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LL 06: Air Infiltration and Ventilation in Industrial Buildings

AIVC, 2001
AIVC | LL
Bibliographic info: LL 06
Languages: English

Air Infiltration and Ventilation in Industrial Buildings


#NO 11295 Push and pull ventilation system applications for foundry/welding.

Komine H, Tsuji K, Mori Y

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 121-130, 10 figs, 1 tab.

This report is concerned with push-pull ventilation application for removing metal fumes generated in a casting plant and welding shop. Few application results are available for this situation. The system was designed using a scale model and numerical simulation. The performance was very good, and could be operated under conditions of much higher pouring rate than designed for.

industrial building, ventilation system, numerical simulation, toxic gas

#NO 11297 Application of CFD in investigation of ventilation strategies for improvement of working environment in a waste incineration plant.

Heiselberg P, Svidt K, Kragh H

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 155-163, 5 figs, 1 tab.

In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve the working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, I/S Amagerforbraending, had expanded to be able to supply both district heating and power. This caused too high temperatures in the working zones and measures to reduce these levels had to be taken. Different solutions were suggested. CFD calculations of the indoor environment were included in the decision-making. This resulted in valuable new information which was very useful in the decision process. Especially in evaluation of the effects of combined solutions the calculations proved to be valuable and contributed to ensure reliable solutions to complicated ventilation problems. The investigation showed that displacement ventilation with an increased supply air flow rate at floor level was not the best solution in this case because of work stations distributed in the whole hall and not only close to the floor. A solution with low momentum air supply at ceiling level proved to give a more even temperature distribution in the hall. The solution was also much more effective since lower supply air temperatures were possible without causing draught problems.

computational fluid dynamics, ventilation strategies, industrial building

#NO 11298 Computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for industrial ventilation.

Thomson M, Goodfellow H

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 165-174, 5 figs.

Designers of industrial ventilation systems for processing and manufacturing plants need accurate models that predict their design's performance within the project's constraints of cost and schedule. Conventional design equations often are based on rule-of-thumb or empirical data, and not a rigorous scientific approach. The advent of fast, low cost computers have made Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling within the reach of industrial ventilation system designers. CFD modeling is versatile and can be tailored to a wide range of specific ventilation systems from simple hoods to whole buildings. In each case, the designer specifies the geometrics, flowrates and conditions of the specific application. CFD modeling is also comprehensive. It can predict fume emissions, fume concentrations and air temperatures allowing the designer to optimize the environmental effects, the indoor air quality and worker comfort, respectively. This paper will present some case studies on the application of CFD for advanced industrial ventilation design. They will include: a simple 2-D model of a capture hood, a 3-D model of the ventilation exhaust re-entrainment outside a building, a transient model of a receptor hood, and a 3-D model of ventilation flows inside a large process building. As computers and software improves with time, CFD modeling will become the standard analysis tool for ventilation designers.

computational fluid dynamics, industrial building

#NO 11299 Ventilation systems applied to automotive manufacturing.

Woody A

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 175-179, 1 tab.

Manufacturing in the automotive industry is quite varied; including casting, modeling, machining, stamping, forging, plating, cleaning, assembly and painting operations. There are also testing, calibration and research facilities. Typically production equipment is very automated and capable of high levels of production. This equates to high energy levels and the increased likelihood of required ventilation. Automation includes conveyors which move parts from one operation to the next. All systems compete for space making it more difficult to apply the best ventilation techniques for contaminant control. This presentation will address the type of process operations used in the automotive industry and general ventilation approaches applied to each general process. The ventilation challenges are varied. They include proper control of process contaminants ranging from toxic fumes and gases to hazardous particulate. Exhaust systems normally found in automotive plants include both local and general exhaust systems. The ventilation system design often relies upon the coordinated use of supply air and exhaust air systems to be effective.

industrial building, ventilation system

#NO 11300 Ventilation in the car industry in Europe.

Biegert B

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 181-188, 4 figs, 6 refs.

In Europe, and especially Germany, the car industry demands most of the newly designed ventilation techniques and acts as a testing ground for them. The scope of this paper is confined to some main and basic production processes, i.e., pressing, casting, mechanical production and welding. Common to all is a combined emission of heat and material which allows - together with the appropriate ventilating system - the use of the thermal air flows for pollutant removal. Outlines the boundary conditions given by the European and especially German legislation and guidelines. Then discusses two recently developed capture systems and their practical application and lastly gives a short presentation of the zonal layer air flow pattern which allows a reduction of contaminant load factors up to 90%.

industrial building, ventilation system

#NO 11309 A field study of cold air flows through doorways of industrial buildings.

Hejazi-Hashemi M G, Siren K E

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 299-306, 6 figs, 1 ref.

A problem, which appears in many industrial buildings is spreading of the outdoor cold air coming in through the doorways and other large openings, causing draught and pollution at the work places, disturbing the proper functioning of the ventilation as well as disturbing some production processes and increasing the maintenance and energy costs. The goal of this study was to achieve quantitative, measured information of the effects of cold air flows in the industrial environment. The method used was field measurements, which were carried out during the wintertime 1996 in industrial buildings located in the northern part of Finland. Totally 12 industrial buildings, representing a wide variety of different situations were monitored. The results show remarkably high cold air flow rates through doorways. Air flow velocities up to 7 m/s and air flow rates up to 60 m3/s were measured. High flow rates occurred especially in tall buildings, where the stack effect is high. As a consequence adverse effects on thermal conditions, ventilation, processes and the energy consumption were observed. The results serve as a base for an analysis, where simple tools are developed for the planning stage of industrial ventilation and especially for the prevention of cold air flows in arctic and sub arctic climates.

industrial building, door, air flow

#NO 11310 Numerical simulation of push-pull ventilation for controlling buoyant metal fumes in a casting plant.

Tsuji K, Fukuhara I, Nakamura Y, Mizuno M

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 309-318, 8 figs, 1 tab, 5 refs.

