Control of Cross Contamination from Smokers
#NO 261 Ventilation : the human factors
AUTHOR Brundrett G.W.
BIBINF Proceedings of Aston University/Electricity Council Research Establishment Conference on Controlled Ventilation ; held at University of Aston, 24 September 1975, 8p, 8 figs, 3 tabs, 21refs. #DATE 24:09:1975 in English.
ABSTRACT Gives state-of-the-art review of ventilation needed to control carbon dioxide, odours, cigarette smoke and moisture mentioning main results. Gives sketch graphs illustrating these results. Outlines the effect of opening windows on air -change-rates andgives tables showing average window opening, the moisture generation from various activities and the solar radiation falling on vertical surfaces.
KEYWORDS ventilation needs, air quality. tobacco smoke,
#NO 502 Practical methods of reducing airborne contaminants in interior spaces.
AUTHOR McNall P.E.
BIBINF Arch. Environ. Health. vol 30 p552-556. 5 figs 7 refs. #DATE 01:11:1975 in English #AIC 201
ABSTRACT Air contaminants include all gases, vapours, liquid droplets and solids, including microogranisms of small size that can be dispersed in air and that are unwanted. Contaminants can be removed by dilution of the air, by deposition of particles on surfaces or by reaction with other materials in air or in space (such as furnishings).< This article discusses in general terms the reduction of contaminants and gives equations of concentrations of contaminants after time t. Discusses types of filters and their effectiveness. Reports field tests using tobacco smoke as the contaminant to test theoretical results and finds excellent agreement. Outlines ways of controlling contaminants. Concludes that it is difficult and expensive to control inside environmental contaminants levels at values less than 20% to 25% of those occurring outside.
KEYWORDS air quality, pollution, tobacco smoke, particulate, filter
#NO 1147 Indoor air pollution -characterization, prediction and control.
AUTHOR Wadden R.A. Scheff P.A.
BIBINF A Wiley-Interscience Publication ISSN 0194-0287 1983 212pp. ISBN 0-471-87673-9 #DATE 01:01:1983 in English
ABSTRACT Explores the health implications, external and internal contributions, and the measurement of indoor air pollution including such subjects as sampling and analysis, calibration, time scale and interferences. Outlines the current status of prediction techniques, including areas such as one-compartment models, infiltration estimation, and empirical models. Summarizes the most common control methods. Examines, in detail, the application of modelling techniques to several typical indoor settings, for example, a restaurant, kitchen or a conference room with smokers.
KEYWORDS air quality, pollution, modelling, prediction, measurement technique,
#NO 1455 Ventilation heat losses
Pertes de chaleur par renouvellement d'air
AUTHOR Hernot D., Porcher G.
BIBINF Chaud.Froid.Plomb. June 1984, vol.38, no.449, 65-72, 5 figs, 10 tabs. #DATE 01:06:1984, in French,
ABSTRACT Describes the pollutant burdens on indoor air. Notes heat exchanges by air renewal and associated heat losses. Examines how to determine the required air change rate. Lists the minimum air changes for various types of building with and without smoking. Treats air infiltration. Considers how to reduce losses with air renewal by weather stripping, special air inlets, reduction of the indoor air temperature, heat recovery with controlled mechanical ventilation, heat pumps and heat pipes.
KEYWORDS ventilation, ventilation heat loss, air change rate, weatherstripping, air inlets, heat recovery, mechanical ventilation
#NO 1465 Controlling indoor air pollution from tobacco smoke - models and measurements
AUTHOR Offermann F J., Girman J R., Sextro R G.
BIBINF Indoor Air. Vol.1 Recent Advances in the Health Sciences and Technology edited by B. Berglund, T. Lindvall and J. Sundell. Swedish Council for Building Research. Stockholm. 20-24 August 1984, 257-264, 1 fig, 20 refs. in English #DATE 20:08:1984 AIC bk,
ABSTRACT Examines the effects of smoking rate, ventilation, surface deposition, and air cleaning on the indoor concentrations of respirable particulate matter and carbon monoxide generated by cigarette smoke. A general mass balance model is presented which has been extended to include the concept of ventilation efficiency. Following a review of the source and removal terms associated with respirable particulates and carbon monoxide, we compare model predictions to various health guidelines.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, ventilation, carbon monoxide, pollutant, particulate, modelling, ventilation efficiency, filter, air conditioning, health, air quality
#NO 1475 Transport of radon from soil into residences
AUTHOR Nazaroff W W., Nero A V.
BIBINF Indoor Air, Vol.2, Radon, Passive Smoking, Particulates and Housing Epidemiology edited by B.Berglund, T.Lindvall, J.Sundell. Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, 1984. 15-20, 1 fig, 1 tab, 24 refs. #DATE 00:00:1984 in English, AIC bk,
ABSTRACT To develop effective monitoring and control programs for indoor radon it is important to understand the causes of the broad range of concentrations that have been observed. Measurements of indoor radon concentration and air-exchange rate in dwellings in several countries indicate that this variability arises largely from differences among structures in the rate of radon entry. Recent evidence further suggests that the major source of indoor radon in many circumstances is the soil adjacent to the building foundation and that pressure-driven flow, rather than molecular diffusion, is the dominant transport process by which radon enters the buildings. Key factors affecting radon transport from soil are radon production in soil, flow-inducing mechanisms, soil permeability, and building substructure type.
KEYWORDS radon, house, measurement technique, air change rate, ventilation, air flow, basement, pollutant, air quality, radioactive
#NO 1482 A prospective study of the health and comfort changes among tenants after retrofitting of their flats
AUTHOR Iversen M., Bach E., Lundqvist G R.
BIBINF Indoor Air, Vol.2, Radon, Passive Smoking, Particulates and Housing Epidemiology edited by B.Berglund, T.Lindvall, J.Sundell. Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, 1984. 237-241, 1 tab, 5 refs. #DATE 00:00:1984 in English AIC bk
ABSTRACT The prospective study included two groups, a study group, which had retrofitting of their flats, and a control group not exposed to environmental changes in their homes. The results clearly demonstrated a number of positive effects of the replacement windows on health and comfort. This was related to the thermal and acoustic environment. Effects normally considered to be related to the indoor atmospheric environment showed positive changes as well.This is contrary to the expected risk of uncontrolled reduced air infiltration and ventilation rates. These findings are discussed with distinction between acute and possible long term changes in air quality related to air tightening and other energy conservation measures related to housing. The results of this study also indicate that it would be desirable to conduct similar studies under different climatic conditions and for other types of buildings, but with the same methodology so that the studies would be comparable.
KEYWORDS retrofitting, house, flat, energy conservation, comfort, thermal comfort, air infiltration, ventilation, air change rate, air quality, air tightness, window, double glazing, health
#NO 1544 Air infiltration. Where we stand today. Outlook.
Zusammenfassung. Wo stehen wir heute. Ausblick.
AUTHOR Wyssling U.
BIBINF Heizung und Luftung/Chauffage et ventilation, 1984, No 5, p34-36. #DATE 00:00:1984 in German
ABSTRACT Briefly notes the significance of ventilation heat losses for energy consumption. Notes the main sources of air pollutants in indoor air and the recommended fresh air rates per person for housing, for smokers and non-smokers. Notes the need for a well-sealed facade with mechanical ventilation and for judicious facade leakiness in the absence of mechanical ventilation. Notes the long-term need is for improved control of air infiltration. Notes briefly the AIC publication "Air infiltration control in housing". Treats the significance of ventilation heat losses for sizing heating installations. Notes methods of checking air leakiness of buildings. Concludes by noting research results accumulated over the last few years in this field. Notes possibilities for cooperation between interested parties for control of air infiltration.
KEYWORDS air infiltration, energy consumption, ventilation needs, natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, heating
#NO 1734 Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: combustion sources.
AUTHOR Mueller Associates, Syscon Corporation, Brookhaven National Laboratory.
BIBINF Washington:US Dept of Energy,January 1985. 206pp. 63 figs, 54 tabs, 201 refs. #DATE 00:01:1985 in English AIVC bk
ABSTRACT This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader and technical persons, such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers, understand the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative anddescriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented has been compiled from government and privately-funded research results,conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, analysis has been performed to estimate potential concentration levels in residential settings. This information can be used by homeowners to evaluate the trade-offs involved in potential mitigating measures and to make better decisions regarding combustion sources of indoor pollution within their homes.
KEYWORDS air quality, health, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate, tobacco smoke, pollutant, standard, empirical models, measurement technique, mathematical modelling
#NO 1825 Indoor air pollution.
AUTHOR Repace J L
BIBINF Environment International, 1982, Vol 8, p21-36. 9 figs, 2 tabs, 97 refs. #DATE 00:00:1982 in English
ABSTRACT Discusses the nature of the problem of indoor air pollution, limitations in the authority of established health agencies in the US to control the problem, research needs and some control options. Indoor pollutants of current concern include radon, tobacco smoke, emissions from unvented indoor combustion appliances, aeropathogens, formaldehyde and pesticides.
KEYWORDS air quality, pollutant, radon, tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, organic compound
#NO 1827 Air quality control: measurements and experiences.
Regelung der luftqualitat.
AUTHOR Geerts J
BIBINF HLH, 1985, Vol 36, No 7, p354-358. 6 figs, 8 refs. #DATE 00:07:1985 in German Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Recovery, September 1985, p34,38,40,43,44,50 in English
ABSTRACT Presents a control system for mechanical ventilation of large rooms such as meeting rooms, cinemas, department stores, etc, based on air quality. Gas sensors are used to measure the pollutant levels and regulate the air flow in the room in relation to the number of people, level of tobacco smoke and other pollutants. The CO2 levels are also recorded. The resulting energy saved is given for three Norwegian buildings.
KEYWORDS controlled ventilation, air quality, commercial building
#NO 1829 Ventilation requirements in occupied spaces during smoking and nonsmoking occupancy.
AUTHOR Cain W S, Leaderer B P
BIBINF Environment International, 1982, Vol 8, p505-514. 16 figs, 13 refs. #DATE 00:00:1982 in English
ABSTRACT This investigation looks at sensory (odour, irritation) and physical criteria for ventilation requirements, paying particular attention to the difference between smoking and nonsmoking occupancy in a well-controlled environmental chamber. More than 200 persons (visitors) made judgements of odour intensity and acceptability under various conditions of occupancy (up to 12 nonsmoking occupants, a temperature of up to 25.5 degrees C, up to 16 cigarettes smoked per hour). The results implied that under nonsmoking conditions and moderate humidity only about 7.5 cfm (3.8 L sec-1) of fresh air per occupant sufficed to satisfy visitors, but that under smoking conditions at least 5 times as much fresh air is necessary. The estimate of ventilation requirements for smoking was derived in part from measurements of carbon monoxide and total suspended particulate (TSP) mass concentration. Levels of TSP achieved during realistic smoking and ventilation rates exceeded levels deemed acceptable outdoors. Surfaces in the chamber played an important role in the elimination of particles, presumably via adsorption. Use of an electrostatic precipitator could keep TSP levels under control. Nevertheless, it remains to be seen whether control of TSP will eliminate the need for enormous ventilation for odour control during smoking occupancy.
KEYWORDS ventilation needs, odour, tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, particulate
#NO 1832 Relation between indoor air formaldehyde concentrations and ventilation rates for a group of sixteen new houses.
AUTHOR Figley D A
BIBINF Presented at the 78th Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association, Detroit, USA, June 16-21, 1985. 14p. 4 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs. #DATE 00:06:1985 in English
ABSTRACT This study examines the experimental determination of the apparent net formaldehyde source strength in a group of sixteen nominally identical wood frame houses built by one contractor using similar construction details and materials. The houses were very well sealed, with a mean induced air leakage rate of 0.23 ach at 50 Pa, with a standard deviation of 0.09 ach. All of the houses had air-to-air heat exchangers, which were operated at various flow rates. The seven day average formaldehyde levels were measured and were correlated to ventilation rates (using simple steady-state models) to determine the apparent formaldehyde source strengths. The houses were divided into three groups: unoccupied (4 houses), occupied non-smoking (10), andoccupied smoking (2). Two of the nine occupied houses had formaldehyde levels above the maximum level suggested by ASHRAE. They also had heat exchangers operating only one third of the time.
KEYWORDS bungalow, formaldehyde, air tightness
#NO 1839 Indoor by product levels of tobacco smoke: a critical review of the literature.
AUTHOR Sterling T D, Dimich H, Kobayashi D
BIBINF Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, March 1982, Vol 32, No 3, p250-259. 8 tabs, 66 refs. #DATE 28:12:1981 in English
ABSTRACT The levels reported in diverse publications of by products of cigarette combustion (acrolein, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nicotine, nitrogen oxides, nitrosamines, particulates, and others for which scattered information is available - HCN, ketones, nitriles) are summarized in tabular form. Summaries also include information on test conditions such as ventilation, size and types of premises, monitoring conditions, number of smokers, and rate of smoking. Current methodology emerging from a review of a wide variety of measuring practices is critically evaluated and discussed. Major findings are reviewed. In conclusion, the presently available data are useful for gaining a reasonably accurate perspective of the amount of combustion products contributed by cigarette smoking under different conditions, even though serious methodological problems persist.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, review, ventilation
#NO 1842 Comparison of non-smokers' and smokers' perceptions of environmental conditions and health and comfort symptoms in office environments with and without smoking.
