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LL 09: Air Infiltration in Public Buildings

AIVC, 2001
Bibliographic info: LL 09
Languages: English

Air Infiltration in Public Buildings November 2000

#NO 9558 Air quality in public houses - monitoring and modelling. 

AUTHOR Currie J, Capper G 

BIBINF Healthy Buildings 95, edited by M Maroni, proceedings of a conference held Milan, Italy, 10-14 September 1995, pp 627-631, 2 figs, refs. 

ABSTRACT Following considerable lobbying by anti-smoking campaigners in the UK, environmental health officers employed by the local councils have agreed to test pubs which have been reported as too smoky . Whereas a customer may enter a smoky atmosphere and then decide to walk away from it, this option is not available to staff. Of more significance therefore, and to employers as well as to the individuals is the potential effect of passive smoking on the staff who work in public houses. Legislation in the UK (Health and Safety Executive, 1974) places a duty of care on employers to provide and maintain a safe working environment for employees without risks to health. Previous work by the authors (Currie and Capper, 1994) involved the assessment of public houses in the north of England and southern Scotland with the aim of identifying potential problems and considering improvements that could be made to accommodate best environmental practice. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) surrogates were measured, together with carbon dioxide (CO2) as a general air quality indicator. The air quality assessments in each establishment identified potential problems in respect of the traditional design approach to ventilated spaces. Recent studies have tended to concentrate on the subjective assessment of environmental health issues and there is therefore a need for more objective assessment methods. A computerised fluid dynamics (CFD) model ARIA has been used to model airflows with the aim of identifying inefficiencies in existing ventilation systems, for example air distribution dead-spots . 

KEYWORDS public building, indoor air quality, passive smoking, modelling

#NO 9635 Natural ventilation in the United Kingdom: design issues for commercial and public buildings.

AUTHOR Perera M D A E S, Gilham A V, Clements-Croome T D J

BIBINF UK, Building Serv Eng Res Technol, Vol 17, No 1, 1996, pp 1-5, 2 figs, 15 refs.

ABSTRACT The principle of good design for natural ventilation is to "build tight - ventilate right". A building cannot be `too tight', but it may be under-ventilated. There is considerable scope for making UK buildings tighter. However, simpler techniques need to be developed (especially in large non domestic buildings) to identify envelope tightness and associated leakage paths. Also guidance needs to be provided on constructing tighter envelopes. Studies necessary to assess the implication of tighter buildings are described. Sufficient information is available on ventilation requirements necessary to satisfy safety and health criteria. However, criteria relating to comfort, especially those associated with odour, metabolic CO and summer overheating need to be investigated. The paper also discusses minimising the effects of tobacco smoke and controlling other internally generated pollutants. Guidelines for natural ventilation design may conflict with other design or climate-responsive strategies, future work should address this, and address issues such as ventilation openings (to provide both "background" and "rapid" ventilation) and design for deeper, naturally ventilated buildings.

KEYWORDS natural ventilation, commercial building, public building, air leakage

#NO 9689 The Sistine Chapel: HVAC design for special use buildings.

AUTHOR Bullock C, Philip F, Pennati W

BIBINF USA, Ashrae J, April 1996, pp 49-58, 5 figs, 12 refs.

ABSTRACT Environmental control systems for museums, art galleries and other special buildings typically must control more than just air temperature and humidity, and must often provide much tighter control than is expected from conventional air conditioning systems. The priceless artefacts and art treasures housed in such buildings can be permanently damaged if the environment is not continuously controlled. The comfort of occupants also should be considered. Six principle factors are generally considered in the design of such systems: air temperature, air humidity, light, air circulation, air-borne pollutants, and sound level. This paper discusses these factors and how they were addressed in the design of the air conditioning system for the Sistine Chapel, and provides general guidelines for other special buildings.

KEYWORDS ventilation system, public building, museum

#NO 9723 Investigation of air quality problems in UK public houses.

AUTHOR Currie J, Capper G

BIBINF France, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, November 1994, proceedings of the European Conference on Energy Performance and Indoor Climate in Buildings, held Lyon, France, 24-26 November 1994, Vol 3, pp 1044-1047, 2 figs, 5 refs.