This report is concerned with push-pull ventilation for removing metal fumes generating in a casting plant when molten metal is poured from a furnace. An actual metal melting shop in a casting plant was chosen as the subject to this study, and application of push-pull ventilation was investigated by numerical simulations and proved by field tests. Although the fundamental characteristics of push-pull ventilation have been proved, there are few application results of push-pull ventilation system for removing a plume with high buoyancy. The appropriate push and pull velocities to control a buoyant plume were obtained by numerical simulations for three dimensional buoyant push-pull flows. To verify the accuracy of numerical simulations and to confirm the effectiveness of push-pull ventilation, field tests were performed by using an actual scale model of the push-pull ventilation system. As the results of the field tests, the plume was kept sufficiently under control of the push-pull flow and actual plume flows agree well with the numerical simulation results.

numerical modelling, toxic gas, industrial building

#NO 11312 Scale model experiments on the fume control system for an electric meltshop.

Mierzwinski S, Nawrocki W, Piotrowski J, Trzeciakiewicz Z

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, "Ventilation '97: Global Developments in Industrial Ventilation", proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume I, pp 343-353, 8 figs, refs.

The paper presents results of experimental studies employing scale modelling to elaborate an investment programme of the fume control system improvement for a meltshop with 140 Mg electric arc furnaces at their intensified mode of operation. The aim of the model tests was to determine structural and operating parameters of an additional canopy hood as the III stage of the fume total exhaust system and its operation together with the existing I and II exhaust stages in new technological conditions of the meltshop. Special attention was paid to the aerodynamic correctness of the canopy hood shape. To ensure the proper performance of the tested exhaust systems during charging and intensive melting periods, the ranges of required flow rates of gases to be exhausted were determined.

toxic gas, industrial building

#NO 11327 Exhaust slots over open plating tanks: the effect of a number of configurations.

Regnier R, Dessagne J M, Bonthoux F

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 623-638, 10 figs, 2 tabs, 9 refs.

An experimental study was carried out at INRS to evaluate the effect of various parameters and configurations on the performance of unilateral and bilateral slots installed on open plating tanks. Tests were performed in steady-state conditions using a tank placed in an aerodynamic test rig. Capture efficiency was selected as the evaluation criterion, and was measured using a tracer gas technique. Items for dipping were simulated by volumetric or plane obstacles; the effect, though significant, was not as influential as that previously observed. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of a high tank freeboard was highlighted. Temperature had a minor impact when lower than 75oC.

industrial building, exhaust ventilation

#NO 11328 Supplying makeup air to an industrial premises equipped with a local extraction system.

Rapp R, Fontaine J R, Aubertin G

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 639-647, 3 figs, 2 tabs, refs.

The design of an air inlet system of a workshop equipped with a local extraction system has been analysed by means of a parametric study employing numerical simulation with the EOL3D software. The geometric and ventilation characterstics of the inlet vents as well as their distance from the local extraction system were varied. The installation was assessed on the basis of two criteria: the disturbance of the local extraction system and the comfort of the personnel in the workshop. The twenty five cases studied allowed a range of parameter to be determined that correspond to satisfactory or unsatisfactory systems. The work is being generalised to determine rules for designing air makeup systems for installations with local extraction systems that are sensitive to disturbances.

industrial building, outdoor air

#NO 11329 Principles of welding fume control.

Zhivov A M, Ashe J T

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 649-656, 2 tabs, refs.

The American Welding Society Safety and Health Committee has recently revised its Guide for Weld Fume Control. The revised guide outlines recommended principles of ventilation systems for facilities with welding and allied processes and is based on internationally available state of the art information. The objectives are to enhance the health and safety of the industrial environment and energy conservation. The paper presents the main highlights of the Guide, including hazards of fumes and gases, ventilation, fume filtration, and duct design.

industrial building, toxic gas, exhaust ventilation

#NO 11330 A push-pull ventilation system for use in hand soldering.

Cherrie J W, Hamid E A, O'Harra V

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 658-665, 3 figs, refs.

Hand soldering is associated with occupational asthma. Various studies have implicated the aerosol component of the emissions from heated flux, particularly the resin acid component, in causing sensitisation. Many different approaches have been adopted to try to reduce exposure, including low-volume high-velocity (LVHV) systems, local exhaust hoods and portable blowers. In practice all of these systems have advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a prototype design for a push-pull local ventilation system. It comprised a flanged exhaust hood extracting at about 0.05 m3/s, with a push airflow of 1.67 x 10-3 m3/s. A 0.032 m diameter pipe, with 4 mm diameter holes drilled at 0.02 m intervals its length, was used as the push plenum. Laboratory tests of the capture efficiency of this system were carried out using nitrous oxide gas. Measurements were made for five tracer release points along the centre line between the exhaust hood and the push plenum. Within 0.15 m from the hood the capture efficiency was >98%, regardless of whether the push airflow was operating. However, moving further away from the exhaust hood without the push air supply produced a sharp drop in capture efficiency (approximately 10% at 0.4m). In contrast, with the push airflow operating the capture efficiency was always greater than 90%. The prototype has subsequently been implemented in an electronics factory and compared with their existing LVHV system. The push-pull system has proved to be acceptable to the operators and did not interfere with the quality of the solder joint. Comparative measurements of the push-pull and LVHV system showed that the former provided more consistent control of exposure to resin acids in the fume.

industrial building

#NO 11338 Design criteria and methods for concrete slab cooling applications.

Koschenz M, Dorer V

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 761-769, 3 figs, 4 refs.