AUTHOR Sterling T D, Sterling E M
BIBINF Ergonomics and Health in Modern Offices/Edited by E Grandjean. London:Taylor and Francis,1984. p34-40. 6 tabs, 11 refs. #DATE 00:00:1984 in English
ABSTRACT 1100 branch members of the New York branch of the Office and Professional Employees International Union working in nine office buildings filled out a detailed questionnaire on working conditions and health comfort complaints. Data were classified according to smoking habits of respondents and office rules regulating smoking. Neither smokers nor non-smokers differed in prevalence of complaints for a large variety of symptoms caused by smoking conditions in the office but more non-smokers complained about stressful conditions in offices where smoking was restricted or prohibited than where smoking was permitted. Lack of differences in comfort complaints between smoking and non-smoking offices does not contradict findings of irritated responses due to passive exposure to smoke in controlled, especially chamber studies. Responses of the OPEIU members were taken under normal conditions of ventilation and lighting and no specific attention was drawn to the presence or absence of smokers. The findings are also in agreement with a study conducted by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health where no association was found between density of smokers and levels of complaints.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, air quality, human comfort
#NO 1860 Indoor air quality and human health.
AUTHOR Turiel I
BIBINF Stanford,USA:Stanford University Press,1985. 173p. figs, tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1985 in English AIVC bk
ABSTRACT Provides general information on indoor air pollution sources, the pollutants commonly found indoors and their potential health effects. Contains chapters on formaldehyde and other household contaminants, radon, particulates, combustion products, smoking, energy-efficient buildings, control of indoor air pollutants, air quality in office buildings, and legal and regulatory issues in the USA. Further sources of information are given.
KEYWORDS air quality, formaldehyde, radon, particulate, tobacco smoke, smoke, office, residential building
#NO 1935 Indoor air quality, infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings. Final report.
AUTHOR Nitschke I A, Traynor G W, Wadach J B, et al.
BIBINF Prepared by W S Fleming and Associates, Inc, for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. NYSERDA Report 85-10. March 1985. 236p. figs, tabs, refs. #DATE 00:03:1985 inEnglish
ABSTRACT Sixty houses built with widely different construction practices and located in different areas in upstate New York were monitored for airtightness (using fan pressurization) and integrated radon concentrations in indoor air, household water, and soil surrounding the house basement. Thirty of the houses were also monitored for air exchange rates (using perfluorocarbon tracer gas), combustion pollution (nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and respirable suspended particulates), and formaldehyde for a total of forty-one one week periods using integrating samplers. Most of the thirty houses had suspected combustion-related indoor pollution sources. Using extensive real-time instrumentation, detailed follow-up monitoring in houses with high levels of indoor pollution was performed to determine the reasons for the high pollution levels and to evaluate temporary control techniques to reduce indoor levels below air quality guidelines. The long-term effectiveness of these techniques was then tested using the same integrating samplers of the original surveys. Overall results of this monitoring indicated that unvented kerosene heaters were responsible for high indoor nitrogen dioxide levels: smokers and some wood stoves and fireplaces were sources of indoor respirable suspended particulates: automobile exhaust in an attached garage was the cause of high indoor carbon monoxide levels in one of the houses: new panelling and high humidity levels were associated with high formaldehyde levels in one of the houses: houses built on upstate New York black shales were more likely to have high radon levels and houses with vented crawl spaces were less likely to have high radon levels. The most effective general control technique was the identification of the sources of pollution and the removal and/or the isolation of the sources from the indoor environment. If the sources could not be avoided, their effects could be reduced by local ventilation at the source, and/or filtration, and/or increased whole-house ventilation if the pollution source strength was relatively low and diffuse.
KEYWORDS air change rate, air tightness, radon, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate, formaldehyde
#NO 1949 Regulatory aspects of indoor air quality - a UK view.
AUTHOR Llewellyn J W, Warren P R
BIBINF Proceedings of the Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference on Indoor Air Quality in Cold Climates: Hazards and Abatement Measures, 29 April - 1 May, 1985, Ottawa. 10p. 21 refs. #DATE 00:00:1985 inEnglish
ABSTRACT Specific indoor air quality issues that have arisen in the UK in recent years have involved asbestos, formaldehyde, pesticide residues, radon and combustion products. Different measures have been taken with regard to each of these substances. In general, an education approach has been adopted, although national standards, industry self-regulation and some regulatory measures have been used. In the UK, control of ill defined, distributed or non stationary indoor air pollutants such as body odour, tobacco smoke and water vapour, is considered to be best achieved by suitable ventilation. Research is being undertaken on methods of measurement of natural ventilation rates of buildings using automated multiple tracer gas techniques. Computer based models for predicting natural ventilation and infiltration rates are being developed.
KEYWORDS air quality, formaldehyde, radon, carbon monoxide, building code, standard
#NO 2108 Control of the outdoor air intake by the use of contaminant monitoring.
AUTHOR Suomi U
BIBINF Proceedings of the CLIMA 2000 World Congress on Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning, Copenhagen, 25-30 August 1985. Edited by P O Fanger. Vol 4. Indoor Climate. p321-325. 2 figs, 3 refs. #DATE 00:08:1985 in English
ABSTRACT Reviews the possible indicators for monitoring the indoor air quality and controlling the outdoor air intake. The technical feasibility of the system is also discussed. At present CO2 seems to be the best and most reliable indicator for indoor air quality when occupancy load varies. In future, however, it is likely that measuring devices based on semiconductor technology and measuring devices for particles will be more reliable and inexpensive and so very suitable for controlling the air quality, because they can take into account both occupancy load and tobacco smoke. The air quality controlled ventilation system is easy to connect in almost all air conditioning systems,especially if recirculated air is used. In most buildings measuring from one point (exhaust air) will give an adequate result for controlling the air conditioning system.
KEYWORDS controlled ventilation, carbon dioxide, particulate, air quality
#NO 2160 Pollution begins at home.
AUTHOR Matthews R,
BIBINF New Scientist, 5 December 1985, Vol 108, No 1485, p34-37, 6 figs, 1 tab. #DATE 05:12:1985 in English
ABSTRACT Points out that increased thermal insulation and draughtproofing of homes can increase the risk to health of indoor air pollution. Includes condensation as a pollutant along with associated mould growth. Notes collaboration by Pilkington the glass company and the Timber Research and Development Association plus Laing the housebuilding group, to combat condensation by passive ventilation. Treats sources of indoor air pollution - formaldehyde, asbestos, gas appliances, tobacco smoke, thoron, radon. In some homes in the UK the radon level is so high that occupants face a significant risk of contracting lung cancer. Treats research into ways of reducing level of radon and other pollutants in homes. Recommends the controlled introduction of adequate amounts of fresh air. Notes the dangers of indoor air pollution in offices - the sick building syndrome.
KEYWORDS air quality, pollution, condensation, formaldehyde, gas, tobacco smoke, radon
#NO 2229 Air quality control - measurements and experiences.
AUTHOR Geerts J
BIBINF Heat Vent Engr, Vol 59, No 678, p18-22. 6 figs, 2 tabs, 8 refs. #DATE 00:09:1986 in English
ABSTRACT Too high a concentration of certain gases (e.g. water vapour, carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, alcohol, etc.) in public buildings can damage the health. Even low concentrations can cause discomfort and make the room air seem unpleasant. This paper describes this subjective perception of air qulaity. It is shown that installation of an appropriate sensor can make substantial energy savings.
KEYWORDS water vapour, carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, public building, health, air quality
#NO 2275 The feasibility of using a photoelectric cigarette smoke detector for energy efficient air quality control.
AUTHOR Nelson R M, Alevantis L E
BIBINF ASHRAE Trans, 1985, Vol 91 Part 2A, No 2891, p75-84. 7 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs. #DATE 00:00:1985 in English
ABSTRACT The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smoke sensor to monitor and control cigarette smoke levels in occupied spaces and also to determine whether the use of such a detector could result in energy savings. A smoke detector was built and tested. The experimental results show that the smoke sensor output is a function of cigarette smoke concentration and that the smoke sensor gives a rapid and continuous response. In addition, a computer program that simulates the transient mass and energy interactions in buildings was modified so that the impact of ventilation strategies on indoor air quality and energy for an arbitrary test case show that the use of a smoke sensor to detect cigarette smoke particulates and to control ventilation can allow indoor air quality to be continuously maintained at acceptable levels while minimizing energy consumption.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, smoke sensor, numerical modelling
#NO 2350 Causes, effects, and relief from formaldehyde build-up in the home.
AUTHOR Meyer C B
BIBINF In "Indoor air quality and conservation", proceedings, Bellevue, Washington, November 15-16, 1984, edited by Chuck Eberdt, Seattle, Energy Business Association, August 1985, p49-60, 5 figs.
#DATE 00:08:1985 in English AIVC bk
ABSTRACT Discusses sources of formaldehyde indoors, e.g. smoking, formaldehyde resins, and release of formaldehyde from chipboards and foam insulation, and the importance of ventilation in removing excess pollutants. Factors influencing the amount of formaldehyde release include age of materials, temperature, moisture variations, ventilation. Emphasises the importance of quality control, standards and tests such as FTM-1 and FTM-2.
KEYWORDS formaldehyde, mobile home, tobacco smoke, pollutant
#NO 2429 Discussion on indoor air quality.
Diskussion um die Raumluftqualitat.
BIBINF TAB, No 11, 1986, p759-762, 13 tabs, 15 refs. #DATE 00:11:1986 in German
ABSTRACT Discusses sources of indoor air pollution; carbon dioxide and moisture from occupants and chemicals from building materials and combustion processes, wood, preservatives, and tobacco smoke, as well as pollutants coming from outdoor air and means of controlling those pollutants. Presents useful tables of chemical pollutants and concentrations.
KEYWORDS formaldehyde, pollutant, asbestos, pentachlorphenol, combustion,, combustion product, tobacco smoke, radon
#NO 2552 Causes, consequences, and control of indoor air pollution : a selected bibliography, 1980-1985.
AUTHOR Koshy P J
BIBINF Vance Bibliographies, Monticello, Illinois 61856, Architecture Series: bibliography, July 1986, 31p. #DATE 00:07:1986 in English
ABSTRACT This bibliography is an effort to bring together a selected list of literature on the subject of indoor air pollution produced from 1980 to 1985, and is aimed at the research worker as well as others interested in the subject.
KEYWORDS indoor air, pollution, asbestos, building material, radon, radon daughters, formaldehyde, combustion heating, tobacco smoke
#NO 2564 An investigation into cigarette smoke in different types of room.
AUTHOR Narasaki M
BIBINF Reprint from : 6th International symposium on contamination control, 1982, p263-266, 9 tabs. #DATE 00:00:1982 in English
ABSTRACT The degree of indoor pollution depends, together with other factors, on the amount of tobacco smoked and upon the ventilation rate supplied. We therefore need to quantify the pollution generated by cigarette smoking so that it can be diluted to an acceptable level. The quantity of cigarettes smoked will depend upon the use of the room. We therefore need to identify the smoking habits of the occupants of different types of room. This paper describes the investigation by Osaka University to quantify the proportion of occupants who smoke, the quantity of cigarettes smoked, the time taken to smoke a cigarette and the interval between cigarettes smoked. The spaces studied were in office, a conference room, a cafe and the waiting room in a bank.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, pollution, ventilation rate, occupant behaviour, indoor climate
#NO 2572 Indoor air pollution in office buildings with oxides of nitrogen.
AUTHOR Yoshizawa S
BIBINF Reprint from : 6th International symposium on contamination control, 1982, p225-260, 3 figs, 7 tabs, 2 refs. #DATE 00:00:1982 in English
ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanism and the level of nitrogen oxides of indoor and outdoor origin in air conditioned buildings, field measurements were made in several buildings including one small building, three intermediate, two subway stations. The spatial distribution of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 in rooms was obtained and the cumulative frequency distribution curves were examined. The magnitude of spatial variation was expressed in coefficient of variation and the values were not much different from those of CO2. The mass balance of oxides of nitrogen was calculated and compared with those calculated from actual smoking amount. The relation of the concentration just outside the building and thoseof air pollution control station, indoor, outdoor concentration were examined by testing the correlations and ratio, also correlation of values at two measurement stations in a same building were examined and NO showed very strong correlations. The correlation of number of occupants and the concentration of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 were calculated and there were little correlation except with CO2.
KEYWORDS indoor climate, pollution, office building, nitrogen oxides
#NO 2912 Impact of a new smoking policy on office air quality.
