Bibliographic info:
LL 04

Caulks and Sealants
#NO 1739 Air leakage tests on polyethylene membrane installed in a wood frame wall.
BIBINF Ottawa: National Research Council Canada, 1985. Building Research Note No 225. 26p. 19 figs, 1 tab. #DATE 00:01:1985 in English
ABSTRACT This report presents the results of air leakage tests on polyethylene membranes installed in a frame wall. The results would be useful in evaluating the methods commonly used for installing such a component. They can besummarized as follows: 1, a 6 mil polyethylene membrane was stiffer than a 4 mil membrane and had a greater air leakage rate through the joint, 2, the best method for installing a wall joint was to have the two sheets of polyethylene overlapped by about 400 mm, with the edges stapled to two vertical studs, 3, the spline system was too difficult to apply, especially at the corners, 4, taping and caulking the joint did not produce an air-tight joint, and 5, a new technique is needed to fasten the edges of the polyethylene sheet to the window frame and hold the edges in place.
KEYWORDS wood frame, vapour barrier, component leakage, joint, pressurization
#NO 1775 Air sealing homes for energy conservation - second draft.
Etancheisation des maisons aux fins de l'economie d'energie - deuxieme version.
AUTHOR Marbek Resource Consultants
BIBINF Ottawa, Canada: Energy, Mines and Resources,1984. 400p. figs, tabs. #DATE 00:00:1984 in French and in English AIVC bk
ABSTRACT Describes air sealing of existing homes by sealants, weatherstripping, air-vapour barriers, and other techniques. Discusses principles of air exchange, moisture movement, air sealing, control of indoor air quality, and combustion air. Identifies procedures for assessing air sealing measures in individual houses. Describes materials for air sealing and their applications.
KEYWORDS residential building, retrofit, weatherstripping, sealing, caulking, sealant, mastic
#NO 1927 Monitoring the effects of draught elimination.
AUTHOR Bloisi F, Grosso M, Matarozzo M, et al.
BIBINF Applied Energy, 1985, Vol 20, No 1, p69-83. 8 figs, 3 tabs, 6 refs. #DATE 00:00:1985 in English
ABSTRACT Describes a retrofit carried out on a building of 36000 m3 volume in Northern Italy which eliminated air infiltration around windows using silicone caulking. The energy balance of the building was evaluated experimentally before and after the retrofit. Verifies the impact of unwanted air infiltration on a building's energy use. States that the analysis of the experimental data made it possible to extend the results obtained from town houses by other authors to apartment buildings.
KEYWORDS retrofitting, caulking, ventilation heat loss, measurement technique
#NO 2011 Demonstration of Energy Conservation Through Reduction of Air Infiltration in Electrically Heated Houses; LOCATION = North America;
AUTHOR Collins, J. O.; Shepherd, P. B.; Scripps, T. A.;
BIBINF RESEARCH.LOC = Denver, Colorado; TYPE = REPORT; #DATE 01:08:1979; REPORT.NO = 1351-1; PUBLISHER.NAME = Johns-Manville Sales Corporation Research & Development Center; PUBLISHER.CITY = Denver, Colorado; DATA.REFS = 58 records, JM01 - JM22, JM24 - JM30, JM01R - JM22R, JM24R - JM30R. in English
ABSTRACT Fifty-nine owners/occupants of electrically heated houses in the Denver, Colorado area have, for about ten months, been participating in a study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to determine theeffect of air infiltration on heating energy usage. The program, under the direction of the Johns-Manville Research and Development Center and with the active cooperation of the Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC), represents the largest program of its kind in the country. Twenty-nine of the houses were selected for retrofit to reduce air infiltration through the application of an adhesive/glass mat wall covering system, caulking, and the gasketing of all electrical outlets and switches. The retrofit activity was conducted by Specification Chemicals, Inc. of Boone, Iowa. The remaining thirty houses were retained as controls. Infiltration measurements using the Super Sucker method were conducted on all control houses, and before and after retrofit on all retrofit houses. The average reduction in induced air changes per hour as a result of retrofit was 30 percent. Air changes per hour were also determined using the gas diffusion method on two retrofit houses, before and after retrofit. These showed an average reduction of 36 percent.;
#NO 2244 Caulking and weatherstripping.
BIBINF Washington Energy Extension Service, Factsheet EY 3400, November 1984. 12pp. 14 figs, 1 tab, 3 refs. #DATE 00:11:1984 in English
ABSTRACT Factsheet focuses on some of the simplest and lowest cost measures available to both homeowners and renters for reducing heat loss. Gives basic information on methods and types of caulking and weatherstripping, including installation.
KEYWORDS caulking, weatherstripping, residential building
#NO 2260 An evaluation of the effectiveness of air leakage sealing.
AUTHOR Giesbrecht P, Proskiw G
BIBINF Measured air leakage of buildings. A symposium on performance of building constructions, Philadelphia 2-3 April 1984. ASTM Special Technical Publication 904. Edited by H R Trechsel and P L Lagus. ASTM 1986. p312-322. 1 fig, 3 tabs, 11 refs. #DATE 00:00:1986 in English AIVC bk
ABSTRACT A field study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of air leakage sealing techniques for reducing air infiltration in houses. Presealing and postsealing air leakage tests were performed upon 82 single detached houses inWinnipeg or southern Manitoba. All houses were placed under a negative pressure, and leakage sites were identified using smoke pencils. Windows and doors were weather-stripped and other unintentional openings caulked and sealed using specified materials and techniques. Using the air leakage test data and a recently developed correlation model, an estimate was made of the naturally occuring air infiltration rates for all the test houses.
KEYWORDS air leakage, residential building, detached house, sealing, weatherstripping, caulking, model, correlation
#NO 2513 State of the art low energy housing.
BIBINF London Energy News, No 1, 1986, p7-8. #DATE 00:00:1986 in English
ABSTRACT Lists new developments in the field of low energy housing, with addresses of specific developments and a breakdown of methods used to improve the buildings. Also gives figures for actual energy consumption, and achieved U-values.