In many new office or industrial building projects, slab cooling is considered for various reasons. In European countries, such systems are promoted by research and demonstration programs. Building regulations and codes favor or simply require systems with a low energy demand and low environmental impact. It is widely acknowledged that the building mass used as an energy storage reduces peak cooling power demands. But the building mass can only store energy if a surface and therefore also a room air temperature rise during the day time is accepted. At night time the stored energy has to be removed. This can be done very efficiently by a concrete slab cooling system. Because of the good thermal coupling of the pipes in the concrete slab, better performances are often achieved compared to passive cooling by both natural or mechanical night time ventilation. Nevertheless, the room air temperature rise during the day is strongly affected by the convective part of the heat source and can only be controlled by the air system. The difference between the air and the slab surface temperature respectively should be kept as small as possible. Such, the temperature rise during the day can mostly be used for the energy storage. Therefore, the correct dimensioning of the air system plays also an important role in concrete slab cooling system design. Even concrete slab cooling may offer many advantages, it is not a good solution in cases such as buildings with large convective parts of the heat load, buildings with badly predictable heat loads, zones with narrow temperature range requirement, or rooms with suspended ceilings or double doors. This paper is aimed at helping the system design engineer to understand the basic elements of concrete slab cooling systems. Then, simple key values and a design chart are provided, sufficient for a preliminary dimensioning of the system at an early stage in the design process.

cooling, thermal mass

#NO 11339 Removal of airborne contaminants from a surface tank by a push-pull system.

Heiselberg P, Topp C

The Canadian Environment Industry Association (CEIA), 1997, proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 14-17, 1997, Volume 2, pp 770-780, 6 figs, 1 tab, 5 refs.

Open surface tanks are used in many industrial processes, and local exhaust systems are often designed to capture and remove toxic fumes diffused from materials in the tanks prior to their escape into the workplace environment. The push-pull system seems to be the most efficient local exhaust system, but proper design is required to ensure health and safety of the workers and, furthermore, it is very desirable from an energy conservation point of view to determine an optimum and an efficient design of push-pull hoods which can exhaust all contaminants with a minimum quantity of volume flow. The paper describes and discusses different design methods and compares designed values with results from a measurement series of push-pull system efficiency. The measurements showed that the balance between supply and exhaust air flow rates and the level of supply air momentum were very critical for a well-working push-pull ventilation system with high exhaust efficiency. Different design methods were compared with the measured situation. The ACGIH design method resulted in a well-working and very safe system with regard to exhaust efficiency, but also in a relatively high energy consumption and liquid evaporation rates. The Skistad design method also resulted in a well-working system but allowed an optimum and an efficient design of push-pull systems from both the workers' safety and an energy conservation point of view.

industrial building, pollutant

#NO 11495 An Approach for Assessing Target Levels for Industrial Air Quality

Niemela R, Raisanen J

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 1, pp 141-148.

This paper considers methodologies for how desired level, target level, of industrial air quality can be defined taking into account a feasibility issue. The method is based on the health-based risk assessment and the technology-based approach. Because health-based risk estimates at low contaminant concentration regions are rather inaccurate, the technology-based approach is emphasized. The technological approach is based on information on the prevailing contaminant concentrations in industrial work environment and the benchmark air quality attained with the best achievable control technology. The prevailing contaminant concentrations attained with a standard technology are obtained from a contaminant exposure data bank and the benchmark air quality by field measurements in industrial work rooms equipped with the advanced ventilation and production technology. As an example the target level assessment has been applied to most common contaminants in work room air. Target levels of air quality benefit ventilation designers, manufacturers of air handling equipment and end-users of ventilation systems.

industrial building, indoor air quality, workplace, ventilation system

#NO 11526 A Scale Model Study on Contaminant Removal Effectiveness of Industrial Facility

Kobayashi N, Yamanaka K, Kikuchi S

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 1, pp 369-376.

Effective ventilation systems for a factory where various kinds of contaminant are discharged from many point sources are investigated in this study. Two ventilation systems are examined by scale model experiment using tracer gas. One system supplies fresh air and exhausts indoor air through the ceiling; the other has the inlet in the floor and outlet in the ceiling. Each system has a hanging wall installed at the ceiling, a device for immediate removal of the contaminant before it diffuses into the whole space. The performance of these ventilation systems is evaluated by an index of contaminant removal effectiveness. Results indicate that the hanging wall system can be very effective to ensure good indoor air quality if properly designed. The system with fresh air supply from the floor and a long hanging wall was the most effective. This system reduces the spatial averaged concentration in the occupied zone to 60% of the complete mixing concentration and therefore improves the air quality.

industrial building, factory, scale model, tracer gas

#NO 11527 Industrial Buildings with High Thermal Loads: Simulation of Natural Ventilation

Breer D, Dorer V

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 1, pp 377-384.

In office and industrial buildings, the replacement of mechanical ventilation systems by natural ventilation systems is one suitable possibility to reduce the electrical energy consumption. The modeling and simulation of thermally induced natural ventilation are presented here based on the example of a industrial laundry. An industrial laundry is a typical building with high internal thermal loads. For a representative summer case the outdoor air exchange and the room air temperatures in various zones were determined. The temperature evolutions were the result of simulations made with the computer program TRNSYS. The openings for natural ventilation are often equipped with insect screens, which have an influence on the discharge coefficient Cd and thus on the flow resistance. This influence must be considered in the simulation and planning of the building and for this reason, different insect screens were measured in the air flow chamber at the EMPA. Both the grid distance and the opening cross-section were varied. The results show that insect screens have less influence on the discharge coefficient than expected. The simulations and the measurements indicate that with the planned openings high enough outdoor airflow rates result for the zones.

industrial building, natural ventilation, simulation

#NO 11529 Theoretical and Field Study of Air Change in Industrial Buildings

Fleury E, Millet J R, Villenave J G, Veyrat O, Morisseau C

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 1, pp 393-398.

The air leakages can have a large impact on heating needs and thermal comfort in industrial buildings. This is sometimes poorly taken into account, both due to the lake of theoretical approach and knowledge of the air tightness. We present the application of the calculation code SIREN95 in this field and its validation against field measurements. The field study concerns five average industrial buildings, in which different tasks have been carried out : air tightness measurements, using pressurisation method, two series of measurements of air change with a tracer gas method (decay), field measurements during a whole heating season. Weekly energy balances were calculated using the results of field measurements -and the air changes calculated by SIREN95. They showed a good agreement between heat gains (internal and solar) and heat losses (through the envelope, air change).

industrial building, air change rate, air leakage, thermal comfort, air tightness

#NO 11538 Theoretical and field study of air change in industrial buildings.

