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LL 03: Weatherstripping Windows and Doors

AIVC, 2001
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Bibliographic info: LL 03
Languages: English

Weatherstripping Windows and Doors


#NO 10892 Retrofitting of cooling systems.

Kosonen R

in: SITHOK-2 International Congress on heating and airconditioning of buildings, proceedings, edited by J Krope, P Novak, Slovenia, University of Maribor, proceedings of a conference held 11-12 May 1997, pp 47-53.

The faults during design and installation phases are more critical with cooling systems than with normal HVAC systems: direct evaporated systems in particular require experienced engineers and mechanics. The most common fault is oversizing the systems and the design of the year-round-use system without winter conditions equipment. When the outdoor temperature is cold these systems present problems. The aim of this paper is to present the retrofitting concepts of cooling systems together with improved energy efficiency and operation of the system. This paper considers DX cooling systems, water chillers and room-air conditioner packages. The reasons for the typical faults in the cooling systems are analysed and examples retrofitting the systems are presented. Also some practical points for the design of these cooling systems are presented. The dimensioning of the whole system is specially given attention. 

retrofitting, cooling

#NO 10968 Ecology and economy when retrofitting apartment buildings.

Humm O

IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter, Volume 15, No 4, 1997, pp 17-18, 1 tab.

This article describes the retrofitting of a five-family apartment building, implemented as a pilot and demonstration project for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The fact that this building on Mutschellenstrasse in Zurich is a listed building, imposes restrictions to the retrofitting process. However, the cellar ceiling, the roof and part of the building facade have been insulated, new windows have been installed and three apartments have been fitted with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery. Heating is provided by heat pumps. In the retrofitting process, materials and components have been selected according to housing comfort and environmental criteria. The heating energy requirement has been reduced by 50%.

retrofitting, apartment building, historical building

#NO 10970 Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings. Proceedings.

Erhorn H, Volle U (eds.)

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, 1997, IEA Future Buildings Forum, Proceedings of a workshop held April 28-30 1997, Stuttgart, Germany, 273pp.

For the heating and cooling of existing buildings, a vast amount of energy is used, the share of the total energy consumption being commonly around 20%. Therefore, the reduction of the energy consumption of buildings is an important goal in order to save the non-renewable energy resources and to reduce the environmental pollution which is caused by the energy production. Fifty invited researchers and specialists from twelve countries attended this workshop to report on the latest results and experiences, to identify future needs of research and development and to create new ideas, research projects and to define the issues of future buildings and proposals for IEA Annexes or Tasks. The workshop dealt with the integral development of the advanced structural and installation systems and their interactions. This report consists of the keynote lessons, working group reports, discussions and conclusions.

retrofitting, commercial building, public building

#NO 10978 Energy efficient lighting and ventilation in an office building.

CADDET

Netherlands, CADDET energy efficiency, Result 280, June 1997, 4pp, 2 figs.

A publicly owned office building in Eskilstuna, Sweden, has been retrofitted with high-frequency lighting, in combination with self-regulating controls for the lighting and ventilation systems. The building has a total floor area of 19,000 m2 and contains more than 300 offices, a conference room, lunch rooms, and a recreation hall. Before retrofitting the total annual electricity consumption was 1,300 MWh and the district heat consumption was 950 MWh. The total annual energy consumption was reduced by 20% as a result of the new installations. Monitoring has shown a reduction in overall electrical energy consumption of approximately 30%. This saving comes from a 10% reduction in ventilation requirements, and a 40% reduction in electrical power demand.

office building, energy efficiency, retrofitting

#NO 10987 Heat pump space conditioning with heat recovery. An international overview.

Bouma J

Netherlands, IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter, Vol 15, No 4, 1997, pp 10-16.

Considers two types of heat recovery with heat pump technology, with the emphasis on their use as a heat source. Considers heat recovery from ventilation air, water-loop heat pumps, swimming pools, energy storage, retrofitting, large scale heat recovery, recovery from sewage water, absorption technology, and industrial heat recovery.

heat pump, heat recovery

#NO 11035 Control of occupant-generated indoor air sources in small buildings through ventilation system retrofit.

Bayer C W, Fischer J

USA, Washington DC, Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97, 1997, proceedings of a conference held Bethesda MD, USA, September 27 - October 2, 1997, Volume 2, pp 77-82, 4 figs, 6 refs.