ABSTRACT An assessment was undertaken on six different public houses in the north of England and southern Scotland with the aim of recognising features of their construction and operation where environment impact had been reduced, what improvements could be made to accommodate best environment practice, and to raise awareness of the adverse effect of buildings on the environment. Air quality assessments in each establishment identified potential problems in respect of the trading design approach to ventilated spaces. Selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) surrogates (CO,NOx) were measured together with CO2 as a general air quality indicator during a 3 month period using a photoacoustic multi-gas analyser. All premises were installed with manually controlled mechanical displacement ventilation systems. The traditional approach to air quality problems arising from ETS has been one of reaction ventilation when smoke levels were high, resulting generally in under-ventilation of the space or, in some establishments where the smoke problem was perceived as being high, over-ventilation where the systems are operated continuously with a subsequent impact on building energy use. This has been exacerbated by recent anti-smoking lobbyists success in persuading the Environmental Health Department of the local Councils to prosecute operators of excessively smoky public houses.

KEYWORDS indoor air quality, public building, tobacco smoke, carbon dioxide, displacement ventilation

#NO 9963 Blaze blockers.

Sims B

UK, Building Services Journal, September 1996, pp 32-33.

Discusses the aspects to be considered when designing fire protected ducting. Ventilation ducting should not act as a conduit for fire spread in public buildings.

smoke control, duct, public building

#NO 9971 Passive solar system in Japan.

Okumura A

Pergamon, 1996, "Renewable Energy", proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress, held Denver, Colorado, USA, 15-21 June 1996, Volume 1, pp 66-71.

The "OM Solar System" is the most widely used low energy architecture system in Japan. The system has been employed in approximately 8,000 homes and in over 40 public buildings within the past eight years. The article takes a closer look at the OM Solar System.

passive solar design, ventilation system

#NO 10488 The present and future OM solar system.

Okumura A

Japan, PLEA 1997 Kushiro Secretariat, proceedings of a conference held 8-10 January 1997, Kushiro, Japan, Volume 1, pp 69-74, 4 figs.

The OM solar system is one of various passive systems. As is in the general passive system, the technique in the OM solar system works with the designing and architectural space as a unity. In other words, the technique is a part of the designing. Nowadays a lot of new technique have been developed and all kinds of related technology are born. During the past nine years, the system has been already employed in about eight thousand homes and sixty public buildings all over Japan. This paper describes the followings: the principle of the system, the popular methods, the new technology, OM meteorological data, the computer simulation, and the prospects for the system.

passive solar design, simulation

#NO 10516 Demand controlled ventilation of an entertainment club.

Atkinson G V

USA, Ashrae Transactions, Vol 103, Part 2, 1997, proceedings of the Ashrae Summer Meeting, Boston, 29 June - 2 July, 1997 [preprint].

demand controlled ventilation, public building

#NO 10645 EC 2000 high performance buildings that reduce or avoid air conditioning.

Burton S, Doggart J

France, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, proceedings of the Second International Conference on Buildings and the Environment, held Paris, June 9-12 1997, Volume 2, pp 385-392.

This paper outlines progress in the THERMIE Target project Energy Comfort 2000 after three and a half years. Seven of the eight buildings are under construction and the eighth will be starting on site in May 1997. The project covers the design, construction, commissioning and monitoring of the buildings which are offices, university buildings, and public and recreational buildings, together with "horizontal activities" which link the projects together. All buildings have been designed to save at least 50% of the energy consumption of conventional buildings and to avoid or minimise the use of air-conditioning, by passive design methods. Results from monitoring of the first completed building show that it has saved 74% of the energy of an equivalent air-conditioned building, with the majority of the occupants believing that the building provides comfortable internal conditions. The many useful results from EC2000 are being produced for dissemination in the form of "Information Dossiers", subject to date include fire safety in atria, natural ventilation design, control strategies and windows.

thermal comfort, public building, atrium, natural ventilation

#NO 10876 Cooling efficiency results in savings of 40%


CADDET Energy Efficiency Newsletter, No 1, 1997, p 27.

Describes how an investment of DKK 1.2 million has resulted in yearly savings of DKK 300,000 as well as improved quality of the ice in a local ice rink in Odense, the third largest town in Denmark. A careful analysis made it clear that up to 40% of the money spent on energy consumption could be saved. The two basic principles employed were to use cheap night time stored electricity and "osmotic" water, which freezes much more quickly than tap water.

cooling, public building, energy consumption

#NO 10970 Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings. Proceedings.

Erhorn H, Volle U (eds.)