AUTHOR Lee H K, et al
BIBINF in: Indoor air quality in cold climates: hazards and abatement measures. APCA Specialty Conference 1986, p 307-322, 6 figs, 7 tabs, 8 refs. #DATE 00:00:1986 in English
ABSTRACT A new smoking policy was implemented on a trial basis on one floor of a large modern Canadian office building. Smoking was limited to a single enclosed room which shared the same recirculating-type ventilation system with the rest of the floor. Environmental monitoring was conducted on the test floor and a control floor during three consecutive working days both before and after policy implementation. Hourly levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored on thefloors and in the designated smoking area throughout the workday. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored at specific sites on each floor and the quantity of outdoor air supplied to each floor was measured on a daily basis. A voluntary questionnaire was circulated to all staff to detect any changes in personal smoking habits over the course of the study. Results of the investigation showed statistically significant reductions of RSP and CO concentrations on the test floor. After standardization to the control floor, the test floor results indicated a reduction of RSP and CO, 23% and 7.2%, respectively.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, office building, mechanical ventilation, particulate, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, questionnaire
#NO 3072 Indoor air quality; acceptable standards and building design.
BIBINF UK, National Society for Clean Air, 1987 Workshop Proceedings. #DATE 00:00:1987 in English
ABSTRACT Contains 12 papers concerning indoor air quality as follows:1.Changes in building design, use and ventilation by D P Gregory; 2. The influence of energy conservation measures by A Warren; 3. Hazardous building materials and their problems by C Marsh; 4. Passive smoking by M.Squirrell; 5. Pollution from airborne metals by R Harrison; 6. Perception of and reaction to noise by I Flindell; 7. Exposure to pechloroethylene in residents living above dry cleaning establishments by T C Aw; 8. Chemical sensitivity in patients referred to the department of allergy and environmental medicine at the Lister Hospital by J Monro; 9. Controlling air quality in car parks by M F Fox; 10.Air infiltration techniques by P C MacDonald; 11. Thoughts on avoiding trouble by R A Waller and 12. Conclusions and policy and practice guidelines. Includes also discussion session.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, pollutant
#NO 3148 Market analysis of sensors for the use in demand controlled ventilating systems.
AUTHOR Raatschen W
BIBINF in: "Effective Ventilation", 9th AIVC Conference, Gent, Belgium, 12-15 September, 1988. #DATE 00:09:1988 in English
ABSTRACT In the framework of a project of the International Energy Agency (IEA), IEA-Annex XVIII - Demand Controlled Ventilating (DCV) Systems, which started in Fall 1987, a review of the state of the art of already existing DCV systems and devices has been undertaken by all participating countries. This paper is concerned with air quality sensors which may be suitable to control air quality on demand. The dominant contaminants are not only varying in different kinds of buildings (dwellings, schools, stores etc.) but also from room to room due to different ways of utilizing the spaces. Climatic and environmental differences will have a further impact on the DCV system. In this context contaminants are discussed which have a dominant regime and impact on indoor air quality and which cannot be avoided by controlling the source. These are humidity, odours (indicator e.g. carbon dioxide CO2), fumes, and tobacco smoke. The working principles of various sensors are outlined and possibilities of application discussed.
KEYWORDS market study, demand-controlled ventilation, ventilation system, indoor air quality, pollutant, humidity, odour, tobacco smoke
#NO 3495 Fresh air for sedentary occupants.
AUTHOR Appleby P
BIBINF Building Services, July 1989, pp.55-56, 1 tab, 2 figs, 7 refs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT Paul Appleby examines the basis of ventilation requirements and recommendations for buildings and compares the imminent ASHRAE Standard with the latest thinking in Scandinavia. He defines fresh air, and discusses odour control, tobacco smoke, intermittent and transitory occupancy, and finally draws his own conclusions.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, buildings, odour, ventilation
#NO 4032 Use of air cleaners to reduce outdoor air requirements.
AUTHOR Meckler M, Janssen J E
BIBINF in: Engineering solutions to indoor air problems, proceedings IAQ 88, ASHRAE 1988, pp130-147, 6 figs, 3 tabs, refs. #DATE 00: 00:1988 in English
ABSTRACT The proposed revision to ASHRAE Standard 62-1981, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", recommends a minimum of 15 cfm of outdoor air per person. This amount is needed to control occupant odours and guarantee that the concentration of carbon dioxide will not exceed 1000 ppm. Additionally, other recognised contaminants, including formaldehyde, office products, building materials, and tobacco smoke, will be maintained at acceptable levels. Most applications (i.e. offices) where the above contaminants can be expected to be found generally require more outdoor air. Air-cleaning systems that effectively remove the major contaminants can reduce the amount of outdoor air required. However, this generally requires an increase in the amount of recirculated air. A model is developed and equations are presented for calculating the amount of outdoor air required, space concentration of filtered contaminants, or the amount of recirculation needed. These parameters are dependent on the type of air distribution system (VAV or constant volume), supply temperature (constant or variable), and the use of outdoor air (constant or proportional). Also required are the air cleaner efficiency, ventilation efficiency, recirculation factor, and the flow reduction factor (with VAV systems). Sufficient design of air cleaning systems can reduce the amountof outdoor air required.
KEYWORDS outdoor air, air cleaning, model
#NO 4038 Health effects of heating with wood: chest illness in young children and indoor heating with woodburning stoves.
AUTHOR Osborne J S
BIBINF in: The human equation: health and comfort proceedings IAQ 89, pp17-22, 1 fig, 2 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT This study investigated a suspected relationship between the occurrence of chest illness in young children and use of woodburning stoves (WBS) for indoor heating. Data were prospectively collected during the winters of 1980, 1981 and1982 for 62 mid-Michigan children age one to seven years (31 randomly selected children from WBS-heated homes and 31 controls from homes heated by conventional sources matched for age, sex, and place of residence). The specific a priori research hypotheses were that the proportion of children having a chest illness would be significantly greater in the WBS group than in the control group, that a greater proportion of WBS groupchildren would have chest illnesses lasting at least one week, and that a greater proportion of WBS group children would be hospitalised before age two years for chest illness. Results showed a significant difference between the WBS and control groups in the proportion of children having a chest illness from 1980-1982 (especially bronchitis, upper respiratory infection, and pneumonia); 39% of the WBS group and 19% of controls had at least one such illness. Further, the WBS group has a greater proportion of chest illnesses lasting at least one week (32% vs.16%) and a greater proportion of hospitalizations for chest illness before age two years (16% vs. 10%). These differences were not accounted for by medical histories, frequency of physician visits, sociodemographic factors, or exposure to other sources of indoor air pollution investigated in the study (i.e. parental smoking, cooking with gas, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation) and suggest that indoor heating with WBS may be a significant risk factor for chest illness in young children.
KEYWORDS health, combustion product
#NO 4365 Smoking out the standards.
AUTHOR Pyatt J
BIBINF UK, Building, 23 February 1990, pp27-28 (Doors and windows supplement). #DATE 23:02:1990 in English
ABSTRACT Discusses the case for a British Standard on smoke controls.
KEYWORDS smoke, air movement, fire
#NO 4410 On the management of the indoor radon problem in Belgium.
AUTHOR Poffijn A, Uyttenhove J, Vanmarcke H
BIBINF Canada, Indoor Air '90, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Toronto, 29 July -3 August 1990, Volume 1 "Human Health, Comfort and Performance", pp 387-392. #DATE 00:07:1990 in English
ABSTRACT The reference value of 63 Bqm-3 for radon in Belgium is comparable to the results obtained in neighbouring countries. There exists a significant distinction between the north of the country (average 48 Bqm-3) and the south (average 85 Bqm-3), where much higher concentrations are regularly found. This can be explained mainly by differences in the geology of the underlying soil. The very high concentrations of the order of thousands of Bqm-3 found on some occasions raise the problem of remediation. In collaboration with the inhabitants and the local authorities the effect of different techniques are actually being tested and the results will be followed-up. The risk assessment based uponuranium miner studies leads to an estimation of the etiological fraction for radon of the order of 10 to 30%. As the extrapolation technique for low doses is a matter of controversy, an epidemiological study of the case-control type was set-up by the end of 1987. The preliminary results of this pilot study, indicate a significant increase in risk for the group of the exposed (greater than 100 Bqm-3) current smokers and non smokers compared to the corresponding non-exposed reference groups (odds ratio resp. 5.2 and 8.6) while for ex-smokers no effect was observed.
KEYWORDS radon, residential building
#NO 4750 Ventilation requirements in buildings: control of occupancy odour and tobacco smoke odour.
AUTHOR Cain W S, et al
BIBINF Atmospheric Environment, Vol 17, No 6, 1983, pp 1183-1197, 13 figs, 2 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1983 in English
ABSTRACT Psychophysical measurements of odor, supplemented with certain physical measurements, were taken to examine ventilation requirements during smoking and nonsmoking occupancy in an environmental chamber. The facility provided the means to compare impressions of visitors (persons who inhaled air from the chamber only briefly) with impressions of occupants. For nonsmoking occupancy, 47 combinations of temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and occupancy density were examined. Odor level depended entirely on ventilation rate per person irrespective of the number of persons in the chamber. The ventilation necessary to satisfy 75% of visitors equalled only about 4 s-1 per person. Occupants, however, were satisfied with far less. In an array of 38 conditions of smoking occupancy, the ventilation deemed necessary to satisfy 75% of visitors under customary conditions of occupancy equalled 17.5 s-1 per person. For both smoking and nonsmoking conditions, a combination of high temperature (25.5 Deg C) and humidity (r.h. > 70%) exacerbated the odor problem. During smoking, carbon monoxide rarely reached dangerous levels, but suspended particulate matter often reached levels considered unacceptable outdoors. The results highlight the energy penalty incurred in ventilation for smoking occupancy.
KEYWORDS ventilation requirements, body odour, tobacco smoke
#NO 4829 Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with task ventilation.
AUTHOR Fisk W J, Faulkner D, Bauman F S, Arens E A
BIBINF UK, AIVC 11th Conference, "Ventilation System Performance", held 18-21 September 1990, Belgirate, Italy, Proceedings published March 1990, Volume 1, pp 79-98, 5 figs, 4 tabs, 12 refs. #DATE 00:03:1991 in English
ABSTRACT In an experimental facility, we studied the performance of a task ventilation system designed for use in office buildings. With this system, occupants can adjust the flow rate and direction of air supplied to their work space through four floor-mounted supply grills. Air typically exits the ventilated space through ceiling-mounted return grills. To study indoor air flow patterns, we measured the age of air at multiple indoor locations using the tracer gas stepup procedure. To study the intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles, cigarettes were smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor locations. Test variables included the furnishings of the chamber, thelocation(s) of air supply, supply flow rates, temperatures, and directions, and internal heat loads. Our major findings were as follows: (1) In most tests, deviations from a uniform age of air, and a uniform particle concentration, were less than 30 percent. (2) Some supply air short circuits to the return grillwhen the air is directed toward the return grill with a high velocity. (3) Low supply velocities resulted in a floor-to-ceiling displacement ventilation flow pattern. (4) Directing the supply air toward the occupant, or away from the center of the four supply grills, typically yielded an age of air at the occupant's breathing level that was 15 to 25 percent lower than the age at other breathing-level locations. (5) With low supply velocities and air directed toward the occupants, tobacco smoke particle concentrations in a ventilated non-smoking workstation were 50 percent of the chamber-average concentration.
KEYWORDS pollutant, air flow, office building, occupant control
#NO 4858 Determination of air exchange rates for demand controlled ventilation.
AUTHOR Saari M
BIBINF UK, AIVC 11th Conference, "Ventilation System Performance", held 18-21 September 1990, Belgirate, Italy, Proceedings published March 1990, Volume 2, pp 167-176, 1 fig, 3 tabs, 5 refs. #DATE 00:03:1991 in English
ABSTRACT In this paper the required ventilation air flow rates in residences with different pollutant loads are considered. The calculative study was carried out by using the load data presented in the literature. The results of the study were applied in the development and dimensioning of demand controlled ventilation systems. The first stage of calculations was to determine the required ventilation air flow rates (range) with different loads for each type of rooms separately. In the analysis of required ventilation air flow rates due to materialemissions, the Monte-Carlo method was applied. The second stage of calculations was to analyse indoor air contaminantconcentrations in an apartment as a whole using the required air flow rates in room spaces. The time-dependent occupant behaviour in the apartment was based on a certain assumption. Calculations with constant air flow rates ventilation were also done. When considering different load factors; human based odours, theodours of smoking, humidity loads and contaminant emissions of materials were taken into account. The required ventilation air flow rates in different load situations were determined to guarantee good indoor air quality and humidity conditions, and to prevent health risks due to material emissions, as well. In most calculation cases it was assumed that indoor air is fully mixed. In addition, the effect of air flows on 2-dimension contaminant field was analysed.
KEYWORDS air change rate, demand controlled ventilation
#NO 5047 R-2000 indoor formaldehyde monitoring - 1987 update.