KEYWORDS low energy house, draughtstripping, building material, insulation, draughtstripping, caulking, energy losses
#NO 2762 Residential combustion venting failure - a systems approach. Project 5. Remedial measures for wood burning fireplaces: airtight doors with direct air supply.
AUTHOR Sheltair Scientific Ltd
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, January 1987, 33p + appendices. #DATE 00:01:1987 in English
ABSTRACT The installation procedure for airtight doors is documented with photographs. Decisions were made to leave the fireplace damper operational and to use a single-damper system for combustion air employing a tight-fitting piston design. Tests showed that the careful sealing of the door frame to the masonry was essential for proper operation, and that application of silicone sealant was needed prior to installing the door frame. Questions raised about the durability of such a seal could not be answered within the time-frame of thisproject. The effect of airtight doors on the fireplace was to increase the House Depressurization Limit (pressure at which spillage occurs) from 8 Pascals to 22 Pascals when a strong fire was burning.
KEYWORDS combustion product, wood, airtightness, door
#NO 2787 Determination of the impact of infiltration reduction measures on house air leakage.
AUTHOR Sheldon L S, Saeger M L, Cox B G, et al
BIBINF in: Indoor Air'87, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Berlin (West), 17-21 August 1987, Vol 2, Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, 1987, p267-271, 3 tabs. #DATE 00:00:1987 in English
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to measure the direct impact that caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors and installation of storm windows and storm doors had on house leakage in two counties in New York State. House leakage was estimated for 60 homes by performing blower door measurements with and without the weatherization measures in place. The overall reduction in house leakage resulting from both weatherization procedures was 17%. Generally, the effect of caulking/weatherstripping was greater than the effectof storm doors/windows. Homes in Onondaga County appeared to show a greater overall effect than homes in Suffolk County. Older homes appeared to show more overall effect than new homes. Over recent years, there has been increased emphasis on energy conservation through weatherization programs that control air leakage in and out of the house. As Weatherization becomes more popular and methods for minimizing air leakage become better, the potential for increased indoor air pollution problems becomes greater. An overall goal of the research program was to obtain information for guiding conservation programs and for providing information to homeowners so as to achieve maximum conservation potential while ensuring that the implementation of conservation measures is compatible with the maintenance of acceptable indoor air quality. The first objective of the study was to determine if various weatherizationprocedures (storm protection, caulking, and weatherstripping) would decrease house leakage. We also estimated the magnitude of this change. Finally, factors affecting the difference in house leakage were evaluated. Field monitoring was performed on 60 homes in Suffolk and Onondaga Counties in New York State. In each home, house leakage was estimated by performing blower door measurements during two visits. Measurements with and without storm protection were made at the first visit. Prior to the second visit, caulking and weatherstripping were applied to the house by an experienced craftsman. Measurements with and without storms were then made again.
KEYWORDS air leakage, caulking, weatherstripping, window, door, storm window, storm door, blower door
#NO 2874 ADA Performance.
BIBINF SolPlan Review, December-January 1988, p7-8. #DATE 00:01:1988 in English
ABSTRACT Air leakage is most commonly managed using caulked polyethylene. However, this air barrier system is easily damaged and once covered with drywall, can neither be inspected nor repaired. Strict supervision is essential to ensure that the polyethylene air barrier is installed properly and not damaged. An alternative method that has been developed in recent years is the airtight drywall approach (ADA).
KEYWORDS air barrier, air leakage, energy conservation, indoor air quality
#NO 3414 Preliminary results from the New York State radon protection demonstration program.
AUTHOR Nitschke I, Clarkin M, Brennan T, et al
BIBINF USA, Camroden Associates, 1989, 14pp, 3 tabs, 7 refs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT This paper presents preliminary results of the current New York State radon-mitigation project which has three broad task areas: demonstrate cost-effective techniques in 16 existing houses, assess previously installed techniques in 14 existing houses, and demonstrate radon resistant construction techniques in 15 new houses. The mitigation strategies demonstrated in the 16 existing houses include: sealing by caulking or parging, sub-slab depressurization with and without interior footing drains, sub-film depressurization, exterior footing-drain depressurization, block wall depressurization, basement pressurization, and radon removal from water using granular activated carbon and/or aeration. Multiple mitigation phases were planned where possible, so as to develop comparative data on the effectiveness of alternative approaches. The mitigation techniques previously installed in the 14 houses included: sealing, heat recovery ventilation, and sub-slab depressurization. Among the radon resistant construction techniques being demonstrated in the 15 new houses are: a continuous airtight polyethylene film installed over aggregate before the slab is poured to the foundation wall, a continous layer of surface bonding cement installed around the exterior of the foundation wall and footing, a course of termite blocks installed around the foundation wall, and interior and/or exterior footing drains discharged to daylight or to a sump airtight to the basement and vented to the outside. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication.
#NO 3443 Measurement of air exchange rate of residential houses.
AUTHOR Yanagisawa Y, Spengler J D, Ryan P B
BIBINF USA, Boston, Harvard School of Public Health,[1989], 10pp, 3 tabs, 2 figs, 3 refs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT Distribution of air infiltration rates and their determinant factors were sought. The air infiltration rates were measured in 501 house units selected from Greater Boston area using standard area probability sampling method in winter 1985. Perfluorocarbon tracer-gas sources (PFT) and passive charcoal collectors (CAT) were used. The air infiltration rates ranged from 114 m3/hrto 1456 m3/hr with the mean and standard deviation being 347 (m3/hr) and 205(m3/hr). The mean and standard deviation of air exchange rates calculated from the air infiltration rate and house volume were 1.57 (1/hr) and 1.27 (1/hr) respectively. The air infiltration rates were explained by house volume and percentages of implementation with window caulking, interior storm windowand/or of floor covering with wood.
KEYWORDS air change rate, residential building, air infiltration
#NO 3494 The Poly Air Dam: A new plastic gasket to improve airtightness.