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, 1997, IEA Future Buildings Forum, Proceedings of a workshop held April 28-30 1997, Stuttgart, Germany, 273pp.

For the heating and cooling of existing buildings, a vast amount of energy is used, the share of the total energy consumption being commonly around 20%. Therefore, the reduction of the energy consumption of buildings is an important goal in order to save the non-renewable energy resources and to reduce the environmental pollution which is caused by the energy production. Fifty invited researchers and specialists from twelve countries attended this workshop to report on the latest results and experiences, to identify future needs of research and development and to create new ideas, research projects and to define the issues of future buildings and proposals for IEA Annexes or Tasks. The workshop dealt with the integral development of the advanced structural and installation systems and their interactions. This report consists of the keynote lessons, working group reports, discussions and conclusions.

retrofitting, commercial building, public building

#NO 11028 The use of tracer gas measurements in detection and solution of indoor air quality problems in a Danish town hall.

Brohus H, Hyldgaard C E

USA, Washington DC, Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97, 1997, proceedings of a conference held Bethesda MD, USA, September 27 - October 2, 1997, Volume 1, pp 489-494, 6 figs, 2 tabs, 3 refs.

A Danish town hall with substantial complaints of poor air quality is examined. This paper describes the use if tracer has measurements which form an important part in the detection and solution of the problems. Investigations are carried out both in the field and in the laboratory using a full scale ,mock up of a typical office. Contaminant sources are simulated by means if tracer gas to examine the effectiveness of the ventilation. The exposure of a seated person is assessed by means of a breathing thermal mannequin. The results show a poor ventilation effectiveness and serious thermal discomfort. A new strategy for heating and ventilation is found and tested in the laboratory and verified in the field

tracer gas, indoor air quality, public building

#NO 11224 Validation of measurements and energy management programs implemented in 22 public buildings of the district Schwandorf in a retrofit job.

Kuhlmann H

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 179-190.

Describes a project to set up a Dual Energy Management System for the Schwandorf district in Germany, together with various energy management systems adapted to parallel traditional remodelling. Twenty two buildings were included in the project. The efficiency of the strategies with regard to energy consumption and comfort was measured over a three year period. The objective was to reduce energy consumption and operating costs by the use of the high-tech BEMS Phase DEMSS. Describes the system and summarises the results as follows: Compared to purely local or "standalone" solutions, a central EMS represents an advantage as to comfort, energy savings and (energy, staff, building facility maintenance and service) costs. This was objectively confirmed by the measured results, as well as subjectively by the building occupants and building owners. Concerning the annual heat or fuel consumption, EMS resulted in energy savings of 25% and in total 5,600 MWh/a. The energy savings obtained by 1993 were significantly lower, with an approximate average of 16%. Among other things, this was caused by the retrofit-related conditions of the building facilities which were not always ideal, and the - underestimated - amount of time needed for "fine tuning" and optimising the EM strategies. In addition to the fact that during the commissioning phase come buildings could only be manually controlled. Concurrently with the energy savings, the district's environmental balance was able to be improved as well. A reduction of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide has been achieved annually, together with similar percentage reductions in carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides and sulphur dioxide.

public building, retrofitting, energy management

#NO 11397 Reykjavik City Hall. Heating and ventilating system.

Jonsson P, Arnason O

Iceland, ICEVAC, The Icelandic Heating, Ventilating and Sanitary Association, Proceedings of the Cold Climate HVAC '97 Conference, held in Reykjavik, Iceland, April 30-May 3, 1997, pp 193-196, 3 figs.

It is a well know fact, that various physical parameters in our ecological surroundings affect the thermal sensation of the human body. The most notable are the air temperature and humidity, draught, temperature asymmetry, clothing and metabolic rate. Years of research of the interaction of these parameters have resulted in a standardised conclusion, ISO 7730, and now as an Icelandic standard, IST EN ISO 7730. In this article an engineering task is described, the task being the heating and cooling of an office, with big southward facing window or against the sun here on the northern hemisphere. The office in question is a typical office in the Reykjavik City Hall. The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning is by linear slot diffusers, installed and suspended in the ceilings. The system is a VAV-system during cooling periods but fixed air volume and variable temperature during heating periods. The goal in the air distribution system design was that the sum of the thermal effects from the various parameters would result in acceptable thermal comfort levels in all relevant load conditions. To verify the concept design, a full scale experiment on a typical office was performed. At the TROX-facilities in Thetford, England, a typical City Hall office was built, with a similar ventilation system. Measurements of temperature and air-distribution were made, as well as visual observations of smoke tests. The building has been in operation since 1992.

public building, office building, thermal comfort

#NO 11457 Energy efficient ventilation of large enclosures. Technical Synthesis Report. IEA ECBCS Annex 26.