A research study was undertaken investigating a retro-fit ventilation system a strategic ventilation to provide a better indoor environment to smaller buildings. A residential type HVAC unit interfaced with a desiccant energy wheel was retro-fitted into the ventilation system of a small office space built into a warehouse. The primary objective of this study was to minimize environmental tobacco smoke transfer from smokers offices to nonsmokers offices via the application of strategic ventilation.

ventilation system, retrofitting, occupant behaviour

#NO 11103 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced-air distribution systems.

Walker I S, Modera M P

USA, Ashrae Transactions, Vol 104, Pt 1, 1998, 12pp, 2 figs, 6 tabs, refs.

Measurements on three gas and two electric furnaces have been made to examine the filed performance of these furnaces and their interactions with their forced-air distribution systems. The distribution systems were retrofitted as part of this study, and the impact of retrofitting on furnace performance is discussed. In addition to field measurements, this paper discusses how forced air furnace systems are treated in the proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and apples the resulting equations to the systems tested in the field. The distribution system calculations in Standard 152P are compared to the current methods employed in the "furnaces" chapter of the 1996 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment, showing how distribution system efficiencies calculated using Standard 152P can be incorporated into the Handbook.

air distribution, industrial building

#NO 11171 The Optima - house. Air quality and energy use in a single family house with counterflow attic insulation and warm crawl space foundation.

Elmroth A, Fredlund B

Sweden, Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Building Science, Report TABK-95/3033, translated by L J Gruber, 1996, 157pp.

The firm Skanska AB has produced a special design concept for the construction of healthy single family houses of low energy consumption - the "Optima" house. It uses the principle of counterflow insulation in the attic floor and a crawl space foundation ventilated by indoor air. Air to the house is supplied through the ceiling insulation with the intention that the air should be filtered by the insulation material. An extract fan creates negative pressure inside the house. The extract air which is passed into the foundation through the floor construction contributes to keeping the floor warm. The results of a year-long evaluation indicated that counterflow insulation works as theoretically calculated on the basis of measured air flow rates through the insulation. Supply air appears to be well filtered on its passage through the loose fill insulation. On the whole, the indoor air ventilated foundation was found to work well, but measurements and analyses clearly showed that the construction is sensitive to excess moisture and leakage of air into the foundation.

attic, crawlspace, retrofitting

#NO 11216 Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings.

Erhorn H, Volle U (eds.)

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, 273pp.

An important function of the FBF is to develop and organise a series of workshops at which specific building issues are reviewed. The actual conditions of old buildings represented by means of many case studies from different countries, visions, trends and opportunities for retrofit are discusses in three working groups. Also aims to present the requirements and possibilities for future covers of retrofitted buildings; to present heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems for commercial buildings nowadays and in the future; to present artificial lighting and daylighting technologies and low energy appliances; the integrated design of retrofitted, energy optimised buildings; national strategies of the energy saving in retrofitted buildings; to identify R&D needs and topics for IEA collaborative actions; and to make recommendations for other actions.

retrofitting, commercial building

#NO 11217 Why research and development work for retrofitting of commercial and administrative buildings?

Gertis K

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 45-52, 5 figs.

Considers the importance of retrofitting in commercial buildings. Emphasises the need for more cooperation between building physics and building services. Considers whether it is a summer or a winter problem (heating or cooling), energy conservation aspects, the improvement of indoor air quality, and the importance of better education, for architects, civil engineers and building services engineers.

retrofitting, commercial building

#NO 11218 Rebuild America. (Program in brief)

Bailey M

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 53-61.

Gives an outline of the program, which is a voluntary program that helps community and regional partnerships make profitable investments in commercial and multifamily buildings, and public housing through energy efficient building technologies. these partnerships develop and carry out action plans based on local needs and priorities in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. This flexible approach provides community leaders with an opportunity to integrate energy efficiency with actions the community is taking to increase economic development, revitalize urban areas, or rehabilitate public housing.

energy efficiency, retrofitting

#NO 11219 Indoor air quality criteria.

Mayer E

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 117-123, 3 figs, 1 tab, 13 refs.

Identifies a need for indoor air criteria which will be relevant for source control and adequate ventilation of buildings as well. Describes the background and definition of such criteria, and considers the new European standard taking into account the new indoor air quality criteria.

indoor air quality, standard

#NO 11220 Insulation and retrofit: what is feasible.

Hens H

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 125-137, 3 figs, 7 tabs, 7 refs.