BIBINF Alberta Municipal Affairs, Nov 15 1987, pp 1-85, 6 tabs, 32 figs. #DATE 00:00:1989 in English
ABSTRACT This booklet describes a project whose purpose was to develop an effective, inexpensive, simple product and technique to seal three pathways which are some of the major air leakage pathways occurring in houses. The pathways considered were: 1) Bottom plates/subfloor junction, 2) Rim joist/top of foundation wall junction and 3) Wall framing/window (door) jamb junction.
KEYWORDS air leakage, sealant, wall, window
#NO 3706 Reduction of the effective leakage areas of single-section HUD-code manufactured homes due to air infiltration barriers.
AUTHOR Tuluca A N, Sherman M H, Krarti M
BIBINF USA, preprint ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.96, Part 1, 1990, 7 pp, 6 figs, 2 tabs, 7 refs. #DATE 00:00:1990 in English
ABSTRACT Addresses the effective leakage area (ELA) reduction in single-section HUD-code manufactured homes due to the application of an air infiltration barrier (AIB). The data used for the analysis were generated over a period of three seasons, through hourly measurements of air infiltration, temperature, and wind speed, at a site with two HUD-code homes, one sheathed with an AIB and the other one caulked The effective leakage areas are calculated using a model that correlates the air infiltration rate in residences to (1) weathervariables, (2) the effective leakage area of the house, and (3) coefficients that are determined by construction and terrain characteristics. Two sets of ELA calculations are performed for both AIB and caulked homes. In the first one, the model has the site-built housing coefficients presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1989). In the second one, the construction coefficients in the model are modified to account for the particular construction characteristics of single section HUD-code manufactured homes. The magnitude of the ELAs is discussed and recommendations are made for the value of the ELA reduction attributable to an AIB.
KEYWORDS Leakage area, air barrier, calculation techniques, caulking
#NO 3813 Airtightness the simple (CS) way.
AUTHOR Andrews S
BIBINF USA, Home Energy, November/December 1989, pp28-32. #DATE 00:11:1989 in English
ABSTRACT Builders who might buck against such time consuming air sealing methods as polyethylene wrap and the airtight drywall approach (ADA) may respond better to current strategies. One such method, called SimpleCS, has proven especially effective. SimpleCS, pronounced "simplex", stands for "simple caulk and seal". A modification of the airtight drywall approach, SimpleCS is an air-sealing management tool, a simplified systems approach to building tight homes. Rather than introduce new technology or air sealing methods, the system addresses the crucial question of when and by whom various air sealing steps should be done. It avoids the problems that often occur when later contractors cut open polyethylene wrap or drill holes in drywall. In most situations, especially with single-story homes, a builder applies SimpleCS air sealing techniques after framing, sheathing, and roofing, plus window and door installation. He can now work inside the building in a cleaner and drier environment, not fighting the weather and competing for space with other sub-trades. It is stressed that delaying the air sealing until later in the construction process gives any builder a greater chance of success.
KEYWORDS air tightness, air barrier, caulking, sealing
#NO 4310 Construction principles to inhibit moisture accumulation in walls of new, wood-frame housing in Atlantic Canada.
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, [1990], 40pp. #DATE 00: 00:1990 in English/French
ABSTRACT Recommends that: 1. Builders should focus their attention on constructing walls that inhibit the entry of moisture and air-from both the exterior and the interior. 2. Exterior cladding systems should be constructed with particular attention to the installation of siding, masonry, sheathing paper, flashing and caulking. Siding and masonry veneer should be designed to provide a "rain screen". The sheathing and sheathing paper system should be virtually airtight - but permeable to water vapour. 3. A vapour barrier, as required by the National Building Code of Canada, should be installed, as near as is practical, to the warm side of the wall. 4. The interior surface of walls including intersections with partitions and floor assemblies should be constructed as a continuous, rigid air barrier.
KEYWORDS moisture, wall, wood frame, residential building
#NO 4541 Finding and fixing hidden air leaks.
BIBINF USA, Northern Building Science, Vol 3, No 3, June 1990, pp 1-3, 3 figs. #DATE 00:06:1990 in English
ABSTRACT Most publications about weatherization still recommend caulking exterior siding and weatherstripping doors and windows to prevent drafts. In some cases these measures may increase your comfort slightly by reducing drafts coming through exterior walls, but they probably won't save as much energy as most energy audits estimate. This is because in many homes a great deal of air escapes through hidden interior air leak passageways which are not affected by typical exterior caulking and weatherstripping efforts.
KEYWORDS air leakage, residential building, retrofitting
#NO 5023 Getting a bead on caulks - how to choose the right kind.
AUTHOR Tang C, Obst J
BIBINF USA, Home Energy, March/April 1991, pp 37-43. #DATE 00:03:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Caulks-often considered the simplest energy-saving material-actually have a tremendous variety of applications and purposes. Finding the best caulk requires defining the job and matching the type of caulk to the task at hand.
KEYWORDS caulking, retrofitting, energy saving
#NO 5048 Relationships among indoor NO2, air exchange rate and house characteristics of residential houses in Boston.
AUTHOR Yanagisawa Y, Spengler J D, Ryan P B, Billick I H
BIBINF Canada, Indoor Air '90, proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Toronto, 29 July -3 August 1990, Volume 4, pp 485-490, 1 fig, 2 tabs, 3 refs. #DATE 00:07:1990 in English
ABSTRACT Relationships of indoor NO2 concentrations monitored with Palmes tubes, air exchange rates measured by a PFT method, and house characteristics were sought by selecting 501 house units from the Greater Boston area in the winter of 1985. The air infiltration rates ranged from 114 m3/hr to 1096 m3/hr with the mean and standard deviation being 325 m3/hr and 168 m3/hr. The mean and standard deviation of air exchange rates were 1.47 (1/hr) and 1.16 (1/hr) respectively. Fifteen factors were extracted by a factor analysis to characterize the house units. Building type, height of housing unit, extent of implemented energy conservation measures such as double pane window and window caulking, and number of adult occupants were significantly influenced on the air infiltration and exchange rates. Results of the NO2 survey were not included here due to the limitation of space.
KEYWORDS nitrogen dioxide, air change rate, residential building
#NO 5487 Radon resistance under pressure.