Moser A, et al

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, 1998, 35pp.

Large enclosures have become a major feature of modern building design. Spaces such as atria and covered areas are used in all varieties of buildings including office complexes, shopping malls, airports and public buildings. Essentially they create an environment protected from the outdoor climate in which a wide range of activities is possible. However such spaces demand very careful design to ensure good indoor air quality and thermal comfort and to protect occupants from the risk of fire and smoke spread. Describes the Annex 26 project and summarises information about proven technology for the design of ventilation in such spaces. The report covers analysis and prediction techniques; measurement techniques; case studies; and lessons learned.

large building, energy efficiency, atrium

#NO 11531 Ventilation technologies in urban areas.


UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, 487 pp FOR SALE ONLY PRICE £65.00

Includes sections on modelling and control algorithms, equipment and envelope characteristics, ventilation performance and building airtightness, ventilation strategies and pollutant transport, NATVENT - overcoming technical barriers, and cooling and indoor air quality in commercial and public buildings, 

ventilation system, air leakage

#NO 11875 Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates.

Zhivov A M, Rymkevich A A

USA, ASHRAE, 1998, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1998 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, held Toronto, Canada, June 1998, 12 pp, 12 figs, 4 tabs, refs.

Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper: A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more that 200 restaurants in different U.S. climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices.

Four constant air volume HVAC systems with a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative U.S. climates: cold (Minneapolis, Minn.); maritime (Seattle, Wash.); moderate (Albuquerque, N.Mex.); hot-dry (Phoenix, Ariz.); and hot-humid (Miami, Fla.).

For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows:

energy consumption, mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, public building

#NO 11950 Retrofit demonstration in Brazilian commercial and public buildings.

Lamberts R, Thome M, et al

USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 5.227-5.238, 12 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil, to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the "6 Cities Project". The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector. A data-base is being created with information on energy consumption intensity and demand intensity in 15 buildings in each city. The data-base was designed to help the standards development. Among those buildings, in each city, two were selected, one is a public building and one a private building, for a detailed energy audit. The audit data was used to calibrate a DOE2 simulation model. Simulations were performed and state of art technologies for energy efficiency are being tested and will be implemented. An after retrofit monitoring program is planned. In this paper the results of the first buildings will be shown.

retrofitting, commercial building, public building, standard, energy simulation

#NO 12027 Servicing a site.

Luke A

UK, Building Services Journal, April 1999, pp 28-35, 1 fig.

Describes the building services installed in the Millenium Dome. 

public building, building services

#NO 12051 Temperature and velocity distributions in a church with floor heating in various seasons.

Barozzi G S, Dumas A, Mazzacane S

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 25-32, 13 figs, 1 tab, 1 ref.

In this paper the experiences carried out in a large church of Bologna equipped with a floor radiant panels heating plant are presented. High intensity airflows were measured not compatible with thermal comfort. Experimental data will form the basis for understanding and controlling thermal instabilities in very high halls.

natural convection, thermal comfort, full scale experiments, public building

#NO 12052 Olympic arena - concept and design development.

Ghete P, Kent J, Ayoub M

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 33-40, 12 figs.

This paper presents an original air conditioning concept and design development elaborated for a large arena, designed to accommodate the indoor sporting events during the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia.

An air conditioning system, which provides a great level of flexibility and economical operation, has been developed and its performance studied in detail by the use of our computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software.

The CFD analysis has confirmed the advantages of the system by achieving a uniform temperature distribution and appropriate air velocities in the occupied areas, under all operational situations.

The proposed concept is also a key element of the smoke management strategy for the arena. Hence the study has been extended to incorporate evaluations of smoke concentrations for various fire scenarios.

air conditioning, computational fluid dynamics, public building

#NO 12060 Physical processes in ice rinks studied with small-scale modelling.

Carling P

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 95-102, 11 figs, refs.

The study reported in this paper is concentrated on the estimation of the heat transfer from air to ice due to convection. Together with measurements of temperature and moisture profiles, air movements have been visualised in a small-scale model of a planned indoor ice rink. Some field tests concerning moisture content and temperature also have been realised in two different ice rinks.