Fleury E, Millet J R, Villenave J G, Veyrat O, Morisseau C

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 57-65.

The air leakages can have a large impact on heating needs and thermal comfort in industrial buildings. This is sometimes poorly taken into account, both due to the lack of theoretical approach and knowledge of air tightness. We present the application of the calculation code SIREN95 in this field and its validation against field measurements.

The field study concerns five average industrial buildings, in which different tasks have been carried out: air tightness measurements, using pressurisation method, two series of measurements of air change with a tracer gas method (decay), field measurements during a whole heating season.

Weekly energy balances were calculated using the results of field measurements - and the air changes calculated by SIREN95. They showed a good agreement between heat gains (internal and solar) and heat losses (through the envelope, air change).

calculation techniques

#NO 11549 Controlled natural ventilation for commercial and industrial buildings. 

Knoll B, Phaff J C

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 154-167.

The Dutch organization for applied scientific research TNO in Delft developed a system of Controlled Natural Ventilation (CNV). It is produced by the Dutch ventilation firm Braked in Uden. The system controls ventilation grills and windows. Its purpose is: to compensate for fluctuating buoyancy forces (wind and temperature) so that natural ventilation flows are kept on set point value, independent of weather changes and changes in internal heat production; to optimize the air flow distribution over the building to get the highest possible ventilation efficiency; to restrict ventilation openings when draught risks occur. The CNV system is based on a computer program that simulates ventilation. A special inverse version is derived that calculates the optimal ventilation openings for a specific building on each weather condition and for each ventilation set point. The program needs input on local wind effects on the building. They are predicted with another new developed simulation tool, called the 'Cp-Generator'. This special computer program for prediction of wind pressure coefficients (Cp's) is built in as a module in the main program.

Extra features of the CNV system are: rain protection without decrease in flow rate; improved noise reduction; collaboration with mechanical ventilation; anticipation on opening doors; building leakage compensation; adjustment of both flow rate and direction to varying pollution or heat sources; smoother temperature control; special control for smoke ventilation.

building controls

#NO 11576 A simple interactive design tool for sizing, locating and determining pollution attenuation features of urban air inlets suitable for office buildings.

Ajiboye P

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Ventilation Technologies in Urban Areas", 19th Annual Conference, held Oslo, Norway, 28-30 September 1998, pp 414-423.

The paper identifies successful ways of applying natural ventilation to non domestic buildings located in urban areas. Whilst noise and contaminant pollution sources are a problem, methods of avoiding these emissions are discussed. A review of literature has established that pollution problems arise for buildings which are in close proximity to roads, railways, airports and local industries. Location of ventilation air inlets will affect the quality of indoor air, therefore it is essential that they are located in ways that minimise the ingress of external pollutants. Potential pollution avoidance strategies include locating vents on sheltered facades and positioning central inlets at a sufficient height from emissions. Wind flow patterns around buildings have an important impact on air quality, and a simple model is discussed that determines the decrease in pollutant concentrations between emission sources and air intakes.

Adequate ventilation is required to limit the number of occasions when indoor temperatures are uncomfortable. A series of well established models are presented based on different natural ventilation concepts. These models can be used to size air inlets for any building, to provide specified ventilation rates on any floor. All issues discussed in the paper form part of an interactive design tool that provides best practice guidelines for minimising the impact of urban pollution, selecting suitable air inlets, and sizing them so as to provide adequate ventilation during the summer.

outdoor air, traffic pollution, inlet positioning, wind effects

#NO 11639 Kylmien ilmavirtausten torjunta teollisuushalleissa. Suunnitteluohje.

Valkeapaa A, Hejazi-Hashemi S, Siren K

Finland, Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, 1998, report B55, 94 pp + app., in Finnish

Cold outdoor air inside industrial buildings causes draught problems and increases energy consumption of the building. Also cold outdoor air has a harmful effect on the processes and ventilation system and the floor area near the door opening cannot be used in productive activity. Furthermore, cold outdoor air is warmed slowly and causes a long duration temperature stratification, which removing is very difficult.

Prevention for cold air flows depends on many contemporaneous factors, such as the climate conditions, the building layout and height, the near terrain, the places of door openings, the number of door openings and the building structures. The most important thing in prevention of cold air flows is to recognise these factors and to understand the interaction between the climate conditions, the near terrain and the building itself. If the building structure disadvantages are not solved by heating and ventilation means, HVAC-engineers have to interface in these structure disadvantages.

The aim of this new planning rule for the prevention of cold air flow is to instruct HVAC-engineers to find the decisions for the prevention cold air flows in the large openings and on the cover of industrial buildings. The planning rule can be used also in the negotiations with customers. Because of that the planning rule includes many photos and pictures of preventing solutions.

The planning rule is developed together with the experts of industrial ventilation and the manufacturers. The planning rule includes the form of risk index, three main decision trees and some auxiliary decision trees. Preventing solutions are introduced among other things the air curtains, the shelter structures of loading docks and the service entrances. The planning rule is complete with the simulation programme CAFCAM, which can calculate air flows through the door openings, the pressure distribution of industrial building and the position of neutral pressure level.

industrial building, building design

#NO 11766 Ventilazione ad alta induzione in uno stabilimento industriale. Induction ventilation in industrial buildings.

Anon

Italy, CDA, No 7, July 1998, pp 713-718, 8 figs, in Italian.

Due to their flexible and functional features and their low cost, induction systems which make use of perforated ducts in plastic-coated fabric are an excellent solution to many ventilation problems in industrial buildings where environmental comfort, air quality and reduced volumes are required. This article takes into consideration an example of installation in a rubber processing unit where there are machines producing heat and polluting vapours and dusts.

industrial building, thermal performance

#NO 11891 Placement of ventilation air intakes for improved IAQ.

Rock B A, Moylan K A

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 9 pp, 5 figs, 1 tab, refs.