AUTHOR McKelvey W F, Davis J W
BIBINF USA, Environmental Protection Agency, "1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology." Volume 5: Radon Entry Dynamics, paper from a conference held inPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1991. #DATE 00:04:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The radon mitigation field has many products available for the purpose of controlling the influx of radon gas through the cracks and joints which occur in structural components. These products are generally classified as caulkings, paints, membranes or cementitious materials. Since it is difficult to evaluate the true effectiveness of these products in the field, an air tight laboratory chamber was designed and constructed to evaluate each product. The chamber and test conditions were set up to determine the resistance of each material to radon permeation (Transport) under various pressure differentials that would be similar to field conditions. Each material was exposed to chamber ambient radon concentrations of several thousand picocuries per liter with an average pressure differential across the test material of 0.5" to 2" H2O. Each material was tested as the product would be used in the field and compared with a control for QA/QC.
KEYWORDS radon, crack, joint, test chamber, pressure differential
#NO 5502 Radon reduction in new construction: double-barrier approach.
BIBINF USA, Environmental Protection Agency, "1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology", Volume 8: Radon Prevention in New Construction, paper from a conference held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1991. #DATE 00:04:1991 in English
ABSTRACT A double-barrier design with the space between the barriers having little resistance to gas flow is described for those parts of homes and buildings that interface with the soil or surficial rock to reduce soil-gas (radon) entry into structures. The outside or soil-side barrier interfaces with the soil. A barrier placed on the soil under the subslab aggregate is an important element in this design. This forms the outer barrierfor the floor. The subslab aggregate forms a permeable layer, while a plastic membrane above the aggregate, the slab, and caulking form the inner barrier. If hollow block are used, barrier coatings can be placed on both the soil side and interior wall of the blocks, while the hollow space in the blocks forms the permeable space. The hollow-block walls are connected to the subslab aggregate to form a small interconnected permeable volume that can be managed in the following ways to reduce soil-gas entry into the structure. 1. Sealed; 2. Passively vented to outdoor air; 3. Passively depressurized using an internal stack; 4. Actively depressurized and 5. Actively pressurized. In addition to basements with hollow-block walls, the double-barrier technique can be adapted to solid wall, crawl space and slab-on-grade construction including various combinations.
KEYWORDS radon, air barrier
#NO 5746 CMHC research projects: testing of air barriers: construction details.
AUTHOR Rousseau J
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, August 1991. #DATE 00:08:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The airtightness of building envelopes has received increased attention in recent years. Leakage generally occurs through construction details, where there are joints or connections between materials, or where there are penetrations for services or other components rather than through the materials intended to provide the primary resistance to air leakage. CMHC commissioned this project to quantify the air leakage characteristics of three such details in wood-frame walls: the header joist, the electric outlets, and the window opening detail. Three construction methods currently employed to achieve airtightness were evaluated: 1. The sealed internal membrane approach, where polyethylene sheet and sealant provide the air barrier (referred to herein as the POLY approach); 2. The external air barrier approach, which uses a continuous vapour permeable membrane (spun-bonded olefin film), sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing (referred to herein as the EASE approach); 3. The airtight dry wall approach, where the interior gypsum board finish, together with framing materials and gaskets, are used as the air barrier (referred to herein as the ADA approach). In addition, to provide a reference for comparison, the traditional approach to wood-frame wall construction, where no special attention is given to achieving a continuous air barrier, was evaluated.
KEYWORDS air barrier, air leakage, wood frame, air tightness
#NO 6361 Air barrier details: how effective are they?
BIBINF Canada, Solplan Review, August-September 1992, pp 3-5. #DATE 00:08:1992 in English
ABSTRACT Airtightness of building envelopes has received much attention recently. Air leakage usually happens at joints or connections between materials, or where there are penetrations for services rather than through the materials themselves. Do some details work better than others? To find out the answer, CMHC commissioned a project to measure the air leakage of three typical details in wood-frame walls: the header joist, electric outlets, and window openings. Three construction methods were tested: 1) the poly approach where a sealed internal polyethylene sheet and caulking provide the air barrier; 2) an external air barrier approach (EASE), using a continuous vapour permeable membrane, sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; 3) and the airtight dry wall approach (ADA), where the interior gypsum board finish, together with framing materials and gaskets, are the air barrier.
KEYWORDS air barrier, air tightness, building material
#NO 6544 Volatile organic compounds.
AUTHOR Wallace L A
BIBINF in "Indoor Air Pollution: a Health Perspective", edited by J M Samet and J D Spengler, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp 253-272. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT Organic chemicals found indoors may be implicated in either acute health effects (sick building syndrome) or in chronic effects (cancer). However, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown and must await further research in neurobehavioural or immune system response, pharmacokinetics, and mutagenicity studies of complex mixtures. We have good knowledge of indoor concentrations and major sources of most VOCs, particularly nonpolar VOCs that are not extremely volatile. Nearly all of these are usually at higher concentrations indoors than outdoors, with short-term indoor peaks one hundred to one thousand times greater than outdoors. Preliminary data on SVOCs indicate that 80 percent or more of personal exposure topesticides is from indoor sources. Little is known concerning concentrations and major sources of polar organics (oxygenated compounds), high-volatility nonpolar organics (vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, and others), or particle bound organics (PAHs, dioxin and furans). Major sources of indoor organics include consumer products (deodorizers, solvents, and others), personal activities (smoking, cleaning, using hot water, wearing dry-cleaned clothes, and others), and building related products and processes (paints, adhesives, caulking, fabrics, custodial cleaning, and pest control). Few details are known regarding emission rates of organics from the myriad different consumer products.
KEYWORDS organic compound, pollutant
#NO 6593 Airtightness of concrete basement slabs.