AUTHOR Piersol P, Mijailovic A
BIBINF Canada, Energy Mines and Resources, R-2000 Home Program Technical Report, August 1987, 26pp, 6 figs, 3 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:08: 1987 in English
ABSTRACT As part of the R-2000 Home Program, indoor air quality monitoring was conducted Canada-wide for a number of pollutants including formaldehyde. The objective of this report is toreview the R-2000 Home Program formaldehyde activities to date. A detailed investigation of a select number of Ontario R-2000 homes identified the following criteria which could create formaldehyde levels greater than 0.05 ppm: indoor temperatures higher than 21 Deg C, relative humidity exceeding 50%, tobacco smoke, new furnishings or building materials containingurea-formaldehyde resin and ventilation systems not meeting the R-2000 requirements. Monitoring results to date appear to indicate that the implementation of revised R-2000 ventilation guidelines in 1986 has resulted in average indoor formaldehyde levels being reduced to less than 0.05 ppm. Monitoring indicates that when strong formaldehyde sources are present, formaldehyde levels are somewhat greater than 0.05 ppm, but still less than the 0.10 ppm short-term action level proposed by the Federal/Provincial Indoor Air Quality Working Group. This indicates a need to address the issue of controlling sources of formaldehyde as well as providing good ventilation if levels in all homes are to be reduced below the 0.05 ppm long-term target.
KEYWORDS formaldehyde, indoor air quality
#NO 5215 Mechanical ventilation in office buildings and the sick building syndrome. An experimental and epidemiological study.
AUTHOR Jaakkola J J K, Heinonen O P, Seppanen O
BIBINF Denmark, Copenhagen, Indoor Air, No 2, 1991, pp 111-121, 2 figs, 5 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The effects of mechanical ventilation on the sick building syndrome (SBS) were studied in an office building with 2150 employees, where the mechanical ventilation and indoor air quality were commonly blamed for causing symptoms typical of theSBS (nasal, eye, and mucous membrane symptoms, lethargy, skin symptoms and headache). The mechanical ventilation rates in the building were high (mean 26 l/s/person). To test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation causes the SBS, a controlled experimental study was carried out by shutting off the ventilation in one part of the building and reducing the ventilation rate by 75% and 60% in two areas while leaving one part unaltered as a control. The experimental reduction of the ventilation rate did not alleviate the symptoms. On the contrary, the reduction of the ventilation rate caused a slightbut statistically significant relative increase in symptoms (p < 0.05). In the cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data the SBS symptoms did not associate significantly with the ventilation rate (range 7-70 l/s/person). In the linear regression model, a positive correlation was found between temperatures above 22 Deg C and the occurrence of symptoms (p < 0.05). Subjects exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had more symptoms than those not exposed (p < 0.01). Women reported more symptoms than men (p < 0.001). In addition, any prior history of allergic diseases (p < 0.001) and a negative attitude towards the social atmosphere at work (p < 0.001) were significant determinants of the SBS.
KEYWORDS mechanical ventilation, office building, sick building syndrome
#NO 5426 Introduction to indoor air quality. A self-paced learning module.
AUTHOR Ritchie I
BIBINF USA, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, July 1991, 120pp. #DATE 00:07:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The Learning Module approaches the broad topic of indoor air quality by developing an understanding of the general principles needed to recognize, diagnose, mitigate, and prevent indoor air quality problems. Unit 1 provides an historical perspective on indoor air quality, presents background information on the factors which influence indoor air quality, lays the foundation for evaluating health effects from indoor air contaminants, and discusses general principles for controlling the indoor air environment. Unit 2 discusses general principles of measuring indoor air contaminants, identifies standards and guidelines for ventilation and air contaminants, and describes techniques which can be used to investigate indoor air quality problems. Finally, Unit 3 provides the basic background needed to establish anindoor air quality program.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, formaldehyde, radon, asbestos, tobacco smoke, combustion product, ventilation rate
#NO 5917 IEA Annex 18/2: Demand controlled ventilating systems.
AUTHOR Mansson L G
BIBINF IEA Energy Conservation in Building and Community Systems Programme, Executive Committee Meeting, Technical Day, Sophia Antipolis, 2nd June 1992, 135pp + app. #DATE 02:06:1992 in English
ABSTRACT A test programme has been designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of sensors for the automatic control of ventilation rates. The test programme consists of two main parts, one being the evaluation of sensor performance in laboratory tests and the other referring to long term characteristics of sensors in actual buildings. Included in the present evaluation are nine different types of humidity sensors, two carbon dioxide sensors and five mixed gas sensors. The test results indicate that capacitive humidity sensors are well suited for the control of humidity levels in buildings. The combined error of linearity, hysteresis and repeatability is normally below 5% relative humidity at 20 Deg C. The cross-sensitivity to variations in the ambient temperature and power supply (voltage and frequency) are acceptable and the cross sensitivity to hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and tobacco smoke is negligible. A plastic stripe humidity sensor on the other hand proved unsuitable due to excessive hysteresis and linearity errors. Carbon dioxide sensors show acceptable performance for control purposes but sensor calibration and/or adjustment is a time consuming process. These sensors are sensitive to humidity below a threshold value. The mixed gas sensors show a mixed behaviour. Some react strongly to tobacco smoke, some slightly and one hardly at all. The characteristic curve was determined using a gas cocktail consisting of equal parts of one alifatic hydro carbon, one aromatic hydro carbon and one aldehyde. Tests were also made with one component at a time butthere was little difference in the response to the individual components. All sensors endured the climatic tests reasonably well. Mechanical vibration on the other hand caused some of the sensors to break. Radiated electromagnetic fields affected all sensors and electric shocks, due to a simulated strike of lightning, proved too much for most of the sensors.
KEYWORDS demand controlled ventilation, sensor
#NO 5962 Healthy building: an energy efficient air conditioned office with good indoor air quality.
AUTHOR Dickson D, Collins P
BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 13th AIVC Conference, proceedings, held Hotel Plaza Concorde, Nice, France, 15-18 September 1992. #DATE 15:09:1992 in English
ABSTRACT The NORWEB Headquarters in Manchester, UK, is an air conditioned energy efficient office building of unusual design, completed in 1988. It has three stories with overhanging canopies providing solar shading and 21% solar control glazing. The open plan interior is ventilated by a displacement system with three twist outlets in the floor to each desk position. A detailed questionnaire survey showed this to be one of the'healthiest' buildings tested so far, with a very low 'building sickness symptom score'. Air temperature, humidity, air speed, fresh air, noise, dust and lighting were monitored and found to lie within accepted guidelines. Fine dust levels were lower than outside. Energy costs monitored over three years proved to be low for a building of this type. The achievement of good indoor air quality combined with energy efficiency is attributed to good passive design features, the displacement ventilation system, a limited smoking policy and active participation of the end user at all stages of the design, construction and management of the building.
KEYWORDS energy efficiency, air conditioning, office building, indoor air quality
#NO 6228 Residential indoor air quality guidelines.
AUTHOR Tobin R S, Bourgeau M, Otson R, Wood G C
BIBINF Indoor air quality, ventilation and energy conservation, 5th International Jacques Cartier Conference, Montreal, Canada, October 7-9, 1992, publisher: Center for Building Studies, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, pp 12-26. #DATE 00:10:1992 in English/French
ABSTRACT Indoor air quality is of prime importance to human health because we spend >80% of our time indoors. Occupants of indoor environments may be exposed to a variety of pollutants originating from human activities orpresence in the home, combustion for heating and cooking, consumer products, furnishings, building materials and outdoor air. Because of the potentially adverse effects to human health resulting from exposure to pollutants in the home, the "Exposure Guidelines for Residential Indoor Air Quality" were developed. Exposure limits were prepared for the following compounds or groups of compounds: aldehydes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, water vapour and radon. In addition, the guidelines suggest recommendations for controlling exposure to some contaminants for which the formulation of acceptable exposure ranges was deemed inappropriate or was not feasible. This group includes: biological agents, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fibrous materials, lead, pest control products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, product aerosols, and tobacco smoke. Review of five substances (xylenes, toluene,1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, and tetrachloroethylene) to determine potential health risk has revealed the primary route of exposure through indoor air. They will be considered for guideline development and possible inclusion in the existing Exposure Guidelines for Residential Indoor Air Quality. Health and Welfare Canada has an active research program including a variety of projects: a survey of the occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds in Canadian residences representing a range of energy efficiencies; development and evaluation of analytical methods for measurement of human exposure to airborne organics; a study to measure home dampness and molds to validate the observed association between respiratory health and indicators of home dampness; and participation in projects related to energy conservation and air quality as part of the research program of the Panel on Energy Research and Development (PERD).
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, health, pollutant
#NO 6421 A pilot study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
AUTHOR Offermann F J, Loiselle S A, Hodgson A T, Gundel L A, Daisey J M
BIBINF Denmark, Indoor Air, No 4, 1991, pp 497-512, 4 figs, 6 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Sampling and analytical methods for gas- and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor air were evaluated in a controlled field study. Using 12-h, 25-m3 samples, gas-phase PAH were collected on XAD-4 resin and analyzed by GC-MS, and particulate-phase PAH were collected in filters and analyzed for by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Tests were conducted in homes and office buildings without active combustion sources and with gas stoves, wood stoves and cigarette smoking as controlled sources. Indoor concentrations, outdoor concentrations and air-exchange rates were simultaneously measured. The precisions of the concentrations were evaluated using collocated sample pairs collected indoors and outdoors. Net emission rates were calculated for the gas-phase PAH. Net emissions of these compounds were measured in buildings without active combustion sources. Environmental tobacco smoke was identified as a significant source of both gas- and particulate-phase PAH.
KEYWORDS organic compound, air change rates, tobacco smoke, gas cooking, wood, stove
#NO 6533 Indoor air pollution: a health perspective.
AUTHOR Samet J M, Spengler J D (editors)
BIBINF USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, 407pp. #DATE 00:00: 1991 in English
ABSTRACT This book provides a comprehensive review of the rapidly enlarging evidence on indoor air quality and health. The structure of the book reflects the complexity of the problem of indoor air quality. The book begins with a perspective on outdoor and indoor air quality. Subsequent chapters address the sources of indoor air pollution, the levels of pollution in homes, the assessment of indoor air quality, and the operating characteristics of buildings. The major topic of the book is the health effects of indoor pollutants. Pollutants that are specifically considered include carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, other volatile organic compounds, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, radon, and wood smoke. The effects of biologic agents are considered separately. The topical problem of indoor asbestos is covered, but the health risks do not receive separate treatment. The occupational hazards of asbestos have been amply described, and direct evidence on the health risks of indoor asbestos is unavailable. The remaining chapters of the book address such other important dimensions of indoor air quality as the control of pollution and its legal aspects.
KEYWORDS health, indoor air quality
#NO 6544 Volatile organic compounds.
AUTHOR Wallace L A
BIBINF in "Indoor Air Pollution: a Health Perspective", edited by J M Samet and J D Spengler, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp 253-272. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Organic chemicals found indoors may be implicated in either acute health effects (sick building syndrome) or in chronic effects (cancer). However, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown and must await further research in neurobehavioural or immune system response, pharmacokinetics, and mutagenicity studies of complex mixtures. We have good knowledge of indoor concentrations and major sources of most VOCs, particularly nonpolar VOCs that are not extremely volatile. Nearly all of these are usually at higher concentrations indoors than outdoors, with short-term indoor peaks one hundred to one thousand times greater than outdoors. Preliminary data on SVOCs indicate that 80 percent or more of personal exposure topesticides is from indoor sources. Little is known concerning concentrations and major sources of polar organics (oxygenated compounds), high-volatility nonpolar organics (vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, and others), or particle bound organics (PAHs, dioxin and furans). Major sources of indoor organics include consumer products (deodorizers, solvents, and others), personal activities (smoking, cleaning, using hot water, wearing dry-cleaned clothes, and others), and building related products and processes (paints, adhesives, caulking, fabrics, custodial cleaning, and pest control). Few details are known regarding emission rates of organics from the myriad different consumer products.
KEYWORDS organic compound, pollutant
#NO 6655 Chronic sidestream cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits.
AUTHOR Witten M L, Joseph P M, Lastz R C, Lazarus D S, Jung W K, Hales C A
BIBINF Indoor Environment, No 1, 1992, pp 341-347, 2 figs, 2 tabs, 34 refs. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English
ABSTRACT The effects of sidestream cigarette smoke (a 15-min exposure per day for 20 days) were determined on markers of lung injury in New Zealand white rabbits and a control group. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the airway mucosa of the rabbits was infiltrated by eosinophils, and light microscopy showed focal clusters of neutrophils in perivascular and capillary spaces. It is concluded that sidestream cigarette smoke can induce lung injury.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, indoor air quality
#NO 7016 Mechanical Ventilation System with Heat Exchanger in One Room - Low Cost Mechanical Ventilation System.
AUTHOR Egedorf M
BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 14th AIVC Conference, "Energy Impact of Ventilation and Air Infiltration", held Copenhagen, Denmark, 21-23 September 1993, proceedings, pp95-96. #DATE 21:09:1993 in English
ABSTRACT A new miniature mechanical ventilation system with both supply and extract air and an air-to-air heat exchanger has been developed in Great Britain and Denmark. The system which isintended to ventilate a single room has the dimensions of a shoebox and can be placed/installed on the inside wall in an existing air vent. The system can operate with two air flows, 40 or 70 m3/h. At the low speed the noise is insignificant, intended to be "not disturbing" in sleeping rooms. Switching between the two speeds can be done either manually or automatically controlled by the relative humidity of the extracted air. The system is also provided with filters. This spring we will perform different measurements in the laboratory to check the system performances, for instance volume flow rate, draught, short circuiting of air, efficiency of the heat exchanger and noise. In the paper we will report the results of the tests. Maybe this system is the long desired cheap and no-problems solution of mould-problems in sleeping rooms or tobacco smoke in offices?