ASHRAE Research Project 806, Design Criteria for Building Ventilation Inlets, reviews existing knowledge of the placement of ventilation air louvers, produces a design guide, and suggests additional research, all with the intention of improving indoor air quality in commercial and institutional buildings. Decisions about intake and exhaust placements made early in the architectural and HVAC system design processes will impact occupants over the life of a building. Such placment decisions, therefore, require proper consideration. There is little guidance currently available to designers, but research efforts in this area are expanding.

Previous research efforts and standards relating to ventilation air intake placement are described in this paper. However, more extensive coverage and a lengthy bibliography are provided in the project's "Literature Report". In "A Designer's Guide to Placement of Ventilation Air Intake Louvers" for the project, the phenomena, standards, and design experiences that affect the placement of intake air louvers are reviewed using less technical text, many graphics, and example calculations.

More research is needed on ventilation intake placement for common commercial HVAC systems with rooftop, through-the-wall, and at-grade louvers. Most existing knowledge is derived from the many studies on industrial stack exhaust-gas reentrainment and not common HVAC geometries. The findings of such future research and a summary of this project's "Designer's Guide" need to be included in future revisions of ASHRAE Handbook chapters.

air intakes

#NO 11896 Performance evaluation and design guidelines for displacement ventilation.

Yuan X, Chen Q, Glicksman L R

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 12 pp, 8 figs, refs.

This paper evaluates the performance of traditional displacement ventilation systems for small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under U.S. thermal and flow boundary conditions, such as a high cooling load. With proper design, displacement ventilation can maintain a thermally comfortable environment that has a low air velocity, a small temperature difference between the head and foot level, and a low percentage of dissatisfied people. Compared with conventional mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality in the occupied zone when the contaminant sources are associated with the heat sources. The mean age of air is younger, and the ventilation effectiveness is higher. Based on results from Scandinavian countries and the authors' investigation of U.S. buildings, this paper presents guidelines for designing displacement ventilation in the United States.

displacement ventilation, office building, school, industrial building

#NO 11902 Comparison of various methods to distribute supply air in industrial facilities.

Kirkpatrick A T, Strobel K

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 12 pp, 13 figs, 7 tabs, refs.

The evaluation of the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort for various industrial ventilation schemes has been carried out by scale model experimentation. Forty experiments involving ten ventilation arrangements, each with three supply airflow rates and two possible industrial process heat loads, were performed. Measurements of airspeed, temperature, and contaminant concentration allowed the thermal comfort and contaminant removal to be quantified using the ISI Comfort Standard ISO-7730 and the ventilation effectiveness indices, respectively. Archimedes number scaling was used to convert the small-scale measurements to full-scale conditions.

The largest ventilation effectiveness occurred for a low supply/high return configuration, with values above 1.6, followed by a high supply/high return configuration with values in the range from 1.0 to 1.2. A low supply/low return configuration had values of about 1.0. The ventilation efficiency generally increased when the heat load was increased and/or the flow rate decreased. Increasing the number of diffusers in the occupied zone increased the ventilation effectiveness. The thermal comfort results depended on the diffuser configuration and the activity level of the worker. Most of the configurations produced acceptable thermal comfort results for a seated worker and unacceptable conditions at an increased activity and clothing level.

industrial building, ventilation effectiveness, standard

#NO 11904 Models for prediction of temperature difference and ventilation effectiveness with displacement ventilation.

Yuan X, Chen Q, Glicksman L R

USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc (ASHRAE), 1999, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1999 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, held Chicago, USA, January 1999, 14 pp, 12 figs, 1 tab, refs.

Displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality than mixing ventilation. Proper design of displacement ventilation requires information concerning the air temperature difference between the head and foot level of a sedentary person and the ventilation effectiveness at the breathing level.

This paper presents models to predict the air temperature difference and the ventilation effectiveness, based on a database of 56 cases with displacement ventilation. The database was generated by using a validated CFD program and covers four different types of U.S. buildings: small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under different thermal and flow boundary conditions.

Both the maximum cooling load that can be removed by displacement ventilation and the ventilation effectiveness are shown to depend on the heat source type and ventilation rate in a room.

modelling, temperature difference, displacement ventilation, ventilation effectiveness

#NO 12021 Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities: literature review.

Hagstrom K, Siren K, Zhivov A M

Finland, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Espoo 1999, Report B60, 205 pp.

Contents cover: target levels for air distribution design; air distribution design methods in large industrial halls; air diffusers and their performance; air jets theory; jets interaction; jets in confined spaces; influence of obstructions on room air distribution; probabilistic approach to the occupied zone comfort and contaminant distribution; and ventilation efficiency.

calculation techniques, industrial building, air supply

#NO 12050 Utilising selective withdrawal in the ventilation of large rooms: "Select-vent".

Skistad H

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 17-23, 10 figs, 1 tab, refs.

This paper presents a way of ventilating a large room so that the room can be divided into different zones by temporary vertical walls (canvas, plastic sheets etc) and with no physical ceiling. Different activities, like welding, painting or mechanical assembly, can go on inside each of these zones, unaffected by each other, as long as pollutants are extracted through designated extract openings in the outer walls.

These inner, temporary walls need only reach from say 3 - 4 metres above the floor and up to some metres above the pollutants' height of equilibrium. Thus, transport at floor level can go on between the different zones, and traverse cranes can pass freely above the zones.

This principle has been developed by for practical industrial ventilation, and we designate it "Select-vent".

large room, displacement ventilation, air flow pattern, full scale experiments

#NO 12083 Assessment of the systemic approach using radioactive tracers and CFD.

Berne P, Blet V

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 275-280, 9 figs, 1 tab, refs.

An application of the systemic approach is presented for the study of the ventilation of a room in an industrial facility. First, a series of tracer gas experiments was made with a radioactive tracer. Analysis of the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves, supported by some CFD, then enabled to build a simple zonal model for the description and quantification of the observed air flow patterns. This model was able to reproduce the experimental RTDs inside the room as well as at the exhaust.

air flow patterns, computational fluid dynamics, tracer gas

#NO 12103 Comparison of zonal and CFD modelling of natural ventilation in a thermally stratified building.