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1991, 26pp + app. #DATE 00:00:1991 in English
ABSTRACT The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate means of making basement floors airtight, with the objective of keeping out radon bearing soil air. The main elements of this project were laboratory tests of the airtightness of several floor assemblies, and a field test of the airtightness of a floor in a real house. In the laboratory tests, several arrangements of polyethylene films were tested, as seals of the floor-wall joint, and as crack seals. Also tested were concrete slabs without polyethylene films, and a concrete slab with a crack created and sealed with a waterstop strip. The results of the laboratory tests showed that a lapped and caulked polyethylene film can be used successfully to make cracked concrete airtight. They also indicated that the use of a waterstop could be a successful technique. In a field test, a lapped and caulked polyethylene air barrier was installed in the basement of a house, using techniques that could be applied by a house builder. A concrete floor was poured on top of it. Airtightness testing showed that this air barrier was very successful insealing the basement from the soil, and would reduce radon contamination by almost two orders of magnitude.
KEYWORDS air tightness, basement, radon
#NO 6627 The myth of energy conservation and IAQ.
BIBINF USA, Indoor Air Bulletin, Vol 2, No 8, 1992, pp 1-6, 3 figs, 4 tabs, refs. #DATE 00:00:1992 in English
ABSTRACT A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events (Yocum, 1971). In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reducing ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and, conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good IAQ is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments.
KEYWORDS energy conservation, indoor air quality, ventilation rate, pollutant
#NO 6864 Emissions of indoor pollutants from building materials
AUTHOR Haghighat F, Donnini G
BIBINF Architectural Science Review, Vol.36, No.1, pp.13-22, 2figs, 6tabs, 34refs. #DATE 00:00:1993 in English
ABSTRACT Indoor air contaminants from building materials are often the major source of complaints. The demand for materials with low-emission characteristics is on the rise, along with the need for more sensitive and reliable emission studies. Air quality and product testing standards need to be revised and updated to take into account not only health effects, but also comfort considerations, especially for hypersensitive occupants. Modern building materials, including sealants and adhesives emit a rainbow of contaminants at ambient temperatures. The bake-out and demand controlled ventilation techniques are some attempts in reducing emissions after the materials have been installed. This paper discusses the state of knowledge of building materials emissions and describes techniques to reduce the emission rates.

#NO 7095 The influence of specific ventilation rate on the emissions from construction products.
AUTHOR Gunnarsen L, Nielsen P A, Nielsen J B, Wolkoff P, Knudsen H, Thogersen K
BIBINF Finland, Helsinki, Indoor Air '93, proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 1993, Vol 2, pp 501-506. #DATE 00:07:1993 in English
ABSTRACT Very little experimental data exist validating the influence of temperature, ventilation rate, air velocity, humidity and adsorbed pollutants from other sources on emission rates from construction products. Experiments were performed using small scale climate chambers including the new CLIMPAQ quantifying emissions from test specimens of linoleum, acrylic paint, nyloncarpet, and sealant. A trained sensory panel voted on the decipol scale and chemical analysis identified and quantified the major pollutants after the specimens had been conditioned in the chambers for six days. When specific ventilation rate (1/s m2) is low, the rate has a significant influence on emissionrates. In both sensory and chemical terms emission rates increase when ventilation is increased. For low ventilation rates the emission rates may be proportional to the specific ventilation rate and for higher ventilation rates the emission rates stabilize independent of ventilation.
KEYWORDS ventilation rate, building material, odour
#NO 7332 Proposal of methods for developing healthy building materials: laboratory and field experiments.
AUTHOR Wolkoff P.
BIBINF Environmental Technology, Vol 11, 1990, pp 327-338, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 64 refs. #DATE 00:00:1990 in English
ABSTRACT The state-of-the-art of testing building materials for the emission of volatile organic compounds are reviewed and a set of methods to develop healthy building materials are presented. Results of this laboratory showed that potential polluting building materials may be identified by comparison of headspace analyses of building materials with sampling of the indoor air. Qualitative GC/MS headspace analysis of building materials revealed that some materials acted as a sink for VOC emitting elsewhere in a building. The analysis also provided information of undesirable organic compounds emitting from materials. The combination of headspace analysis and sniffing of the eluting VOC provided a tool for substitution of malodorants, and development of an odourless building sealant.
KEYWORDS building material, organic compound.
#NO 7475 Air-leakage control manual.
AUTHOR Maloney J
BIBINF USA, Bonneville Power Administration, Residential Construction Demonstration Project, Super Good Cents, May 1991.#DATE 00:05:1991 in English
ABSTRACT This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the "how and why" of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the "simple Caulk and Seal", (SIMPLE-CS) system.
KEYWORDS Air leakage, energy efficiency, caulking, sealing.
#NO 7540 Documentation of field and laboratory emission cell "FLEC":Identification of emission processes from carpet, linoleum, paint, and sealant by modeling.
AUTHOR Wolkoff P, Clausen P A, Nielsen P A, Gunnarsen L
BIBINF Denmark, Indoor Air, No 3, 1993, pp 291-297, 13 figs, 2 tabs, refs.#DATE 00:00:1993 in English
ABSTRACT Time versus concentration data of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from four re-conditioned building materials were measure in the field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) at three air exchange rates, 171, 342, 684 h- , respectively, during a period of 240 hours. The materials were a carpet, a linoleum, a water-borne paint, and a sealant. Modeling of the time versus concentration data for two air exchange rates showed that the emission of VOCs from the carpet were best described with a diffusion model in which the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration gradient for all data (exponential diffusion model), while a reduced data set eliminating initial events also could be described with a first order decay incorporating a sink effect. The paint emission data of the polar semi-VOC, Texanol, could be described with a first order decay model incorporating a sink effect for all three air exchange rates. The emission rate constant doubled by doubling the air exchange rate. The emission data for VOCs from the sealant were best described for all three air exchange rates by the exponential diffusion model. The best model correlation fit was obtained for hexane, but satisfactory results were also obtained for 2-ethylhex-anol and dimethyloctanols. The decay results of linoleum did not allow for modeling leading to the conclusion that an internal concentration gradient had not yet been established under the experimental conditions.
KEYWORDS paint, floor covering, indoor air quality, modelling, air change rate, building material, sealant
#NO 7551 Causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations.