KEYWORDS mechanical ventilation, heat exchanger
#NO 7121 Effectiveness of ventilation and other controls in reducing exposure to ETS in office buildings.
AUTHOR Hayward S B, Liu K-S, Alevantis L, Shah K, Loiselle S, Offermann F J, Chang Y-L, Webber L
BIBINF Finland, Helsinki, Indoor Air '93, proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 1993, Vol 5, pp 509-514. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English
ABSTRACT A study was conducted in government-owned office buildings in California to evaluate the effectiveness of various control measures such as exhaust ventilation and physical barriers for protecting non-smokers from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by smoking in designated areas in the building. In each of the buildings, smoking patterns were logged. Components of ETS were measured in the smoking area and in adjacent non-smoking areas. Tracer gas measurements are used to follow the movement of air between smoking and non-smoking areas, and to measure overall ventilation rates. Results of tracer gas and ETS measurements were in general agreement. Concentrations in both smoking and non-smoking areas depended on the type of engineering controls used. Tracer gas measurements, along with a ventilation system evaluation, were useful in assessing protection of non-smokers from ETS generated in the smoking areas.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, office building, tracer gas
#NO 7150 Indoor airflow and pollutant removal in a room with desktop ventilation.
AUTHOR Faulkner D, Fisk W J, Sullivan D P
BIBINF USA, Ashrae Transactions, 1993, Vol 99, Part 2, Preprint, 8pp, 2 figs, 2 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English
ABSTRACT In a furnished experimental facility with three workstations separated by partitions, we studied the indoor airflow patterns and tobacco smoke removal efficiency of a desktop task ventilation system. The task ventilation system permits occupant control of the temperature, flow rate, and direction of air supplied through two desk-mounted supply nozzles. In the configuration evaluated, air exited the ventilated space through a ceiling-mounted return grille. To study indoor airflow pattens, we measured the age of air at multiple indoor locationsusing the tracer gas step-up procedure. To study the intraroom transport of tobacco smoke particles and the efficiency of particle removal by ventilation, a cigarette was smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor locations, including the exhaust airstream. Test variables included the direction of air supply from the nozzles, supply nozzle area, supply flow rate and temperature, percent recirculation of chamber air, and internal heat loads. Our major findings are as follows: 1) in tests with the nozzles pointed toward the occupants, 100% outside air supplied at the desktop, and air supply rates of approximately 85 cfm (40L/s) per workstation, the age of air at the breathing level of ventilated workstations was approximately 30% less than the age of air that would occur throughout the test space with perfectly mixed indoor are; 2) with smaller air supply rates and/or air supplied parallel to the edges of the desk, ages of air at breathing locations were not significantly lower than the age with perfect mixing; and 3) indoor tobacco smoke particle concentrations at specific locations were generally within 12% of the average measured indoor concentration, and concentrations of particles in the exhaust airstream were not significantly different from the concentration of particles at breathing locations.
KEYWORDS air flow, pollutant, occupant behaviour, workplace ventilation system
#NO 7338 Indoor air as a source of annoyance.
AUTHOR Cain W S.
BIBINF in "Environmental Annoyance : Characterization, Measurement, and Control", edited by Harry S Koelega, proceedings of the International Symposium inEnvironmental Annoyance, held at the Conference Centre Woudschoten, Netherlands, 15-18 Sept 1986, pp189-200, 6 figs, 17 refs. #DATE 00:09:1986 in English
ABSTRACT Describes human reaction to odour in the indoor environment, particularly tobacco smoke. Whereas the visitor to a smoking space will assess air quality on the basis of odour, the occupant in the space will assess it largely on the basis of irritation. Once irritation begins, it tends to increase over time. Despite the sensitivity of the occupant to the irritation caused by environmental tobacco smoke, the visitor to a space is still the more critical judge of the need for ventilation.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, occupant reaction, odour.
#NO 7861 Respiratory symptoms and housing characteristics
AUTHOR Spengle J, Neas l, Nakai S, Dockery D, Speizer F, Ware J, Raizenne M
BIBINF #DATE 00:00:1994 in English
ABSTRACT A health and housing questionnaire was administered to children, ages 9-11, living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Logistics regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (bronchitic, asthmatic, and lower respiratory) and housing factors. The health risks (expressed as relative odds) were controlled for gender, parental asthma, parental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and parental education, as well as between-city differences. Lower respiratory symptoms had significantly higher odds ratios reported in older homes (1.12), homes with smokers (1.24) air conditioners (1.14) air cleaners (1.37) and humidifiers (1.47). Home dampness (1.48) and the individual mold and water variables were all significantly associated with increased symptoms. similar results were reported from bronchitic remained significant after controlling for childhood atopy.
KEYWORDS respiratory illness, health, questionnaire, air cleaning
#NO 8024 Natural ventilation strategies to mitigate passive smoking in homes.
AUTHOR Kolokotroni M, Perera MDAES
BIBINF UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 1994, "The Role of Ventilation", proceedings of 15th AIVC Conference, held Buxton, UK, 27-30 September 1994, Volume 2, pp759-770.
ABSTRACT This paper investigates possible natural ventilation strategies to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in dwellings. Particular attention is paid to the migration of tobacco smoke from the living room (usually the smoking room) to the bedrooms which may be occupied by children. This addresses an area of current concern regarding the possible association between passive smoking and adverse health conditions; in particular the link between parental smoking and respiratory illness in children. The study used the multizoned airflow prediction program BREEZE to evaluate the movement of tobacco smoke from the smoking rooms to the bedrooms in typical detached, semi-detached and terraced dwellings for a variety of natural ventilation strategies. Typical smoking patterns were emulated and contaminant movements analysed, taking into account factors such as wind speeds and direction and air temperatures. Some of the results obtained were compared with limited full-scale measurements acquired elsewhere to provide the necessary confidence in the predictions. Controlling pollutant concentration by ventilation can bean energy intensive process, especially during the heating and cooling season. Since almost all dwellings in the U.K. are naturally ventilated, providing optimum ventilation with minimum ventilation heat loss is of concern only during the heating season. Results from the study indicate three possible strategies to mitigate the effect of passive smoking in dwellings; two which could be used during the heating season and one for theremaining times of the year.
KEYWORDS (natural ventilation, passive smoking, residential building, respiratory illness)
#NO 8091 Demand ventilation - a major potential for energy saving is wasted. Bedarfslueftung - ein grosses Energie-Sparpotential liegt brach.
AUTHOR Meier S
BIBINF Germany, HLH, Vol 45, N09, 1994, pp 459-465, 12 figs, 8 refs, in German.
ABSTRACT Wherever room occupancy varies considerably (lecture halls, auditoria, concert halls, theatres, gymnasia, shopping centres, restaurants, etc.), the supply of external air should be provided in line with the requirement (requirement control, air quality control). Experience has shown that it is possible to reduce the operating period and thus the energy consumption of air-conditioning systems by up to 50%, compared to operation by means of a timer programme. Mixed gas and CO2 sensors are suitable references for control purposes. The CO2 concentration is an indicator forthe presence of people. Mixed gas sensors also detect the vapours emitted by people, tobacco smoke and emissions from materials. Mixed gas and CO sensors are currently used successfully in many systems. At present, a Swiss company is working intensively on the further developmentof an air quality sensor based on mixed gas sensors and on the issuance of application know-how.
KEYWORDS (demand controlled ventilation, auditorium, theatre, outdoor air)
#NO 8256 ETS control requires separate areas, high negative pressure
BIBINF USA, Indoor Air Quality Update, December 1994, pp 2-5, 1 tab.
ABSTRACT Summary of a study conducted by researchers from the Californian Department of Health Services which suggested that to prevent environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from infiltrating into non-smoking areas, buildings require separate smoking areas with outside exhaust, and that these areas need to be kept at -7 Pascals (Pa) relative to the non-smoking areas. Twenty three buildings were investigated, fourteen of which had enclosed smoking.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, pollutant, air infiltration, exhaust
#NO 8469 Mutagens in indoor air particulate.
AUTHOR Nardini B, Granella M, Clonfero E
BIBINF Italy, proceedings of Healthy Indoor Air '94, held Anacapri, Italy, 6-8 October 1994, pp 99-104.
ABSTRACT Twenty-seven extracts of airborne particulate from domestic environments, both in the absence of sources of pollution and during activities such as smoking tobacco, using a fireplace, and cooking using grills and barbecues, and eight control samples of outdoor particulate were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay on strains TA98 and TA98NR. Dust levels and mutagenic activity in the indoor environments turned out to be very low in the absence of polluting sources. The specific mutagenic activity of indoor dusts ranged from 22 and 137 revertants/mg, with a contribution of nitroarene compounds of about 50%, indicating that, in city indoor air, the main cause of background particulate pollution is very probably penetration of traffic fumes from the outside. The presence of autochthonous pollution sources greatly increased indoor just levels, especially during cooking operations, which reached 25.5 and 31.6 mg/m3. The particulate produced by the various indoor polluting sources showed varying specific mutagenic activities. The highest values were found for fumes produced by burning charcoal and wood, smoking tobacco, and cooking foods with high animal protein contents. Mutagens responsible were mainly direct-acting in the case of fumes from burning wood or charcoal, and required mammalian metabolic activation in the case of fumes from tobacco and meat, with a lower contribution (maximum 33%) of nitroarenes than in urban particulate.
KEYWORDS particulate, tobacco smoke, dust
#NO 8530 Effectiveness of Ventilation in 23 designated smoking areas in California office buildings
AUTHOR Alevantis L E.
BIBINF USA, paper presented at Ashrae: IAQ '94, 26 pp, 2 figs, 6 tabs, refs.
ABSTRACT We conducted a field study in 23 designated smoking areas in 22 California city and county office buildings to evaluate the effectiveness of various ventilation and other controls to limit leakage of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from smoking to adjacent non-smoking areas. The controls we studied included: 1) physical separation of smoking areas ranging from complete isolation of smoking areas by walls and closed doors, including return air separation, to open, adjacent and/or continuous smoking/non-smoking areas, 2) local exhaust ventilation, and 3) varying amounts of outdoor air. Our results indicate that the most effective smoking area design is that of an enclosed smoking area with no air recirculation to non-smoking areas, exhaust to the outside and a negative air pressure relative to adjoining non-smoking areas. Our limited field data indicate that for negative pressures above 7 Pa (0.03 inch of water gauge) a 99.9% dilution of smoking-room air was achieved in the non-smoking areas. However, further research is required to determine the optimum negative pressure requirement for controlling ETS in smoking areas. Furthermore, enclosed smoking areas without an exhaust to the outside offer only moderate protection to non-smokers in adjoining areas, whereas open, adjacent and/or continuous smoking/non-smoking areas offer moderate to no protection at all to occupants of the non-smoking sections.
KEYWORDS environmental tobacco smoke, smoking lounge, smoking area, local ventilation, local exhaust, tracer gas, nicotine, office building.
#NO 8613 Customer benefits of demand-based ventilation in a restaurant
AUTHOR Meier S
BIBINF Sweden, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, Ventilation '94, held in Stockholm, September 5-9, 1994, Arbetsmiljoinstitutet, 1994:18, Part 1, pp 527-532.
ABSTRACT In a restaurant with a "demand-based" ventilation system, the air quality in the dining area is continually monitored by an air quality sensor and the fan stages are switched automatically on the bases of the sensor signal. Since the greatest irritation in restaurants is tobacco smoke, the air quality sensors used are of the "mixed-gas" type. The study which has been in progress since December 1993 shows the following: - By comparison with manual fan control, energy savings of over 25% can be achieved with a ventilation system controlled on the basis of air quality demand. - There is a high correlation between the air quality measured with mixed-gas sensors and the odour load in the room (people, smoking, ventilation rate). - According to the restaurant manager, there has been a significant reduction in complaints by guests since the demand-based ventilation system has been in operation. Not only were there fewer complaints about air quality while people were smoking, but also fewer problems with the air supply system (draft). - The experience gained in the course of this investigation indicates that the outside air flow rate of 36 m3/h per person specified in many countries is not sufficient to produce a continuously acceptable level of air quality for the non-smokers present.
KEYWORDS demand controlled ventilation, commercial building, indoor air quality, sensor, tobacco smoke, odour
#NO 8617 Ventilation effectiveness in the case of wind-forced ventilation
AUTHOR Yamanaka T, Narasaki M, Kido K
BIBINF Sweden, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, Ventilation '94, held in Stockholm, September 5-9, 1994, Arbetsmiljoinstitutet, 1994:18, Part 2, pp 539-544.
ABSTRACT In this paper, the ventilation effectiveness in the case of wien-forced ventilation is investigated through experiment in wind tunnel. The cubic model enclosure with two circular openings is set up in the middle of closed-jet wind tunnel. The ventilation efficiency is measured by tracer gas method. The effect of location of openings and the wind direction on ventilation efficiency are examined, and the air flow patterns and the concentration of tracer gas visualized with tobacco smoke lit up by laser light sheet. As a result, it is turned out that the air change efficiency ranges from 0.4 to 0.57 around 0.5 of perfect mixing and the air flow patterns and distribution of tracer gas depend upon the location of windward opening and the air flow direction of supply air through the opening.