Li Y, Delsante A, Symons J G, Chen L

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 415-422, 8 figs, 1 tab, refs.

This paper compares two well-known modelling approaches for natural ventilation in a multi-zone building with thermal stratification and large openings. The zonal approach in this paper assumes a fully mixed condition in each zone, and considers the bi-directional flows through all large openings. The zonal model is integrated into a thermal analysis code to provide simultaneous prediction of both ventilation flow rates and air temperatures in each zone. The CFD approach uses a finite-volume method for turbulent flows. A simple pressure boundary condition is used at all external openings in CFD.

This is reasonable agreement between the overall ventilation flow rates and average zonal air temperatures predicted by the two modelling approaches. It is found that the multi-zone approach predicts a lower neutral level for the building than predicted by CFD. This might be mainly due to the fact that thermal stratification is neglected in the present multi-zone model. It is explained by a new emptying air-filling box model for natural ventilation of single-zone buildings.

natural ventilation, air flow pattern, modelling, temperature gradient, industrial building

#NO 12117 The application of CFD to large scale industrial premises.

Phillips D A, Goodfellow H D

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH Building Services Engineering, 1998, proceedings of Roomvent 98: 6th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, held June 14-17 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden, edited by Elisabeth Mundt and Tor-Goran Malmstrom, Volume 2, pp 517-524, 3 figs, 2 tabs, refs.

This paper introduces a research programme investigating the application of CFD to large scale industrial premises. A number of modelling issues and two case studies are discussed. The research programme will lead to an increased degree of confidence of CFD simulation results in complicated environments.

computational fluid dynamics, industrial building, large building

#NO 12216 Prediction of the indoor air quality trend in a dwelling in the Mediterranean climate.

Giorgiantoni G, Giuli G

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 1, pp 708-713.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indoor air quality parameters in a residential dwelling using information from the field. The subject was a typical example of the modern Italian dwelling stock, built in the 1980s in a residential area in the northern part of Rome. The dwelling was constructed from pre-cast panels using industrial building techniques. The windows were steel-framed and painted. Airtightness was measured to obtain the ACH (air changes per hour) at 50 Pa pressure difference, and ELA (equivalent leakage area). Other parameters which were also measured to predict the behaviour of the dwelling during natural ventilation the influence of the urban environmental conditions. The data were used as input to simulations using the NIST multizone model CONTAM96 to predict the contaminant distribution within the dwelling during normal activities such as cooking, smoking etc. The combined use of field measurements and computer simulation produces a better evaluation of the pollutant trends than previously available, since quantities such as airtightness of windows and frames previously had to be estimated from background literature, based mainly on factory test, which ignore quality of workmanship during construction.

residential building, air tightness, natural ventilation

#NO 12304 Atmospheric turbulence influence on natural ventilation air change rates.

Saraiva J G, Marques da Silva F

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 4, pp 847-851.

In order to estimate air change rates (ACH) on Natural Ventilation (NV) processes a number of factors should be known as general and openings dimensions, pressure distribution over the facades, internal heat sources (or sinks) and head losses. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) characteristics change with the terrain roughness and affect the pressure distribution. Construction features determine infiltration rates, flow regimes through openings and its head losses so affecting the internal airflow. The present paper concentrates on one of the external factors affecting air change rates - turbulence - and it's inclusion on VENTIL, an integral model for NV estimates. As a result an increased knowledge of NV capabilities is obtained. Some results will be presented as an application to an industrial building under different ABL. 

turbulence, air change rate

#NO 12388 Solar collector system for heating ventilation air.

CADDET

Netherlands, CADDET, Result 228, January 1996, 4 pp.

The Conserval Perforated Plate Solarwall is a metal solar collector designed to provide preheated ventilation (make-up) air for buildings. The system is intended primarily for industrial applications, but also has potential for commercial and multi-residential buildings with large south facing walls.

In 1991, a 420m2 Solarwall was erected at the General Motors of Canada Battery Plant in Oshawa, Ontario. This installation reduced energy costs in several ways: by capturing solar energy, by reducing heat loss through the south-facing wall of the building, and by destratifying indoor air.

air tightness, solar facade

#NO 12406 Roomvent '98 6th international conference on air distribution in rooms. Volume 1.

Mundt E, Malmstroem T-G (eds.)

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH, 1998, proceedings of a conference held Stockholm, Sweden, June 14-17, 1998, 536 pp.

Volume 1 of the conference contains papers from the following sessions: applications, residences; flow systems, displacement ventilation; calculations and measurements, CFD and related topics; IAQ and comfort, air quality; applications, offices and hospitals; flow systems, displacement and local ventilation; calculations and measurements, scale and computer models; IAQ and comfort, particles and cleanrooms; applications, industries; flow systems, plumes; calculations and measurements, CFD, applications; IAQ and comfort, emission and sorption.

indoor air quality, ventilation system

#NO 12407 Roomvent '98 6th international conference on air distribution in rooms. Volume 2.

Mundt E, Malmstroem T-G (eds.)

Sweden, Stockholm, KTH, 1998, proceedings of a conference held Stockholm, Sweden, June 14-17, 1998, 624 pp.

Volume 2 of the conference contains papers from the following sessions: applications, large spaces; flow systems, jets and supply air terminal devices; calculations and measurements, heat transfer in rooms; IAQ and comfort, influence of the surroundings on humans; applications, auditoriums and museums; flow systems, ventilation effectiveness; calculations and measurements, room air movements; IAQ and comfort, thermal comfort; applications, kitchens; flow systems, natural ventilation; calculations and measurements, tracer gas and air exchange measurements; applications, livestock buildings and industries; flow systems, air flow between rooms and through windows; calculations and measurements, velocity measurements.

indoor air quality, ventilation system

#NO 12411 Adjustable speed drives improve ventilation at metal plating facility.