BIBINF Denmark, Indoor Air, No 3, 1993, pp 376-381, 3 figs, 2 tabs, refs.#DATE 00:00:1993 in English
ABSTRACT Sealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. Modern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeability of the material that contacts the sealant. Thesurface permeability of concrete walls and floor was measured by a specially designed permeameter, which measures the airflow induced by a pressure difference across a temporary test seal applied to the surface. The permeability of bulk concrete is about 10-16-m2. Areas free of surface defects had surface permeability ranging from 10-14 to 10-16 m2. However, surface defects are common on concrete wall surfaces, which increase the permeability to > 10-12 m2, too high for standard seadesigns to be adequate as the only method of soil gas and radon exclusion. Radon resistant seals require either extended contact widths or mechanical removal of the surface layer anddefects.
KEYWORDS sealant, soil, foundation, radon, pressure difference, concrete, field monitoring, permeability
#NO 7835 The myths of indoor air pollution
BIBINF USA, Progressive Architecture, March 1993, pp 33-37, 6 figs, refs#DATE 00:03:1993 in English
ABSTRACT A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970's cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted then outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriate reducing ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants.The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe healthy and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment, and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is essential as providing comfortable healthy thermal conditions and functional aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments.Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilationis an important way to limit pollutant concentration,limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy.
KEYWORDS pollutant, indoor air quality, ventilation systems
#NO 8228 Energy consumption impact of the residential rehabilitation assistance program. 
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Factsheet, [1994], 1pp. 
ABSTRACT The Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program (RRAP) helps low-income homeowners pay for house repairs to bring substandard housing up to municipal standards. From 1974 to 1989 the program, a Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) initiative, spent nearly $1.9 million assisting in the upgrade of 300,000 homes and 120,000 rental units. Although the bulk of the funds are for renovations related to health and safety, energy conservation upgrades are also eligible. 
KEYWORDS energy conservation, low income housing, retrofitting, caulking
#NO 8707 Testing of air barrier construction details 
BIBINF Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Technical Series 91-200, 3 pp. 
ABSTRACT The airtightness of building envelopes has received increased attention in recent years. Leakage generally occurs through construction details, where there are joints or connections between materials, or where there are penetrations for services or other components, rather than through the materials intended to provide the primary resistance to air leakage. CMHC commissioned a project to quantify the air leakage characteristics to three such details in wood-frame walls: the header joist, the electrical outlets, and the window opening detail. Three current construction methods were evaluated: 1. Polyethylene Membrane and Acoustical Sealant (POLY): the sealed internal membrane approach, where polyethylene sheet and sealant provide the air barrier; 2. Exterior Air System Element (EASE): the external air barrier approach, which uses a continuous vapour permeable membrane (spun-bonded olefin film) sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; and 3. Airtight Drywall Assembly (ADA): the airtight dry wall approach, where the interior gypsum board finish, together with framing materials and gaskets, are used as the air barrier. To provide a reference for comparison, traditional wood-frame wall construction was also evaluated.
KEYWORDS air barrier, construction detail.
#NO 8933 The effectiveness of housewrap. 
AUTHOR Nisson J D N 
BIBINF USA, Energy Design Update, August 1995, pp 5-9. 
ABSTRACT Describes the results of an extensive series of laboratory tests and field measurements on a certain brand of housewrap. It finds that the housewrap can definitely improve the thermal performance of conventionally built homes and will sometimes do a better job than caulking or gasketing. However, the findings also indicate that despite its demonstrated effectiveness, it is only a marginal energy-saving investment and will rarely produce energy cost savings greater than $75 per year for an average size house. 
KEYWORDS retrofitting, residential building, cost effectiveness
#NO 8966 Building healthy homes: a house for the environmentally hypersensitive. 
BIBINF Canada, Solplan Review, May 1995, pp 15-16. 
ABSTRACT Outlines the building of a prototype house by CMHC in Ottawa to demonstrate and evaluate a range of features which can help achieve a clean indoor environment while reducing the cost of housing for people who are environmentally hypersensitive and others who suffer from allergies and respiratory diseases. Gives details of interior wall and ceilings, floor, doors, trim, cabinets, bathroom fixtures, windows, wall insulation, air/vapour barriers, caulking and insulation, mechanical and electrical systems, ventilation, air infiltration, humidifiers, airing cupboard, refrigerator, stove and light fixtures. 
KEYWORDS health, allergies, residential building
#NO 9891 Air leakage performance of 11 log houses in eastern Ontario and western Quebec.
Duncan R
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, May 1996, 23pp.
This report contains the results of air tightness testing of 11 log homes of various construction details, sizes and ages in the region of Eastern Ontario and Western Quebec. Two other air tightness studies one from Idaho 1993 and the other Minnesota 1990 agreed that it was possible to air seal a log home to a minimum standard, that the quality of the assembly appeared to play a role, air infiltration was a bigger problem than air leakage, lateral joints were not always the major air leakage areas but rather, corner, window/door assemblies and log to framing connections. Although the small sample prevents drawing scientific conclusions, the report indicated the following: Sealing (chinking) the exposed face of the log joints increased air tightness about an order of magnitude compared to a double line of caulking between logs. The same was generally true for air sealing joints at window and door openings. It should be noted that the test method may have had some influence on this finding as it was not possible to place the test box tight against the internal air seals. The air tightness of round V-scribe and hand hewn log construction was tighter than expected indicating that craftsmanship is a factor in developing air tightness. Tightening down gasketed walls with through bolts can maintain air tightness as shrinkage occurs. Various techniques for accommodating settlement appear to be working well.
air leakage, sealing
#NO 10097 A description of the new ASTM Test Method E 1424, used for measuring fenestration air leakage at differential temperatures and pressures.
Kehrli D W
in: Airflow performance of building envelopes, components and systems, USA, ASTM 1995, papers presented at a symposium held in Dallas, Texas, 10-11 October 1993, pp 81-89.