Considers the two important questions, how effective is energy efficient retrofitting in the long run and what energy efficient measures are possible after a decision for retrofitting is taken. The paper gives an answer in three consecutive steps. First the importance of energy efficient retrofitting is considered. Then the restrictions and possible problems with retrofitting are mentioned, among them lack of ventilation, increased mould risk and worse durability after retrofit. Finally, two cases are commented on: a university library and a students' home.

insulation, retrofitting, energy efficiency, case study

#NO 11221 Integral planning of commercial buildings.

Diehl J, Willan U, Meyer O

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 139-158, 10 figs.

Examines the economical rather than ecological aspects of retrofitting buildings. In fulfilling its economical purpose the relation of price/performance or price/exploitation has to be well balanced, as with any other economical product. This means the total costs, which are the investment costs and the operating costs must be recoverable via the rent within the total time of exploitation. These operating costs, which may be considered as a kind of "second rent" play an ever increasing part. The economical and also ecological target can be reached by Integral Planning, meaning simultaneous collaboration of all parties involved in a construction project., right from the beginning on, when the preliminary design is made. States that a building can be considered to be optimized from the energetical point of view when the annual consumption of energy and other material resources required for technical buildings services plants or systems are minimised in interaction with the overall building performance, while respecting all required criteria for acceptable comfort. Outlines the use of the engineering tool ROM Simulation Software to achieve the target of designing an energetically optimised building under the headings thermal performance simulation, photometric simulation, air conditioning system simulation, air flow simulation, and describes an air flow simulation laboratory operated by the company.

commercial building, retorfitting, simulation

#NO 11222 Exemplary retrofitting of an old school building in Stuttgart (EROS).

Kienzien V

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 163-167.

The project aimed to demonstrate the potential of a retrofitting process for a typical school buildings in West Germany from an energetic point of view. Combining the renewal of the space heating system with the reconstruction of the building envelope yields synergetic effects. The project aims at minimising the future energy consumption and optimising the economy of the retrofitting at the same time. Thus, both operating costs and emissions are reduced. The goal is to improve the thermal insulation at least according to the standard of the German regulations on thermal insulation (1995) for new buildings. The project involves analysis of the complete building with both the building shell and the HVAC system to find the concept with the best cost efficiency, as well as repairing the building deficiencies.

retrofitting, school

#NO 11223 Energy and cost effective retrofit of ventilation systems in office building, apartments and hospitals - some elements.

Aiulfi D, Jaboyedoff P

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 169-178, 9 figs, 1 ref.

The number of buildings needing to be retrofitted is much larger than the potential for new building work. The energy consumption due to ventilation losses (heat) in residential building and due to the mechanical ventilation system (heat and electricity) of old office buildings are important, therefore the energy saving potential in the retrofit of the ventilation system is relevant. Describes plans from the Swiss Energy Conservation Programmes with funding from the Swiss Federal Office for Energy for the next few years. Establishes the need for a research program dedicated to the retrofitting of ventilation systems. The ventilation retrofit covers a whole range of possibilities from pure natural ventilation by infiltration, natural ventilation with purpose provided openings, assisted natural ventilation with mechanical exhaust, hybrid systems with both mechanical and natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation and mechanical air assisted natural ventilation with mechanical exhaust, hybrid systems with both mechanical and natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation and mechanical air conditioning systems. There is a need for guidance on choosing solutions with will give the best overall result considering indoor climate, air distribution energy use, costs, environmental impact, practical possibilities, etc in individual cases. Gives examples for flats, office buildings and hospitals.

retrofitting, apartment building, office building, hospital

#NO 11224 Validation of measurements and energy management programs implemented in 22 public buildings of the district Schwandorf in a retrofit job.

Kuhlmann H

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 179-190.

Describes a project to set up a Dual Energy Management System for the Schwandorf district in Germany, together with various energy management systems adapted to parallel traditional remodelling. Twenty two buildings were included in the project. The efficiency of the strategies with regard to energy consumption and comfort was measured over a three year period. The objective was to reduce energy consumption and operating costs by the use of the high-tech BEMS Phase DEMSS. Describes the system and summarises the results as follows: Compared to purely local or "standalone" solutions, a central EMS represents an advantage as to comfort, energy savings and (energy, staff, building facility maintenance and service) costs. This was objectively confirmed by the measured results, as well as subjectively by the building occupants and building owners. Concerning the annual heat or fuel consumption, EMS resulted in energy savings of 25% and in total 5,600 MWh/a. The energy savings obtained by 1993 were significantly lower, with an approximate average of 16%. Among other things, this was caused by the retrofit-related conditions of the building facilities which were not always ideal, and the - underestimated - amount of time needed for "fine tuning" and optimising the EM strategies. In addition to the fact that during the commissioning phase come buildings could only be manually controlled. Concurrently with the energy savings, the district's environmental balance was able to be improved as well. A reduction of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide has been achieved annually, together with similar percentage reductions in carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides and sulphur dioxide.

public building, retrofitting, energy management

#NO 11225 Simplified evaluation method for the necessity of air conditioning systems under summer conditions.