CADDET

Netherlands, CADDET, Result 262, February 1997, 4 pp.

General Dynamics Armament Systems was looking for a way to improve the performance of the ventilation system in their Lakeside Avenue Industrial plant in Burlington, Vermont. By utilising adjustable speed drives (ASD's) and making other modifications to the system, they were able to improve the plant's overall operating efficiency, reduce costs, and improve the work environment and worker health and safety. This Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Project has resulted in annual savings of more than USD 68,000, with a payback of just under one and a half years.

ventilation system performance, operating efficiency

#NO 12451 Building partnerships across the city.

Riddell R

Resource, Vol 7, No 4, 1999, pp 17-18.

Describes how the UK Peterborough Environment City Trust has embarked on an ambitious energy saving programme involving the whole community. Covers energy use, the domestic sector, industrial and commercial sectors, and the municipal sector.

energy efficiency programmes

#NO 12457 Advanced ventilation design for commercial, industrial and institutional facilities: Displacement and demand-controlled ventilation can be applied in combination with enthalpy recovery.

Turner W A

USA, Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, October 1999, pp 61-66, 6 figs.

Describes how displacement and demand-controlled ventilation can be applied in combination with enthalpy recovery. Focuses on the indoor air quality components of IEQ, and also touches on IEQ and "sustainability" concerns along the way. Brief case studies from office, educational, and industrial buildings are presented to support the design concept discussions.

heat recovery, ventilation design

#NO 12531 Hybvent Forum '99 Proceedings.

Chen Z, Delsante A, Li Y, Rowe D (eds.)

Australia, CSIRO and the University of Sydney, and IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 35, 1999, proceedings of Hybvent Forum '99, First International One-Day Forum on Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, held at the University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia, 28 September 1999, 191 pp.

The papers in the proceedings are divided into sections including: international projects; adaptive thermal comfort; ventilation processes; hybrid ventilation design and strategies; commercial building; residential buildings; industrial and educational buildings; experimental study; and analysis tools.

hybrid ventilation

#NO 12541 Computational fluid dynamics modelling for industrial ventilation applications.

Rundle L R

Australia, CSIRO and the University of Sydney, and IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 35, 1999, proceedings of Hybvent Forum '99, First International One-Day Forum on Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, held at the University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia, 28 September 1999, pp 102-109, 3 figs.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling techniques have been used extensively and with considerable success for many years in providing environmental and physiological flow conditions in applications as diverse as aerospace, biomedical, chemical processing, electronics, materials processing, metallurgy, nuclear energy/power generation. The same basic modelling techniques have also found acceptance, and have been utilised to good effect, in architectural and engineering applications to evaluate airflow around buildings, wind load on buildings, pollution modelling and toxin dispersion, and air and heat circulation patterns within buildings. H H Robertson, in conjunction with a number of research bodies, has employed these techniques to provide finite natural ventilation solutions to high heat load and environmentally sensitive applications in a number of industrial metal processing plants around the world.

modelling, industrial building, factory

#NO 12612 Improving the environmental performance of a small-scale industrial building project.

Peterson J C, Good N L, Parr R W

USA, ASHRAE Transactions, Annual Meeting 1999, Seattle, 5 pp, 1 fig, 4 tabs, refs.

An investor owned utility built three line crew centres to meet the requirements of its environmentally oriented new construction DSM program. The new locations are distributed around a region to replace a large central facility. Each facility includes an office building, a garage area, a warehouse, covered parking, and a fuelling station. The office buildings were designed to use 43% less energy than if constructed according to Oregon code minimum. The facility as a whole uses resource efficient building products. A quality indoor environment is achieved through the use of low toxicity building materials. Environmental responsibility was demonstrated by using water efficient fixtures, recycling of construction materials and creating a bioswale, or retention pond, to receive runoff water. One site also includes 2.8 acres of wetland creation and enhancement where habitat was created for the northern redlegged frog, which has been designated as a species of concern. 

industrial building, demand side management, environmental performance, building materials

#NO 12627 Beheersing van de verspreiding van uitlaatgassen in de Scraphal van Roba te Ijsselstein. Control of the spread of exhaust gasses in the van Roba scrap hall in Ijsselstein.

Knoll B

Netherlands, TNO-Bouw, 1993, TNO-rapport 93-BBI-R1265, 47 pp, 26 figs, 2 tabs.4 refs, in Dutch.

In the scrap hall of ROBA in IJsselstein non-ferrous materials are processed for re-cycle. The transport of material in the scrap hall is done with lorries and cranes. The exhaust fumes from these vehicles are a hindrance to the employees. In previously carried out research it was established that the health factor should not be excluded, especially with short duration stops with high exhaust fume concentrations. With respect to the average concentrations in the hall the existing ventilation systems was nevertheless unacceptable.

For this reason with the help of a computer system developed by TNO for flow simulation, investigations were carried out and especially the effect of possible measures to be taken for the reduction of the high concentrations in the vicinity.

The most effective measure seems to be the constructing of fourteen mixing ventilators in the hall on the ceiling, with a total air circulation of 20 m3/s. The expectations are that even at peak production levels, the exposure is limited to around the proper health levels for an eight hour exposure.

In doing so the complaints are reduced considerably.

Possible disadvantages are that with the higher air movement the chance of draughts are increased.

To reduce this it is advisable to provide a high/low switch in the circulating system that can be adjusted by the users.

An advantage is that the descending air movement reduces heat loss through the roof.

To reduce the heat loss even further with moderate production circumstances, it is recommended to switch the exhausters up to the production intensity. The switching of this system by random hall users is not recommended.

Increasing the ventilation remains a less effective measure from the point of view of generally high exposure.

Other disadvantages are the necessary extra supply features, possible noise interference to the area and additional heating.

motor vehicle exhaust gas, industrial building, ventilation requirements, occupant reaction, controls

#NO 12667 Why ventilation systems should be clean.

Dahl I

Proceedings VHExCo 99, International Ventilation Hygiene Conference and Exhibition, Solihull, UK, March 24-25 1999, 5pp, 1 tab, 8 refs. BSRIA/Criterion Publishing Ltd.