A new committee has been developed by ASTM Committee E6 for measuring air leakage rates of fenestration products under imposed conditions of differential pressures and temperatures. This new method is different from the long-standing, internationally referenced ASTM Method E 283-2 in that it is performed under temperature differentials across the test specimen similar to ASTM C 236-3 and C 1199,4 and AAMA 1503-88.5 This new method will show the impacts of expansion and contraction, shrinkage, compression-set, fabrication and design integrity, and material and component interactions in the air leakage rates of window and doors products. This paper compares the two methods and provides some typical test data.
air leakage, temperature, window, door, sealant, field monitoring
#NO 10203 Sealing cracks in solid floors: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings.
Pye P W
UK, Building Research Establishment, Report BR 239, 1993, 5pp, 8 figs, 1 tab, 2 refs.
Intended for the guidance of householders and builders who seek to reduce radon levels in dwellings by sealing cracks and other discontinuities in solid ground floors. The remedial measures described are mainly for concrete floors laid directly on the ground but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with floors consisting of large stone slabs. Covers types of solid floor, types and likely positions of cracks, service entries, sealants and filling.
crack, radon, sealing, floor

#NO 10283 Building energy analysis and retrofit selection for Russian multi family housing. 
Dirks J, Reilly R, Currie J W, et al 
USA, Washington DC, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Proceedings of the 1996 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, "Profiting from Energy Efficiency" 
This paper describes a building analysis model for Russian multi-family housing, an array of possible retrofits, and the energy analyses for these buildings. It also describes the Russian retrofit project that will use these analyses to specify more than $300M of retrofits across six cities. The research was done under the Enterprise Housing Divestiture Project, a Government of Russia project with partial financing from the World Bank. A special version of the Facility Energy Decision System [FEDS] model was developed for use on Russian multi-family buildings. FEDS is a user-friendly, Windows-based, menu-driven software program for assessing the energy efficiency resources for a single building, large installation, or city. Detailed energy simulation and optimization submodels estimate the potential for energy retrofits in buildings, explicitly considering all system interactive effects. FEDS was modified for Russian multi-family buildings. Specific characteristics peculiar to these buildings include natural draft ventilation, central plant radiator heating with no building-level flow control, and recirculating domestic hot water (which provides significant heating). Twenty-four individual building designs are considered, ranging from one-story duplexes to 16-story high-risers. About thirty retrofit measures are being evaluated including: c insulation of attics, roofs, floors, and walls; c caulking and weather stripping of doors, windows, and wall panels; c repair/replacement of windows and doors, including addition of vestibule doors; c building- and apartment-level heating controls, radiator reflectors, and in-building boilers; c conversion to forced ventilation, or user control of natural draft ventilation; c low-flow shower heads and faucet aerators, and in-building domestic hot water generation; and c lighting. 
retrofitting, modelling, apartment building

#NO 10806 The influence of area-specific ventilation rate on the emissions from construction products.
Gunnarsen L
Indoor Air, No 7, 1997, pp 116-120, 4 figs, 1 tab, refs.
Experiments were performed using small-scale climate chambers, including the new Chamber for Laboratory Investigations of Material Pollution and Air Quality (CLIMPAQ), to gain knowledge about the influence of ventilation rate per plane specimen area (specific ventilation rate) on emissions rates. Emissions from pieces of linoleum, waterborne acrylic paint, nylon carpet, and sealant were quantified at different specific ventilation rates. A trained sensory panel used the decipol scale and chemical analysis quantified some major Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) after the specimens had been conditioned in the chambers for six days. The results showed that the specific ventilation rate (L/s m2) may influence the emission rates. In both sensory and chemical terms, emission rates increased when ventilation was increased. At low specific ventilation rates the emission rate was proportional to the specific rate. For higher ventilation rates the emissions rate stabilized and became independent of ventilation. The chemical measurements showed that only the emissions from the tested paint were influenced by ventilation rates above those comparable to 0.5 h-1 in a typical room. The emissions quantified by the sensory panel continued, however, to be influenced by ventilation even at rates higher than 5 h-1. 
building material,perceived air quality, VOC, ventilation rate, environmental parameters
#NO 11108 A field study of whole house air infiltration in residences.
Yuill G K, Yuill D P
USA, Energy Efficient Building Association Inc., 1997, proceedings of "Excellence in buildings", a conference held in Denver, Colorado, November 5-8, 1997, pp E7-1 to E7-6.
A four part study was carried out on the airtightness of houses. Two identical single story 1360 square foot wood frame houses were used in the study. The tests conducted in the four part study include: comparison of the effects of wet blown cellulose and kraft faced fiber glass wall insulation on the airtightness of a house; comparison of the effects of blown fiber glass and kraft faced fiber glass wall insulation on the airtightness of a house; effects of various wall systems, air tightening materials and techniques on the airtightness of a house, and effects of sealing house components on the airtightness of a house. From the study, the following results were concluded: the majority of air infiltration occurred in the ceiling (40%) and floor (36%) of the houses, and was significantly reduced by caulking and sealing. The walls and doors/windows accounted for 14 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of the houses' air infiltration; a comprehensive whole house caulk and seal job reduced air leakage within the houses by approximately 44 percent; various wall system air tightening techniques, such as installing a housewrap, taping insulating sheathing joints or caulking and sealing, had a notable impact (nine percent) in reducing air infiltration in the houses; wall cavity insulation had virtually no effect on the air tightening of the houses. The complete removal of the wall cavity insulation resulted in only a 1.5 percent increase in air leakage throughout the entire house; the greatest barrier to air flow through a wall was the drywall, followed by several different airtightness treatments.
air infiltration, residential building, air tightness
#NO 11229 Standards to keep out the draught.
UK, Energy in Buildings & Industry, March 1998, p 30.
Outlines the details of the first British Standard Code of Practice for the installation of draught proofing, BS 7880, which has recently been published. It offers practical guidance on the fitting of draughtstrips and sealants in buildings with open-flued space heating appliances and for flueless domestic gas appliances. A spillage test is included to determine that products of combustion are still effectively removed by the flue after draughtproofing has been fitted.
standard, draughts, draughtstripping, sealant
#NO 11609 Can duct tape take the heat?
Sherman M, Walker I
USA, Home Energy, July/August 1998, pp 14-19, 1 fig, 1 tab.