KEYWORDS ventilation effectiveness, wind effects, wind tunnel, tracer gas
#NO 8732 Indoor airflow and pollutant removal in a room with floor-based task ventilation: results of additional experiments.
AUTHOR Faulkner D, Fisk W J, Sullivan D .
BIBINF UK, Building and Environment, Vol 30, No 3, 1995, pp 303-332, 6 figs, 3 tabs, 15 refs.
ABSTRACT A laboratory-based study of the performance of a floor-based task ventilation system designed for use in office buildings has been completed. With the task ventilation system, occupants can adjust the flow rate and direction of air supplied to their work space through floor-mounted supply grilles. Air exits the ventilated space through a ceiling-mounted return grille. To study indoor airflow patterns, the age of air at multiple indoor locations was measured using the tracer gas step-up procedure. To study the intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles, cigarettes were smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor location. Test variables included supply flow rates, temperatures, supply directions, and internal heat loads. Multiple floor supply units were in operation simultaneously. During all tests, the ventilation system supplied 100% outside air. Our major findings are as follows. (1) Deviations from a uniform age of air, and a uniform particle concentration, were generally less than 30%/ (2) With two floor-supply units operating and supply air directed toward the occupant, the age of air in the breathing zone was about 20-40% less than the age of air that would occur in the room if the air was perfectly mixed. (3) With two floor-supply units operating, the air appears to travel from the floor to the ceiling in a piston-like flow pattern. (4) With three floor-supply units operating, a two-zone flow pattern, with a piston-like flow in the lower region of the room and mixing in the upper region, was evident at some operating conditions. (5) A strong (r2=0.81) correlation was found between the rate of change in the average age of air with height and two factors hypothesized to be determinants of the indoor airflow pattern. (6) Workstations without a cigarette smoking machine and with an operating task ventilation system were not significantly protected from tobacco smoke in an adjacent workstation.
KEYWORDS air flow, pollutant, occupant control
#NO 8767 Design instructions for smoking room. Tupakointitilojen suunnitteluohje.
AUTHOR Karjalainen T.
BIBINF Finland, Teknillinen korkeakoulu, LVI-laboratorio, Raportti B39, Espoo 1995, 95 pp, in Finnish.
ABSTRACT A new tobacco law will be valid after 1st March 1995 in Finland. According to the new law, smoking will be prohibited inside all the public buildings. Also, smoking will be forbidden in working environments in public and common spaces as well as in spaces for customers. Smoking may be allowed in a smoking room that is arranged especially for this purpose. This requires that tobacco smoke may not spread to the non-smoking areas. The owner of the public building or the employer is not committed to arrange smoking rooms. A smoking room has to be underpressured across the envelope in relation to the non-smoking areas so that the airflows that may transport smoke can be prohibited. The removal of the smoke can be performed using exhaust ventilation or filtration. Structurally, a smoking room has to be tight enough to ensure that the building s pressure conditions can be controlled in all circumstances. Smoking can be allowed in a separate smoke room, partitioned smoke room, or in a single person s work room. Also, a so-called movable smoking room with integrated filtration equipment can be installed as a smoking room. This study introduces design instructions for architects and HVAC-designers that can be used in designing and building smoking room solutions that can be accepted by the new tobacco law.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, building code, ventilation rate, pollutant
#NO 8768 How much does environmental tobacco smoke contribute to the Building Symptom Index?
AUTHOR Raynol A, Burge P S, Robertson A, Jarvis M, Archibald M, Hawkin D.
BIBINF Denmark, Indoor Air, No 5, 1995, pp 22-28, 1 fig, 3 tabs, refs.
ABSTRACT Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as one of the factors associated with the symptoms off the sick building syndrome (SBS). We investigated the role of ETS in an office building during the phased introduction of a smoking ban. Over a two-year period we measured symptoms using a validated questionnaire, environmental nicotine levels and salivary cotinine as a biological marker of nicotine absorption in a stratified systemic sample of 375 office employees (91% response rate). In addition, 26 persons from a non-smoking office were studied as a control group. This report describes the findings derived from a cross-sectional analysis of the initial baseline data. Amongst the validated non-smokers, symptoms increased with increasing nicotine exposure from ETS (r=0.165 p,0.01), supporting the role of ETS in the SBS. Smokers reported significantly fewer symptoms than non-smokers, as has been found before, but were exposed to higher levels of airborne nicotine as expected. We suggest that this factor, along with the misclassification of smoking status, may have obscured an association between ETS exposure and the SBS in previous studies. An analysis of the findings after implementation of the smoking ban should provide further information on how much of the SBS is attributable to ETS in this study population.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, sick building syndrome, office building
#NO 8859 Naturally ventilating UK non-domestic buildings: status and future policy
AUTHOR Perera M D A E S, Shaw M R, Treadaway K.
BIBINF Canada, proceedings Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings , Second International Conference, held May 9-12, 1995, Montreal, edited by Fariborz Haghighat, Volume I, pp273-280.
ABSTRACT Increased concern over the adverse environmental impact of energy use has encouraged the design and construction of energy efficient buildings, and many are suited to natural ventilation. In the temperate UK climate, naturally ventilated buildings can provide year round comfort, with good user control, at minimum capital cost and with negligible maintenance. The principle of good ventilation design is to build tight - ventilate right . That is, to minimise uncontrolled (and, usually unwanted) infiltration by making the building envelope airtight, while providing adequate fresh air ventilation in a controlled manner. It is necessary to emphasise that a building cannot be too tight - but it can be underventilated. This paper shows that there is considerable scope for making UK buildings tighter and indicates the level of benefits that will accrue. UK activity in this area is identified, including proposed statutory control in the form of revised Building Regulations for England and Wales, which will address issues of tightness for the first time. Information is available on ventilation requirements necessary to satisfy safety and health criteria. However, criteria relating to comfort, especially those associated with odour, metabolic CO2, and summer overheating are still being investigated. This paper sets out current thinking in this area, including policies relating to minimising effects of tobacco smoking in public and commercial buildings. The paper concludes by identifying currently available UK design guidance natural ventilation. Various instruments which are underpinning these changes, such as revisions to the Building Regulations for England and Wales, codes and standards professional guidance and support for policy-interests are identified.
KEYWORDS natural ventilation, energy efficiency, thermal comfort
#NO 9242 Effectiveness of ventilation and other controls in reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in office buildings.
AUTHOR Hayward S B, Alevantis L E, Liu K-S
BIBINF USA, California Dept of Health Services, November 1995, 66pp + app.
ABSTRACT To date there has been insufficient research on how to design and operate smoking areas to minimise exposure of non-smokers to ETS. The issue was addressed by evaluating the effectiveness of various engineering controls in 23 designated smoking areas within 22 Californian public office buildings to protect non-smokers form ETS generated within smoking areas. 111 buildings were selected initially and 22 for intensive study, which were monitored over a three to four day period. Based on the results, the researchers found that the most effective strategy to minimize air movement from smoking areas to non-smoking areas was that of a designated enclosed smoking area with the following characteristics: a) full isolation from surrounding spaces by a closed door and walls that penetrate any suspended ceilings, b) operation of a mechanical exhaust fan that provides sufficient airflow to maintain a negative pressure with respect to surrounding spaces, including adjoining rooms and ceiling cavities, and c) no recirculation of air from the smoking area to non-smoking areas. The limited data indicated that for negative pressures above 7 Pascal, a 99.9% dilution of smoking-room air was achieved in non-smoking areas. However, further research was required to determine the optimum negative pressure requirements for controlling ETS in smoking areas.
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, office building, ventilation strategy
#NO 9243 Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmoking women: a multicenter study.
AUTHOR Fontham E T H, Correa P, Reynolds P, et al
BIBINF J. American Medical Association, Vol 271, No 22, 1994, pp 1752-1759, 8 tabs, 50 refs.
ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer in lifetime never smokers associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The survey analysed 653 cases of female lifetime never smokers with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 1253 controls for women aged 65 years and older. Tobacco use by spouse(s) was associated with a 30% excess risk of lung cancer. An increasing RR of lung cancer was observed with increasing pack-years of spousal ETS exposure, such that an 80% excess risk of lung cancer was observed for subjects with 80 or more pack-years of exposure from a spouse. The excess risk of lung cancer among women ever exposed to ETS during adult life in the household was 24%; in the workplace, 39%; and in social settings, 50%. When these sources were considered jointly, an increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing duration of exposure was observed. At the highest level of exposure, there was a 75% increased risk. No significant association was found between exposure during childhood to household ETS exposure from mother, father, or other household members; however, women who were exposed during childhood had higher RRs associated with adult-life ETS exposures than women with no childhood exposure. At the highest level of adult smoke-years of exposure, the ORs for women with and without childhood exposures were 3.25 and 1.77 respectively. Concludes that exposure to ETS during adult life increases risk of lung cancer in lifetime nonsmokers.
KEYWORDS lung cancer, tobacco smoke, passive smoking
#NO 9474 Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and female lung cancer.
AUTHOR Du Y, Cha Q, Chen X, Chen Y, Lei Y, Xue S
BIBINF Indoor Air, No 5, 1995, pp 231-236, 3 tabs, refs.
ABSTRACT A registry-based case control study, involving 120 cases (28 males, 92 females) of lung cancer deaths, was conducted in 1985 in the city of Guangzhou to investigate whether lifestyle factors are associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer in never-smoking individuals. The cases were matched with two control groups which consisted of non-respiratory-disease-related deaths or non-respiratory-related cancer deaths. Lifestyle factors assessed in the study include: personal history of nonmalignant respiratory diseases, practice of fresh vegetable consumption, lifetime occupation and occupational exposure histories, exposure to ETS, degree of indoor air pollution, general conditions of home residence, cooking practices and environments, and family history of cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated a negative association between fresh vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk in both sexes, suggesting that vegetables may exert a protective effect against lung cancer in humans. In males, elevated risks were found between lung cancer and occupational exposure. In females, indoor air pollution and kitchen environment were associated with risk of lung cancer. No statistically significant association was observed between lung cancer and all other factors examined, including exposure to ETS. A second case-control, study was performed in 1986 to investigate the possible association between spousal smoking and lung cancer deaths. Cases consisted of 75 never-smoking females and the two control groups consisted of 126 cases of deaths due to tumors except lung cancer. When cases were matched against"death-unrelated-to-tumor" controls, the odds ration [OR] for ETS exposure was 1.19, as gauged by whether or not there was ETS exposure;0.72 and 1.62, when ETS was assessed based on exposure to less than 20 or to 20 or more cigarettes/day. When ETS exposure was measured by smoking years .
KEYWORDS tobacco smoke, lung cancer, health
#NO 9562 Chemical indoor air quality control.
AUTHOR Moncada Lo Giudice G, Salvetti F, Scarano E, de Santoli L
BIBINF Healthy Buildings 95, edited by M Maroni, proceedings of a conference held Milan, Italy, 10-14 September 1995, pp 773-779, 6 figs, refs.
ABSTRACT The indoor air quality IAQ is of fundamental importance with regard to the evaluation and certification of healthy buildings. Because only precise, accurate and statistically controlled analytical results allow conclusions to be drawn about the quality of air and the risks related to chemicals, quality assurance for air analysis is the object of advanced research. The decrease of air infiltration existing in modern buildings, due to the presence of indoor sources of contaminants emitted by materials, the increase of outdoor polluted air, and the problems related to ventilation energy costs, assign a primary consideration in ventilation engineering. Monitoring and controlling the mechanical ventilation is the main reason to develop suitable sensors, since IAQ cannot be measured objectively, the concept for acceptable air has been defined. This applies to air which does not contain any known contaminants in harmful concentrations and which is accepted without complaint by more than 80% of those people exposed to it . Among organic substances those with molecular weight greater than 300 are generally odourless, and even if potent olfactory stimuli derived from some substances can be perceived at very low concentrations, they may not be detected by existing instruments. Olfactory sensitivity often is able to detect potentially harmful substances at concentrations below dangerous levels and therefore able to eliminate them. It is important to consider odour as a IAQ indicator because a sensory approach (odours and irritations) has a fundamental role for the IAQ characterisation, being a complementary method of the traditional physic, chemical and microbiological studies utilised to measure the exposure (Kirchner et al., 1994). Odours and irritants thresholds, however, because of a poorly available systematic review, may vary by several orders of magnitude - and further studies must be carried out in order to determine more precise indications. Although the perceived indoor air quality presently can only be measured by means of test subjects rather than with measuring instruments, reference to this approach is nevertheless appearing in HVAC ventilation standards (CEN, 1994); critical review showed that these standards could be based on scientific definitions to allow measurable outcomes indicating adverse effects on comfort, such as annoyance and irritation as a function of dilution ventilation (Rehva, 1995). A look at the limitations of present IAQ guidelines suggests a promising alternative approach for judging the acceptability of IAQ based on antropic gases (CO2 and/or NH3) monitoring as an integrated measure of all airborne contaminants present in ambient air, to do it the IAQ guidelines can be based on both specific contaminants of pollutant mixtures and global presence of contaminants in the mixtures (Light et al, 1992). The possibility to apportion contaminants to major classes of emission sources, is generally obtained using a sensory panel, CO and CO2 measurements. Many studies have apportioned the perceived IAQ degradation to three categories: occupants, smoking and building materials including HVAC system. CO serves as a surrogate for cigarette smoking, CO2 for bioeffluents, but presently only sensory measures can significantly indicate the importance of the HVAC system and building materials as contaminant sources (Fanger, 1988). Unfortunately, the relationship of the sensory responses to physical-chemical measures is not clear. In particular, nonlinearity and thresholds of sensory responses should be taken into account when identifying sources quantitatively (Batterman et al, 1995, Pejtersen et al, 1993). The concentration of CO2 in a room remains a subjective variable for the evaluation of IAQ, even though its value can be defined exactly. Except for particular boundary conditions, no relationship (Persily, 1993) can be found between the CO2 concentration in a room and the IAQ perceived by the human nose. Otherwise, first one substance and then another would dominate the sense of smell. It is therefore of little significance to measure concentration of individual gas selectively, leading to the assumption that the gas mixture must be evaluated as a whole. That is what the mixed gas sensors do.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, health, sensor
#NO 9635 Natural ventilation in the United Kingdom: design issues for commercial and public buildings.