Cites Scandinavian studies showing that dirty exhaust ducts are a fire hazard, dust in ducts can contribute to the sick building syndrome, some types of dust irritate the shin and mucous membranes and can be source of sensory pollution and can pollute return air. Describes the pre-study of a ventilation system before it is cleaned, and the equipment used, plus a tool for the control of cleaning quality. Presents a table showing industrial quality standards developed in Norway for the regulation of the cleanliness of different surfaces.

ventilation duct cleaning, sick building syndrome, fire hazard

#NO 12762 Comparison of energy consumption between displacement and mixing ventilation systems for different US buildings and climates.

Hu S, Chen Q, Glicksman L R

USA, ASHRAE Transactions, Annual Meeting 1999, Seattle, 12 pp, 7 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

A detailed computer simulation method was used to compare the energy consumption of a displacement ventilation system with that of a mixing ventilation system for three types of U.S. buildings: a small office, a classroom, and an industrial workshop. The study examined five typical climatic regions as well as different building zones. It was found that a displacement ventilation system may use more fan energy and less chiller and boiler energy than a mixing ventilation system. The total energy consumption is slightly less using a displacement ventilation system. Both systems can use a similarly sized boiler. However, a displacement ventilation system requires a larger airhandling unit and a smaller chiller than the mixing ventilation system. The overall first costs are lower for the displacement ventilation if the system is applied for the core region of a building. 

displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation

#NO 12877 Climatizzazione con sistemi a dislocamento. Applicazione in uno stabilimento industriale ad alta densita energetica. Dislocation air conditioning systems. Application to an industrial building with high energy demands.

Curculacos G, Simion C

Italy, CDA, No 4, April 2000, pp 428-441, 8 figs, 7 tabs, in Italian.

This paper shows the preliminary analyses, the calculation algorithms and the technical criteria adopted when designing a heat control system for a new production line in an industrial unit manufacturing plastic films through high temperature processes. This is an air-conditioning installation equipped with dislocation systems with the following main parameters: volume of the building about 30,000m3, inflow of external air: about 420,000 m3; maximum environmental load: about 1400 k Wfrigo; refrigerating power: about 4.5 MW. The simulation algorithms used for assessing loads, making subsequent design choices and evaluating the experimental results in the first years are described in detail. Some interesting points about dislocation systems emerge. 

industrial building, air conditioning

#NO 12901 Displacement ventilation for industrial applications. Types, applications and design strategy.

Zhivov A M, Nielsen P V, Riskowksi G, Shilkrot E

USA, HPAC Heating/Piping/AirConditioning Engineering, March 2000, pp 41-50, 6 figs, 16 refs.

Describes types, applications and design strategy for displacement ventilation for industrial applications. Almost all US ventilation and air conditioning systems are of the mixing (dilution) type. Fresh, outdoor air is mixed with room air, resulting in fairly uniform temperatures, humidities, and contaminant concentrations throughout all areas and levels of the room; displacement ventilation differs in that it creates stratified levels of temperatures and contaminant concentrations within a room.

displacement ventilation, design

#NO 13005 Cool companies: how the best businesses boost profits and productivity by cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

Romm J J

USA, Washington DC, Island Press, 1999, 277 pp.

Describes how a growing number of the best companies are looking beyond the political debate on global warming to see a strategic opportunity to increase profits and productivity. These companies have worked to cut heat-trapping emissions by as much as 50 percent in their buildings or factories. This book describes the experiences of such successful companies as DuPont, 3M, Compaq, Xerox, Toyota, Verifone, and Perkin-Elmer. In all it is shown that more than 50 companies have achieved bottom-line improvements by improving processes, increasing energy efficiency, and adopting new technologies. Using proven corporate strategies, Romm shows managers how they can build or retrofit their operations to reduce emissions and achieve quick returns on the investment. Explains how changes in office and building design can significantly increase productivity, greatly compounding gains achieved from increased energy efficiency; why systematic efforts to reduce industrial emissions so often lead to productivity gains; options for 'cool' power - from cogeneration to solar, wind, and geothermal energy; energy efficiency in manufacturing, including motors and motor systems, steam, and process energy.

business, energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, office design, building design

#NO 13046 Factory made power.

Luke A

UK, Building Services Journal, July 2000, pp 42-44.

Asks whether the structures housing the new light manufacturing that is springing up in the place of UK heavy industry are having less impact on the environment. Describes new activity in Baglan Bay in South Wales, where a large area of brownfield land was available for redevelopment. The County Borough Council and Welsh Development Agency grasped the opportunity to change the design and operation of the factory units it used, and prepared a master plan for a 250 hectare low energy industrial park. Describes how the buildings were designed and developed. An 'excellent' BREEAM standard has been achieved, with points lost at only three places: building longevity, due to the absence of low level masonry; location to public transport, and the inability to see clear external ground views from the production area. 

industrial building, building design

#NO 13064 Design of ventilation systems in industrial buildings. A computational approach

of displacement ventilation in paper industry.

Papakonstantinou K A, Kiranoudis C T, Markatos N C

UK, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, proceedings of "Innovations in Ventilation Technology", 21st AIVC Annual Conference, held The Hague, Netherlands, 26-29 September 2000, paper 14.

In this paper, the ventilation of a "crˆpe" paper-processing workshop containing dryers, which generate a high thermal load, is considered. Displacement ventilation has been used for many years in industries with high thermal load. The main ventilation design problem is to find the appropriate ventilation flow that guarantees that the interface between the fresh air zone and the hot air zone is located above the occupied region of the room. The paper presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on the velocity, temperature and moisture fields in three-dimensional buildings of any geometrical complexity.

The simulation results could be used as a base for further analysis for ventilation design for other industrial processes producing high levels of thermal loads and moisture, leading to a proper ventilation system selection for a more healthy and comfortable environment in a building. 

industrial building, displacement ventilation, mathematical modelling


 


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