The study indicates that a low emissivity layer in the ceiling decreases the risk for ceiling condensation, decreases the heat radiation on the ice and decreases the driving force for air mixing. The convective heat exchange coefficient was estimated to 1.0 W/m2-_C by measuring the frosting rate on the ice. The warm, humid and contaminated air from the gallery streams next to the ceiling and mixes with the air over the rink.

heat transfer, model experiments, public building, temperature gradient

#NO 12347 Energy-smart Parliament house.


Netherlands, CADDET Energy Efficiency Newsletter, Special issue on Australia, 1999, pp 16-17, 1 fig.

An integrated approach to energy management and auditing over the past 10 years has turned Australia's Parliament House into an energy champion. Total energy consumption and associated greenhouse has emissions over that time have been culled by an impressive 52.3% and 41.2% respectively. Equally impressive is the fact that all energy efficiency improvements have been fully funded from energy savings. This performance is well ahead of industry benchmarking and governmental policy targets and there are ongoing commitments to further reduce energy consumption by 1.5% per annum over the next six years.

public building, energy auditing

#NO 12455 School IAQ improvements promise energy conservation.


USA, IEQ Strategies, October 1999, pp 4-6.

Describes how a multiyear demonstration project being conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Association of Energy Services hopes to achieve energy and maintenance savings in a group of schools through improvements that are designed to improve indoor air quality. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the "performance contracting" approach, an innovative procurement method offered by energy service companies. In this type of program, payment is linked to performance. Typical contracts include an energy audit, design, financing, installation, training, and maintenance for the life of the contract. The average contract lasts ten years. In the demonstration project, the investigators selected five public schools in various US climate zones. They selected four sampling locations in each school to monitor IAQ baseline parameters. They also characterised the HVAC systems in the buildings before the energy service companies began upgrading the HVAC system. Current estimates place the cost of improvements between $250,000 and $841,000 with annual energy and maintenance savings ranging from $27,400 per year to $246,150 per year. Estimated payback ranges from 3 to 15 years.

educational building, energy savings, retrofitting programme

#NO 12565 Measured airtightness of an installed skylight.

Shaw C Y, Magee R J, Poirier G F

USA, ASHRAE Transactions, Winter Meeting 2000, Dallas, 6 pp, 7 figs, 1 tab, refs.

An art gallery building had problems with moisture. Inspections using thermographic techniques suggested that air leakage through the skylights could be the main cause of the problem. The air leakage rate of an installed metal frame skylight, 26 m long x 8.5 m wide, was measured, using the balanced fan depressurisation method. Also, fan depressurisation tests were performed on the glazing/upstand interface on the south side of the skylight. The air leakage rates were measured through the full interface and on the west and east halves separately. The methods used for field testing of such components and the test results are discussed.

air tightness, roof, window, public building, moisture, air leakage rate

#NO 12672 Case studies in duct and coil cleaning.

Karpen D

(Energy Engng.,) 1996, vol.93 no.5, 6-11.

Presents a compilation of 11 case studies regarding duct and coil cleaning. The cases include police stations, a school, several libraries, a village hall, town halls and a senior centre. Notes the resulting improvements in electricity consumption, air flow and indoor air quality. Concludes by deprecating the use of fibreglass throw-away filters and recommends paper pleated filters as being far more efficient. 

duct cleaning, case study, public building

#NO 12787 Benchmarking the energy efficiency and greenhouse gases emissions of school buildings in central Argentina.

Filippin C

Building and Environment, No 35, 2000, pp 407-414, 8 tabs, 23 refs.

The energy efficiency and emissions of greenhouse gases were estimated for 15 public school buildings in the city of Santa Rosa, in a central area of Argentina. The annual energy consumption of electricity and natural gas by square meter of construction and by student was measured in each case. The greenhouse gases emissions were estimated using a standard method applied in the UK. The consumption of electricity and gas over the estimated needs of auxiliary heating, and the economic cost of the consumed energy, were used as indications of energy efficiency in the study buildings. The need for auxiliary heating varied from school to school, but was lower than the current levels of heating, revealing an inefficient use of energy. A low emission of greenhouse gases was estimated for the local buildings in comparison to school buildings located in other environments of the northern hemisphere. However, such emissions seem to be necessarily high for the local climate conditions. It is concluded that some standardized designs and management practices, as well as the development of local standards for energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to improve the energy efficiency of buildings in the study region and to contribute to the prevention of environmental change globally. 

energy efficiency, school, carbon dioxide

#NO 13000 Ventilation and indoor air quality in indoor ice skating arenas.