AUTHOR Perera M D A E S, Gilham A V, Clements-Croome T D J
BIBINF UK, Building Serv Eng Res Technol, Vol 17, No 1, 1996, pp 1-5, 2 figs, 15 refs.
ABSTRACT The principle of good design for natural ventilation is to "build tight - ventilate right". A building cannot be `too tight', but it may be under-ventilated. There is considerable scope for making UK buildings tighter. However, simpler techniques need to be developed (especially in large non domestic buildings) to identify envelope tightness and associated leakage paths. Also guidance needs to be provided on constructing tighter envelopes. Studies necessary to assess the implication of tighter buildings are described. Sufficient information is available on ventilation requirements necessary to satisfy safety and health criteria. However, criteria relating to comfort, especially those associated with odour, metabolic CO and summer overheating need to be investigated. The paper also discusses minimising the effects of tobacco smoke and controlling other internally generated pollutants. Guidelines for natural ventilation design may conflict with other design or climate-responsive strategies, future work should address this, and address issues such as ventilation openings (to provide both "background" and "rapid" ventilation) and design for deeper, naturally ventilated buildings.
KEYWORDS natural ventilation, commercial building, public building, air leakage
#NO 9723 Investigation of air quality problems in UK public houses.
AUTHOR Currie J, Capper G
BIBINF France, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, November 1994, proceedings of the European Conference on Energy Performance and Indoor Climate in Buildings, held Lyon, France, 24-26 November 1994, Vol 3, pp 1044-1047, 2 figs, 5 refs.
ABSTRACT An assessment was undertaken on six different public houses in the north of England and southern Scotland with the aim of recognising features of their construction and operation where environment impact had been reduced, what improvements could be made to accommodate best environment practice, and to raise awareness of the adverse effect of buildings on the environment. Air quality assessments in each establishment identified potential problems in respect of the trading design approach to ventilated spaces. Selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) surrogates (CO,NOx) were measured together with CO2 as a general air quality indicator during a 3 month period using a photoacoustic multi-gas analyser. All premises were installed with manually controlled mechanical displacement ventilation systems. The traditional approach to air quality problems arising from ETS has been one of reaction ventilation when smoke levels were high, resulting generally in under-ventilation of the space or, in some establishments where the smoke problem was perceived as being high, over-ventilation where the systems are operated continuously with a subsequent impact on building energy use. This has been exacerbated by recent anti-smoking lobbyists success in persuading the Environmental Health Department of the local Councils to prosecute operators of excessively smoky public houses.
KEYWORDS indoor air quality, public building, tobacco smoke, carbon dioxide, displacement ventilation
#NO 9845 French ventilation system performances in residential buildings.
Millet J-R, Villenave J G, Riberon J
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC), 1996, proceedings of 17th AIVC Conference, "Optimum Ventilation and Air Flow Control in Buildings", Volume 1, held 17-20 September 1996, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp 167-173.
The comparison of the performance of ventilation systems must take into account different issues. For indoor air quality, different kinds of pollutant sources have to be defined. To make an evaluation of the results, the best approach is to consider the people exposure. Four generic pollutants are taken into account: rooms components or furniture, human metabolism, cooking activities, passive smoking. As the definition of the unit for each pollutant is free, it is useful for their comparison to press them on a common "normalised" basis. This enables to make a distinction between the simulations based on generic pollutants and their interpretation which could be derived for many kinds of pollutants without having to do additional calculations as far as the considered pollutant follows the conventional patterns. The pressure difference, for example can be related to radon issues as to running of some heat appliances. The room parameters are mainly related to humidity issues as condensation, mould growth or house dust mites. For energy issues, a distinction has to be made between the direct energy use (fans) and the heat needs due to ventilation. Such a methodology has been defined within the IEA annex 27 project. After a presentation of the different parameters taken into account, we describe the computer code SIREN95 developed at CSTB in order to obtain the required results and we present a sensitivity analysis for the basic ventilation system used in France (mechanical exhaust).
ventilation system, indoor air quality
#NO 10042 Construction of a new bullet train car providing satisfactory air to both smokers and non-smokers.
Ishii I, Sakurai T, et al
Indoor Air '96, proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Japan, Volume 2, pp 151-156.
A new bullet train car with an effective ventilation system has been constructed as a result of co-operation between Japan Tobacco In. and East Japan Railway Company. The purpose of this system is to provide satisfactory and good quality air both to smokers and non-smokers on board. The principal aim of the system is to control the air stream in the carriage so as to prevent the tobacco smoke in the smoking section from moving into the non-smoking section. Moreover, an electrostatic precipitator and a deodorant filter were installed. The efficiency of this system was examined using this new train car.
motor vehicle, tobacco smoke
#NO 10157 Indoor Air '96. Volume 4
Yoshizawa S, et al (eds.)
Japan, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, held July 21-26, 1996, Nagoya, Vol 4, 469pp.
Not for loan from AIVC Library.Contains sessions on: indoor air pollutants - radon and ETS; indoor air pollutants - SPM; contamination control; physiology; indoor air pollutants - odour; architectural design issues; workshops.
radon, tobacco smoke, odour, building design
#NO 10189 Two pronged investigation finds standard ventilation controls ETS.
USA, Indoor Air Quality Update, November 1996, pp 5-8.
Describes a study which measured six phase-selective ETS exposure markers, using both fixed and personal monitors. The results were compared to determine whether there was agreement between the two measuring methods and correlated with building HVAC parameters to determine the effect ventilation systems had on environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
tobacco smoke, ventilation strategy, pollutant
#NO 10190 Effectiveness of auxiliary air cleaners in reducing ETS components in offices.
Pierce W M, Janczewski J N, Roethlisberger B, Pelton M, Kunstel K
USA, Ashrae Journal, November 1996, pp 51-57, 3 figs, 2 tabs, refs.
A field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of several auxiliary air cleaning devices in reducing components of environmental tobacco smoke within a designated smoking lounge and ambient areas in an office suite. Monitoring was performed for the ETS components nicotine, respirable particulate and carbon monoxide. Results of the study indicated that auxiliary air cleaning devices operating concurrently with dilution ventilation can be effective in reducing the levels of nicotine and RSP in a designated smoking area. They indicate that air cleaning devices equipped with HEPA filters are most effective in reducing RSP levels. Devices equipped with carbon media are most effective in reducing levels of nicotine. Results of the study also indicate that physical separation when combined with dilution ventilation is effective in controlling the migration of ETS components from a smoking lounge to nonsmoking areas. In addition to the filtration technology used in the device, there are a number of other factors that should be considered when controlling the levels of ETS in a smoking lounge, including: the amount of outside air supplied to the lounge; the flow rate of the device; the size of the smoking lounge; the number of cigarettes being smoked; and the pressure differences between the smoking area and the surrounding areas. It should also be noted that there are other filtration technologies that can control ETS, including electrostatic precipitation, not mentioned in the study.
air cleaning, tobacco smoke, passive smoking
#NO 10420 The effectiveness of designated smoking areas in controlling non-smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
Sterling E, Collett C, Ross J
Indoor and Built Environment, No 6, 1997, pp 29-44, 9 tabs, 26 refs.
Field monitoring was conducted in office buildings in Seattle and Dallas to assess the effectiveness of various workplace smoking configurations in controlling non-smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Simultaneous measurements of vapour-phase and particle-phase tracers of ETS were conducted in adjacent smoking and non-smoking areas. Pressure relationships between smoking and non-smoking areas were determined. The Seattle portion of the study focused on the directin filtration of ETS from smoking to non-smoking areas, as minimalre circulation of return air was occurring. Negative pressurisation of smoking areas eliminated the direct migration of ETS. Tracers of ETS exposure were not detected in non-smoking areas adjacent to negatively pressurized smoking lounges. In the Dallas study buildings, the impact of recirculation of ETS through the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems was assessed. Vapour-phase ETS constituents were recirculated into non-smoking areas at diluted concentrations. However, elevated particle-phase constituents were not found in non-smoking areas. The overall results indicate that non-smokers exposure to ETS can be effectively reduced in the office workplace without regulations or policies that require either direct exhaust of air from smoking areas to the outdoors by dedicated ventilation systems or total prohibition of smoking within buildings.
tobacco smoke, pollutant, field monitoring
#NO 10712 Casino investigation finds ETS exposure among workers.
USA, IEQ Strategies, May 1997, pp 4-6, 1 tab.
An IEQ investigation at a UK casino found elevated blood and urine cotinine concentrations among nonsmoking workers, although concentrations of airborne contaminants were consistent with those found in other nonindustrial environments. The investigators recommended nevertheless that smoking at the facility be eliminated or more tightly controlled.
#NO 10757 Naturally ventilating UK non-domestic buildings: current status and future policy.
Perera M D A E S, Shaw M R, Treadaway K
In: "A breath of fresh air: a new look at ventilation standards." Workshop, UK, Building Research Establishment, March 1996.
Shows that there is considerable scope for making UK buildings tighter and indicates the level of benefits that will accrue. UK activity in this area is identified, including proposed statutory control in the form of revised Building Regulations which will address issues of tightness for the first time. Information is available on ventilation requirements necessary to satisfy safety and health criteria. However, criteria relating to comfort, especially those associated with odour, metabolic CO2, and summer overheating are still being investigated. The paper sets out current thinking in this area, including policies relating to minimising effects of tobacco smoking in public and commercial buildings. The paper concludes by identifying currently available UK design guidance on natural ventilation.
energy policy, natural ventilation, tobacco smoke
#NO 10944 Limitations of models for characterising indoor particle concentrations from cigarette smoking in an office environment.
Bohanon H R, Cole K, Reynolds R J
Belgium, Proceedings of Clima 2000 Conference, held Brussels, August 30th to September 2nd 1997, paper 331, 20pp, 8 tabs, 24 refs.
The first part of the paper uses results from tests that accurately measured particle and gas concentrations during smoking in a real world office environment. The test was conducted in a 511 square meter office space with ventilation and smoking controlled and measured. The smoking rate was held constant throughout the test under both integrated and segregated smoking conditions. Ventilation or the office space was controlled to two rates; no mechanically delivered outside air and full economizer. Part two explores a more detailed and controlled test of particle concentration from cigarette smoking that was conducted in a single office setting. This test measured and recorded activities on a real time basis. The information gathered from this real time single office observation is much more detailed than that from the large office space. Evaluates single compartment models using the experimental data from the large office space and from the more detailed single office.
particulate, tobacco smoke, modelling
#NO 11035 Control of occupant-generated indoor air sources in small buildings through ventilation system retrofit.
Bayer C W, Fischer J
USA, Washington DC, Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97, 1997, proceedings of a conference held Bethesda MD, USA, September 27 - October 2, 1997, Volume 2, pp 77-82, 4 figs, 6 refs.
A research study was undertaken investigating a retro-fit ventilation system a strategic ventilation to provide a better indoor environment to smaller buildings. A residential type HVAC unit interfaced with a desiccant energy wheel was retro-fitted into the ventilation system of a small office space built into a warehouse. The primary objective of this study was to minimize environmental tobacco smoke transfer from smokers offices to nonsmokers offices via the application of strategic ventilation.
ventilation system, retrofitting, occupant behaviour
#NO 11047 Decrease of occupational ETS in restaurants, development of ventilation control technology.
Hyvarinen M J, Mielo T, Marttinen K, Reijula K, Welling I
USA, Washington DC, Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97, 1997, proceedings of a conference held Bethesda MD, USA, September 27 - October 2, 1997, Volume 2, pp 433-438, 2 figs, 3 tabs, 4 refs.