Describes ongoing accelerated testing at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide lab data about which sealants and tapes last, and which are likely to fail. The major conclusion is that conventional duct tape fails under challenging but realistic conditions in the lab while other sealant methods and other kinds of tape have good longevity when installed properly. The tests have also shown that tapes do not have to be strong to have good longevity, and that none of the various ratings addresses sealant longevity in realistic conditions.
duct, component leakage
#NO 11661 High performance. Cutting energy demand and consumption.
Woods T
ABN, No 20, pp 16-19, 2 tabs.
Describes a detailed before and after study of two electrically-heated high-rise apartment buildings (one 19-storey in Toronto, one 21-storey in Ottawa), and assesses the impact of envelope improvement measures on energy and peak demand requirements. The objective was to reduce the energy waste and comfort problems associated with stack effect. The areas of the envelope that were upgraded included windows, exterior doors, baseboards, shafts and several vertical penetrations. Windows and doors were re-weatherstripped using top-of-the line industrial quality retrofit weatherseals and baseboards, service penetrations and other holes were made airtight using various polyurethane foam and caulking materials. The results were startling. Peak space heating demand was reduced by 4W to 7W per square meter of floor space and heating energy consumption was also cut by 7.5 kWh to 11.5 kWh per square meter per year. Additional tests showed that there was no negative impact on comfort or air quality in either building. Payback on the retrofit was between four and six years.
high rise building, apartment building, building envelope
#NO 12797 Building science 101: air barriers.
Canada, Solplan Review, January 2000, pp 3-7.
Air movement is the major factor in transporting moisture through building envelope assemblies. Many building envelope problems can be attributed to inadequate or failed air barriers. The National Building code of Canada has required air barrier systems since 1960. Unfortunately, there is considerable confusion between what is an air barrier and what is a vapour barrier. The two are distinct functions that, in some situations, may be satisfied by the same material components. In 1990, the wording of Part 9 of the Code was modified to clarify and separate the functional requirements for air barrier systems and vapour barriers. The Code now requires that the air barrier system provide an effective barrier to air exfiltration under differential air pressure due to stack effect, mechanical systems and wind. Discusses essential features of an air barrier, tightness, and air barrier joint materials. States that silicone based sealants and adhesive tape achieved the best performance under all conditions. Spun bonded olefin paper and acrylic base sealants should not be used at connections where the temperature may be hot. Staples to attach the spun bonded olefin should be avoided. Because of their high air permeability, open cell gaskets, mineral wool and perforated polyethylene membranes should not be used. The use of closed cell gaskets is not recommended because of problems with long-term performance.
air barrier, air movement, moisture, building envelope
#NO 13139 Installed performance of two insulation systems during simulated wind conditions.
Otto D P
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 677-684, 10 figs, 2 tabs, refs.
A building's envelope is the product of the choice of framing materials and quality of craftsmanship. Exposed to weather, it may not provide the same airtight conditions in which its insulation material has been tested. Air permeable insulation offers little resistance to pressure driven, or convective, heat loss. Air impermeable insulators can additionally reduce convective, as well as conductive, heat loss by being sprayed into and sealing up sources of infiltration normally addressed by caulks and sealants. This qualitative study uses infrared thermography to demonstrate how selected areas of two building envelopes, one with an air permeable insulation and the other with an impermeable one, react to windy conditions simulated by depressurization.
wind effects, simulation, building envelope, sealing
#NO 13140 Typical envelope and duct leakages in newly constructed MEC compliant homes.
Pesce M M, Gilg G J
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 685-693, 2 figs, 14 tabs, refs.
Newly constructed two-story colonial homes with full basements in Virginia and Maryland were tested to determine envelope and duct leakage, fan exhaust flows, and maximum basement depressurization. The homes met or exceeded the basic air sealing requirements found in the 1993-1995 Model Energy Code. Data from these homes provide baseline information for newly constructed homes and can be used to assess the impact of MEC prescriptive air sealing practices on such homes. A test method was also developed to determine basement leakage.
The homes had a mean envelope leakage of 4.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pa pressure difference (ACH50). A basic air seal of caulk or glue at the double studs and plates, foundation sill sealer, and air barrier tape at window nailing flanges achieved air change rates ranging from 4.9 ACH50 to 7.0 ACH50. Homes with additional foaming or caulking of window rough openings and air barrier material placed at band joists resulted in leakage rates of 3.1 ACH50 to 4.0 ACH50. Total and unconditioned duct leakage at 25 Pa of pressure were 684 cfm and 173 cfm, respectively, for the average 2000 ft home. Except for one fan with mechanical problems, bathroom fan flows for these hours ranged from 32 cfm to 58 cfm with an average flow rate of 42 cfm.
air leakage, building envelope, residential building
#NO 13144 Development of a field procedure to measure the airtightness of wall construction elements of houses.
Yuill G K, Yuill D P
USA, Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1998, proceedings of "Thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings VII" a conference held Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 6-10 December 1998, pp 753-765, 2 tabs, + app.
Whole-house tests were developed to compare the airflow resistance of several materials used to seal the walls of a house at the outer surface. These airflow resistances were measured in field installations and include the effects of interactions with adjacent materials and assemblies. The materials tested were housewrap over fiberboard and foam sheathings, extruded polystyrene foam sheathing with the edges taped, extruded polystyrene sheathing with the edges un-taped, and caulking and foaming the inside of the wall cavity. The comparisons were between different wall materials installed in sequence in the same house. In this way, any inherent differences in house construction that affected airtightness were accounted for:
It was found that, in rank order of airflow resistance:
1. The technique using housewrap over un-taped extruded polystyrene foam sheathing has the highest flow resistance.
2. The next three methods each had about the same resistance, approximately one third less than that of the housewrap over foam sheathing. These were: houswrap over wood fiberboard sheathing, taped foam sheathing, and caulking and foaming the inside wall cavity.
The un-taped foam sheathing by itself had very little flow resistance, approximately five times less than the previously ranked three. The drywall backed by kraft-faced batts had a flow resistance comparable to the best of the air-sealing techniques tested.
air tightness, wall, residential building, air barrier