of life.
passive cooling, human comfort, hot dry climate
#NO 12952 PLEA 99 Sustaining the Future: Energy, Ecology, Architecture. Proceedings Volume 1.
Szokolay S S (ed.)
Australia, Brisbane, University of Queensland, Department of Architecture and PLEA International, 1999, proceedings of a conference held 22-24 September 1999, Volume 1, pp 1-520 .
This volume of the proceedings contains sections on sustainable architecture; the ecology of materials; sustainable bioclimatic design and some projects; climate and comfort; houses and housing; tropical architecture; passive cooling.
sustainability, bioclimatic design, building design
#NO 12953 PLEA 99 Sustaining the Future: Energy, Ecology, Architecture. Proceedings Volume 2.
Szokolay S S (ed.)
Australia, Brisbane, University of Queensland, Department of Architecture and PLEA International, 1999, proceedings of a conference held 22-24 September 1999, Volume 2, pp 521-925.
This volume of the proceedings contains sections on daylighting; design tools and evaluation; ethics; theory and education; regulations and policy; urban design, and late papers.
sustainability, building regulations, building design
#NO 13037 Hannover fare.
Bellew P, Kauschmann J
UK, Building Services Journal, August 2000, pp 24-26.
Describes some ultra-low energy flats designed for Expo 2000 which demonstrate the advantages of mandatory energy targeting. While the UK debates the pros and cons, other European countries have already brought these measures in.
sustainability, apartment building, energy efficiency
#NO 13043 BREEAM 98 for offices.
Baldwin R, Yates A, Howard N, Rao S
UK, Watford, BRE, BR 350, 1998, 35 pp.
The Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) was originally launched in 1990. It sought to provide authoritative guidance on ways of minimising the adverse effects of buildings on the global and local environments while promoting a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. It was a world first, and has since formed the basis for similar schemes in other countries. In the UK it has been widely accepted as representing best practice, with significant market penetration. It is an important component of the environmental policy of many major businesses. The basis of the scheme is a certificate awarded to individual buildings on the basis of 'credits' for a set of performance criteria. The certificate provides a 'label' for the building that enables the owners or occupants to gain recognition for the building's environmental performance. The certificate can be displayed in the building or used as part of an organisation's overall environmental statement. The building is assessed independently by trained assessors appointed by BRE. BRE is responsible for specifying the criteria and methods of assessment and for quality assurance of the assessment process used. The main objectives of the scheme are: to distinguish buildings of reduced environmental impact in the market place; to encourage best environmental practice in buidling design, operation, management and maintenance; to set criteria and standards going beyong those required by law and regulations; to raise the awareness of owners, occupants, designers and operators of the benefits of buildings with a reduced impact on the environment. BREEAM is regularly updated to take advantage of new research, to reflect changing priorities in regulations and in the market place, to build on experience gained, and generally to keep it up to date. The aim is to ensure that BREEAM continues to represent current best practice, going beyond what is required by regulations. BREEAM for offices was first revised in 1993. This publication describes the latest version, launched in September 1998, which includes major changes in the way BREEAM operates, incorporates several major environmental issues which can now be assessed, and includes a new way of assigning priorities between the issues covered.
sustainability, office building
#NO 13044 Designs on learning.
UK, Energy and Environmental Management, July/August 2000, pp 28-29.
Discusses whether the optimum energy efficient design can be achieved within standard UK school building costs. States that it can. States that a well designed, comfortable school is not only conducive to efficient learning but also provides the opportunity to reinforce the sustainability message to learners. Describes Weobley Primary School in Leominster and Notley Green County Primary School in Essex. The former is fuelled by locally produced wood chips. The architecture is classic passive solar design using cross ventilaton and optimising use of natural daylight. A central courtyard further assists daylight and natural ventilation. There is also shading to minimise summertime heat gain. The building also utilises a 'breathing wall' system. For the second school, the client asked the design team to explore ideas which could be adapted on other projects while working within Essex Primary School Model Brief and the standard Essex budget for new school buildings. They are interested in how sustainability extends beyond construction into the use and management of the building. Features include an energy efficient plan shape; a 'breathing wall' uses recycled newspaper as insulation; masonry internal wall s will contribute to the thermal mass required to avoid summer overheating; daylighting is provided by a combination of perimeter windows and clerestory lights, and rooflights; natural ventilation and gas condensing boilers, and zoned underfloor heating.
school, sustainability, passive solar design
#NO 13045 Green engineering.
UK, Building Services and Environmental Engineer, June 2000, pp 21-24.