Restaurant employees are exposed to high concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The concentration of tobacco smoke in restaurants caries in inverse proportion to the ventilation rate; ventilation rates are thus important determinants of exposure to ETS. Field measurements of indoor air quality and ventilation parameters were carried out in six Finnish restaurants. The purpose of this study was to create design guidelines foe restaurant ventilation systems. This study suggests that there is a threshold level of air flow rate, approximately 40 dm3/s per person, beyond which there are no significant improvements in air quality. This value cannot be considered simply as a design goal; this would be too expensive in terms of energy consumption. In some cases the air flow rate per person was very high and not contributing significantly to indoor air quality (IAQ). This could be seen as justification for demand controlled ventilation systems.
tobacco smoke, ventilation rate, field monitoring
#NO 11563 Building performance evaluation for indoor air quality using occupant contaminant inhalation and attribution to contaminant sources.
Takemasa Y, Moser A
UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 293-304.
The emissions of building materials like volatile organic compounds and indoor airborne contaminants such as environmental tobacco smoke expose occupants to hazardous substances. Although impacts of indoor air quality problems on human health, comfort, and productivity are quite large, no adequate evaluation methodology exists to assess contaminant source control techniques and building equipment systems. Even if instant indoor concentrations of many contaminants are not always high, continuous exposures to these contaminants may cause severe problems such as manifested by the sick building syndrome.
This paper proposes a method for evaluating long-term building performance in terms of indoor air quality. The approach applies exposure assessment but focuses on building performance. It employs the concept of using the total amount of substance inhaled by persons who occupy the room. This indicator is expressed by kilograms of each contaminant inhaled by persons ever present in the building during its operational life. The values include the effects of occupant rates. Concrete procedures for deriving variations of the indicators for both gaseous and particulate contaminants are described in detail. Another concept of contribution rates of contaminant sources is introduced both for instant values and on the inhalation basis. Evaluation examples of these indicators for a simple office geometry are shown for particulate matter, carbon dioxide, and formaldehyde. The results of the case studies strongly suggest the importance of indoor material selection and ventilation strategies. The contribution rate of contaminant sources makes it easier to plan a remedy for bad indoor air quality. The applicability of these indicators and future research requirements are also discussed.
occupant reaction, building performance
#NO 11873 Design for smoking areas: Part 1 - Fundamentals.
Nelson P R, Bohanon H R, Walker J C
USA, ASHRAE, 1998, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1998 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, held Toronto, Canada, June 1998, 12 pp, 4 figs, 4 tabs, refs.
ASHRAE currently provides little practical information for optimizing the design of a cigar or smoking lounge, although recent ASHRAE forums have indicated an increased interest in this area. This paper provides a summary of the measurement of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from cigarettes or cigars, the manner in which ETS concentration varies with rates of smoking and ventilation, and the relationship between ETC concentration and indoor air quality.
During the past two decades, a large number of studies have been published on the chemistry of ETS and how it changes over time, under either controlled laboratory or more real world conditions. Controlled laboratory exposure studies have been used to predict occupant and visitor responses to ETS in indoor environments. Based on the information from chamber studies, field studies, and engineering experience, a method is proposed for determining the ventilation required to maintain air quality in different situations where smoking occurs.
tobacco smoke, building design
#NO 12005 The sick building syndrome in offices.
Burt T S
Sweden, Kungl. Tekniska Hogskolan, Climate and Buildings Nr 1-2:1993, Thesis for Licentiate of Engineering, 134 pp.
Consists of a review of the factors associated with the sick building syndrome and an investigation of a "sick" building. The investigation concentrated on the thermal aspects, since the literature suggests that the thermal factors may be the most significant. Temperatures were monitored at 24 points around occupied zones for one week. The results showed fluctuations and instabilities in temperatures, with large variations over small distances. The results of the study from a self-administered questionnaire showed that people with allergic-type problems were those affected the most, and that air quality was most often blamed. Other factors associated with sick building syndrome were: being female, having little control over the work pace, length of occupancy, dust, noise, static electricity, high temperatures, draughts and small rooms. Factors with little or no association included: humidity, air recirculation, tobacco smoke, working with VDUs, high CO2 levels, age, season, and having an allergic family member.
sick building syndrome, biological pollutant, chemical pollutant, thermal performance
#NO 12189 The control of air quality in a Chinese kitchen.
Duanmu L, Ao Y, Feng G
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 1, pp 24-29.
Chinese food is delicious. There are many kinds of cuisine. But the stir-fry, f~ and deep-fry produce a large amount of steam and smoke which cause indoor air pollution seriously. So it must be controlled. The paper gets some flow distribution regularity of steam and smoke current in Chinese cooking by testing in laboratory and advances a new method to prevent the diffusion of smoking current-kitchen hood with forced air screen. 33y comparing with other removers, the equipment can save heat (cold) load and improve indoor air condition greatly. The paper also analyses blow and draw current of the equipment by fluid mechanics theories.
commercial kitchen, steam, smoke, cooker hood
#NO 12274 Absorbability of contaminants from room air by snow cooling system.
Iijima K, Kobiyama M, Hanaoka Y, Kawamura M, Toda H
UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 4, pp 37-42.
Snow has already been used effectively as a cold energy resource in some heavy snowfall areas in Japan. As the surface of snow is covered with cold melting water when snow is used as a cold energy source, we can expect gas absorption on the surface. By this mechanism of the gas absorption, some airborne contaminants such as dust or harmful gases can be removed by the melting snow surface. In the snow cooling system, the air is cooled directly at the surface of a vertical snow hole drilled through the snow block, some contaminants are removed automatically and simultaneously with the heat transfer process. In this study, the authors measured the absorbability of tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, ammonia gas and some indoor air contaminants in a pilot plant of the snow cooling system. Experimental results showed that 40% formaldehyde and ammonia were recovered when the inlet air temperature was cooled down from 30 degrees C to 13 degrees C. Also some contaminants included in tobacco smoke where removed by this system. This filter effect of the snow surface can be put to practical use in contamination control during air conditioning.
#NO 12371 Futile filters.
UK, HAC, June 1999, p 25.
Reports comments by US Environmental Protection Agency senior physicist, James Repace, who maintains that air cleaners with high efficiencies for captured particles are capable of reducing, but not eliminating, the environmental tobacco smoke tar particles in room air, and are not at all effective for gases, which contain most of the irritants. He favours an approach where smokers are separated from non-smokers, to control the source of the pollutant rather than trying to reduce its impact. This means restricting smoking to separately ventilated spaces, or banning smoking indoors, which would be cheaper. Explains how the separate spaces would operate.
filter, environmental tobacco smoke, smoking areas
#NO 12838 Association between Diesel exposure at work and prostate cancer.
Seidler A, Heiskel H, Bickeboller R, Elsner G
The objectives of this article were to establish the possible etiologic relevance of occupational factors such as cadmium, cutting oils, diesel fuel and fumes, herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, soot, tar, mineral oil, and solvents to prostate cancer. A case-referent study design was used to recruit 192 subjects with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 210 referents who had prostate cancer histologically excluded either in one of two urologic practices or in the urological policlinic of the Frankfurt University. Data were gathered with a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using logistic regression to control for age, region, and cigarette smoking. A job-exposure matrix was used for assigning exposure. for the calculation of dose-years, the duration of contact with specific substances was weighted by the intensity and probability of exposure according to a job-exposure matrix. The analysis of dose-years yielded a statistically significant association between occupational exposure to diesel fuel or fumes and prostate cancer (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-9.8, for subjects exposed to more than 25 dose-years in a comparison with subjects never exposed). For the other substances, no statistically significant differences in exposure were found between the cases and referents. When only jobs with a high exposure probability were used to classify the participants as exposed, only exposure to PAH was significantly associated with prostate cancer. In keeping with results from other studies, this study provides further evidence that exposure to diesel fuel or fumes - possibly mediated through PAH - may be associated with the development of prostate cancer.
cancer, vehicle exhaust, workplace
#NO 12840 Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of Diesel exhaust in human subjects.
Rudell B, Wass U, Horstedt P, et al
Occup Environ Med, No 56, 1999, pp 222-231, 3 figs, 3 tabs, 39 refs.
The objectives of this article were to evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. Thirty two healthy non-smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for one hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 ug/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage, acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticeable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. the efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, andlung function variables were found. This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplace.
motor vehicle air conditioning, health, air filter, vehicle exhaust
#NO 13026 Ventilation and IAQ for the hospitality industry.
Turner W A
Heating Piping and Air Conditioning, July 2000, pp 36-44, 8 refs.
Designers of HVAC systems for the hospitality industry are faced with the challenge of providing suitable indoor environments for both an establishment's customers and its workers at an affordable price. This involves consideration of first and operational costs, system maintainability, and degree of environmental control, which includes: temperature control; interior moisture management; pollutant control; interzonal pressure control and the influence of adjoining facilities. This article explores these environmental control challenges and discusses ways to meet them. Concludes that many advanced ventilation designs can address most, if not all, of the environmental challenges described. It is especially important to implement these designs inclimates that are hot and humid, very cold, or both, which can be found throughout much of the continental United States. In many ways, the environmental challenges found in the hospitality industry are no greater than those found in health care facilities and semiconductor manufacturing. However, in general, HVAC capital equipment and operational costs are expected to be lower in hospitality industry applications than in either of the other tow types of applications. All of the advanced solutions noted here require an investment in capital equipment beyond packaged, off the shelf rooftop units; however, in most cases, the costs canbe recovered in a relatively short period of time. It would be useful for ASHRAE to develop more information regarding these advanced equipment approaches. This expanded section on the control of tobacco smoke emissions as a point source or mobile point source in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice' would help designers to more unformly address these issues.States that until sufficient educational material is available, the development of advanced solutions that work well will depend on the talents of engineers and designers who create them through research efforts.
duct, maintenance, residential building
#NO 13325 An isothermal air curtain for isolation of smoking areas in restaurants.
Rydock J P, Hestad T, Haugen H, Skaret J E
UK, Oxford, Elsevier, 2000, proceedings of Roomvent 2000, "Air Distribution in Rooms: Ventilation for Health and Sustainable Environment", held 9-12 July 2000, Reading, UK, Volume 1, pp 663-668, 3 figs, refs.
An isothermal air curtain for isolation of smoking areas in restaurants was designed, built and evaluated in a test facility using oil-smoke visualisation and tracer measurements. The test facility was a ventilation test room set up as a small restaurant, with tables, chairs, person simulators (cylindrical heat sources) and balanced mechanical ventilation. Fresh air was supplied in the non-smoking section of the room, exhaust air drawn from the smoking area, and the air curtain was attached to the ceiling between the two sections. The air curtain was a plenum chamber with adjustable slot width and mounting angle fed by a supply fan drawing air from the smoking section of the room. For reasonable room ventilation rates for a restaurant (11 l/s per person supply and exhaust air), the optimised air curtain yielded tracer concentrations in the non-smoking section as low as 5-10% of the values measured at the same time in the smoking section. The limiting factor in the performance of the curtain was found to be the ability to properly supply enough air to the clean-air side of the curtain to prevent recirculation of polluted air from the smoking area into the non-smoking section. This study demonstrates that an isothermal air curtain solution to control contaminant spread need not necessarily require excessive ventilation rates and prohibitive operating costs.
Air curtain, tracer testing, airflow visualisation
#NO 13426 Pubs and clubs managing air quality.
in: "Air Quality for Occupant Health", UK, Cambridge, Mid Career College Press, 1999, pp 61-70, 1 tab, 1 fig.
Discusses techniques which can be used to achieve an acceptable indoor environment; dispersion, dilution and filtration. Discusses calculation of the ventilation rate, and air filtration. Claims that it is more than possible that ventilation can be installed that will allow people to be among smokers in perfect safety. States that ventilation systems must be easily cleaned and maintained regularly if they are to continue to function satisfactorily. Controls need to be behind the bar and should be automated as much as possible. Staff should be trained and provided with permanent operating instructions.
leisure building, tobacco smoke
#NO 13545 Control of environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants.
Enbom S, Kulmala I, Sanen A
in: "Progress in Modern Ventilation", Proceedings of Ventilation 2000, Volume 1, proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held Helsinki, Finland, 4-7 June 2000, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 2000, pp 54-58, 2 figs.
Recently, the need to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in restaurants and bars has increased. In Finland, a new law prohibiting ETS states that non-smoking areas must be established and the dispersion of tobacco smoke to non-smoking areas must be prevented. Employees' exposure to ETS must also be limited in restaurants to a reasonable level. In this new situation the existing instructions for designing ventilation in the hospitality industry are inadequate. Therefore, a laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the possibilities of using ventilation systems and interior design to control ETS in restaurants. Two different types of test restaurants were constructed: a small pub type single compartment room (to study the possibilities to reduce bartenders' and customers' ETS exposure) and two-compartment test restaurant (to investigate the dispersion of tobacco smoke from the smoking area to the non-smoking area).
tobacco smoke, public building
#NO 13546 Ventilation and nicotine in restaurants.
Skistad H, Berner M
in: "Progress in Modern Ventilation", Proceedings of Ventilation 2000, Volume 1, proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held Helsinki, Finland, 4-7 June 2000, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 2000, pp 59-64, 9 figs.
Nicotine concentration in air has been measured in several restaurants by different measuring techniques. Several problems of the measuring techniques has to be solved before nicotine measurements can be used for approval purposes. For approval purposes, the checking of the ventilation may be more fruitful than nicotine measurements.
tobacco smoke, public building