Parsons A, Yang C, Demokritov F K, Spengler J, Chen Q

in: ASHRAE Annual Meeting 2000, proceedings of a conference held Minneapolis, USA, June 24-28, 2000.

The combustion byproducts from the fuel-powered ice resurfacing equipment impose a potential health risk to both athletes and spectators. A field survey of 10 ice rinks arenas indicates that the fuel type used by the resurfacer as well as the air exchange rate, the air distribution method, and the operation strategy of the ventilation system are significant contributing factors to the indoor air quality. With computational fluid dynamics, it is possible to develop design and operating guidelines for ventilation systems in order to reduce contamination levels in the arenas.

public building, ventilation strategy

#NO 13011 Energy efficiency in buildings.


UK, London, Chartered Institution for Buidling Services Engineers, 1998.

This new guide intends to highlight the opportunities for saving energy in buildings while maintaining the comfort and health of their occupants. The guide shows how to improve energy performance, reduce running costs and minimise the environmental impact of buildings by: designing energy efficient new buildings and refurbishment of existing buildings; operating buildings energy efficiently; demonstrating the value of energy efficiency to clients and developers; enabling engineers to overcome barriers to energy efficiency in discussions with clients and other members of the design and construction team.

energy efficiency, commercial building, public building

#NO 13107 The introduction of ventilation efficiency in the Italian standard UNI 10339.

Joppolo C, Giorgiantoni G

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Innovations in Ventilation Technology", 21st AIVC Annual Conference, held The Hague, Netherlands, 26-29 September 2000, paper 58. This paper not available from AIVC.

Designers, professionals and practitioners are currently making evaluations and sizing ventilation systems and apparatus in Italy on the basis of the Italian standard UNI 10339. This prescriptive standard is relatively recent, being issued in June 1995. Industrial buildings are not considered. As far as IAQ is concerned, systems must ensure that known contaminants concentrations will not be harmful to the health and well-being of the occupants. This is a general criteria, i.e. concentration limits are not defined. On the contrary, fresh air flowrates per occupant are fixed (or related to the room net surface or to achs). These flowrates are prescribed on the basis of the building typology or on its final destination. Our perception is that this standard needs improvement in some of its aspects. Firstly, the standard does not show the concentration limits for the pollutants, for each compound of which the harmful effects are acknowledged or the cross interaction among these substances. Also the standard does not define the difference between harmful conditions and comfort perception. Furthermore attention is not given to the conditions which are likely to occur to a percentage of the occupants such the famous SBS (Sick Building Syndrome). An aspect of great importance which is overlooked in the standard is also "Ventilation Efficiency". In September 1999 the Italian Thermotecnical Committee founded a working group aimed at the so-called "maintenance" of the standard. ENEA (The Italian Committee for the New Technologies Energy and the Environment) is actively participating with the authors of the works, under the leadership of the Energy Department of Politecnico of Milano. The intermediate scope is the introduction in the norm of the ventilation efficiency, formulating the corrective coefficients to the standard ventilation flowrates. This aims to match, in a better way, the Italian reality of the offices and other public buildings. For example, it is known that our country is a wide market for systems such primary air fan-coils. The state of the work at the moment is in the undertaking of CFD simulations for 5 typical systems configurations. A standard 50 m3 building cell with two occupants is under investigation. 

standard, ventilation efficiency

#NO 13149 Airtightness of commercial and institutional buildings: blowing holes in the myth of tight buildings.

Persily A K

USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 829-837, 5 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

It is often assumed that commercial and institutional buildings are fairly airtight and that envelope air leakage does not have a significant impact on energy consumption and indoor air quality in these buildings. Furthermore, it is also assumed that more recently constructed buildings are tighter than old buildings. The fact of the matter is that very few data are available on the airtightness of building envelopes in commercial and institutional buildings. The data that do exist show significant levels of air leakage in these buildings and do not support correlation of airtightness with building age, size or construction. This paper presents the airtightness data that are available and limited conclusions that can be drawn from these data.

air tightness, large building, building envelope, commercial building, public building

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