Describes and explains the BREEAM scheme for reviewing and improving the environmental performance of buildings.
#NO 13047 Eliminating waste - towards a sustainable future.
UK, Building Services Journal, July 2000, pp 46-47.
Describes how standardisation, sustainability, minimising waste and improving contractual relationships will be the focus for the coming year at the UK Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
#NO 13111 Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII proceedings.
Geshwiler M (ed.)
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, 874 pp.
The papers of this conference are divided into subject areas as follows: roofs and attics - principles; whole building performance; moisture analysis - principles; whole building performance - practices; moisture assessments - principles; indoor air quality and sustainability - practices; moisture surveys - principles; walls - practices; window design and performance - practices; roof and attic issues - heat, moisture, ventilation - practices; window modelling at the University of Massachusetts - principles; moisture - practices; thermal analysis of building systems - principles; fenestration and energy costs - practices; wall systems - principles; infiltration - practices; building systems - principles; performance of air barrier systems - practices; airtightness and airflow in buildings - principles; materials and foundations - practices.
thermal performance, building envelope
#NO 13125 Achieving sustainable construction in affordable housing.
Ternes M P, Barcik M K, Creech D B
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 217-226, 3 figs, 2 tabs, refs.
An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. There products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficient measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.
sustainability, residential building, checklist, energy efficiency, low income housing
#NO 13128 Thermal performance of a low cost sustainable wall construction system.
Vohra A, Rosenfeld A H, McDiarmid M D, Stovall T K, Wilkes K B, Desjarlais A O, Kosny J
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 301-307, 7 figs, refs.
Loose-filled pumice, fly ash, and sawdust have been used to construct insulated walls for retrofit or new construction of small residential buildings. Pumice in sandbags was demonstrated as exterior insulation for an existing adobe house in New Mexico. Such houses are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing exterior insulation. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, folded as it is filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The construction requires no foundation or structural supports and only a small amount of lumber. These inexpensive techniques solve the problem of insulating solid-wall houses and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for millions of people. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has received U.S. Patent #5,875,607 for "Low Cost Exterior Insulation Process and Structure."
thermal performance, sustainability, wall, insulated wall
#NO 13181 Roomvent 2000. Air distribution in room: ventilation for health and sustainable environment. Volume 1.
Awbi H B (ed.)
UK, Oxford, Elsevier, 2000, proceedings of a conference held 9-12 July 2000, Reading, UK, Volume 1, pp 1-704.
Includes the keynote papers, and sections on indoor environment, predictive methods, and air distribution.
air distribution, health
#NO 13182 Roomvent 2000. Air distribution in room: ventilation for health and sustainable environment. Volume 2.
Awbi H B (ed.)
UK, Oxford, Elsevier, 2000, proceedings of a conference held 9-12 July 2000, Reading, UK, Volume 2, pp 705-1224.
Contains sections on ventilation strategies, system efficiency and applications.
air distribution, health
#NO 13188 CFD based airflow modelling to investigate the effectiveness of control methods intended to prevent the transmission of airborne organisms.
Seymour M J, Alani A, Manning A, Jiang J
UK, Oxford, Elsevier, 2000, proceedings of Roomvent 2000, "Air Distribution in Rooms: Ventilation for Health and Sustainable Environment", held 9-12 July 2000, Reading, UK, Volume 1, pp 77-82, 3 figs, 1 tab, refs.
The airborne transmission of disease is a constant threat and while diseases such as Tuberculosis were considered all but extinct in the western world, the resurgence of it demonstrates that the spread of these diseases has to be taken very seriously. This paper describes the method of application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), more appropriately called Airflow Modelling for the Building Services Industry, to the airflow and heat transfer in a Hospital Isolation Room Application. In particular it addresses how it can determine the ability of the ventilation system to limit the time during which carers, or other people present in the room, may be at risk to the airborne organisms constantly being produced by a patient coughing, sneezing or simply talking. Research has shown that ventilation rate is no guarantee of control of these airborne organisms. Another means of minimising the risk from airborne bacteria is to apply ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). UVGI holds promise of greatly lowering the concentration of airborne bacteria and thus controlling the spread of airborne infection among occupants. This paper describes the techniques developed to allow the airflow simulation to be extended to simulate the motion of the droplets carrying the bacteria, their path through the room and indeed any exposure they may have to UVGI. The work will be highlighted by a series of case studies demonstrating the effect of change in the ventilation design and the effect of UVGI on the probability of survival of the bacteria.
air flow, modelling, computational fluid dynamics, particles, droplets, UVGI, bacteria
LL 23: Sustainability