Eisberger M

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 193-204, 6 figs.

Presents an evaluation method for the assessment of room climate in summer, which will allow for statements to be made about the thermal performance of rooms in summer with just one characteristic: the standardised not useful heat gains. A simple quasi-stationary calculation method (CEN TC 89 WG4) is applied and extended. It is therefore possible to give a description of the dynamic behaviour of rooms in summer. Tabulated surveys are presented, from which structural and user specific standards can be followed to maintain thermally comfortable conditions.

thermal performance, summer, calculation techniques

#NO 11226 Hygienic aspects in air conditioning systems and components.

Fitzner K

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 205-211, 7 figs, 10 refs.

Shows two examples of investigations on hygienic questions in relation to air conditioning systems for human comfort. They deal with air flow patterns for comfortable air velocities, and perceived indoor air quality assessed by trained panels. More specifically it deals with air velocities as a function of the cooling load, range of application of A/C systems, and perceived indoor air quality in office buildings, scale for trained panels.

air conditioning, hygiene, human comfort

#NO 11227 Trends for retrofit of VAC systems in hospitals - Polish case study.

Mroz T, Szczechowiak E

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 233-239, 3 figs, 1 tab, 3 refs.

Retrofitting in Poland since 1989 has focussed on reconstruction of building cover joined with exchange of windows and insulation of external barriers, and modernisation of technical equipment of buildings - introducing new low energy HVAC systems. The paper presents the problems that can appear during realisation of the retrofitting process of VAC (Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems in Polish hospitals. Concludes that the retrofitting of VAC systems in operating blocks in Polish hospitals may cause several problems to do with limited space for VAC elements in the construction of the building, and limited capacities of existing district heating and cooling systems. The problem is mainly to do with the existing standards which prohibit the recirculation of exhaust air, implicating the need to operate VAC systems with 100% fresh air. The size of fresh and exhaust air ducts and the total energy consumption has to be higher compared with air recirculation systems.

retrofitting, hospital

#NO 11228 Monitoring of the building envelope of a heritage house. A case study.

Said M N A, Brown W C, Shirtliffe C J, Maurenbrecher A H P

Germany, Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics, proceedings of "Retrofitting in commercial and institutional buildings", an IEA Future Buildings Forum Workshop held in Stuttgart, Germany, April 28-30, 1997, pp 241-258, 10 figs, 1 tab.

The paper describes the long-term monitoring of the hygrothermal performance of the building envelope of a heritage house located in Ottawa. The house, once the residence of two of Canada's Prime Ministers, now serves as a museum. To preserve the historical artifacts within the building, the specified temperature and relative humidity for the indoor air are 21oC and 35% to 50% respectively. As the house must also be preserved, there was concern about the effect of the high indoor relative humidity (moisture) on the durability of the building structure. The main objective of the monitoring was to assess the effect of the conditioned air on the building envelope. Selected wall sections and a window were continuously monitored from March 1995 to August 1996. The monitoring included indoor and outdoor conditions and the attic environment. Temperature, relative humidity, surface wetting-drying cycles (from precipitation or condensation), and air pressure differential were monitored. This paper describes the monitoring approach and results. The results indicated that he brick walls are unlikely to experience internal condensation problems as long as they are subjected to negative air pressure difference. However, because the building is quite leaky, the negative pressure introduced too much cold dry air from the exterior. It caused localized cold spots with condensation and ice formation on interior of walls and ceiling. Negative air pressures difference are not a solution unless the leakage paths are reduced.

building envelope, retrofitting

#NO 11290 The simulations of the thermal performance of retrofitted existing residential buildings in Istanbul with Micro-DOE-2.1E computer program.

Tavil A, Sahal N, Ozkan E

International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBSPA), 1997, proceedings of "Building Simulation '97", the Fifth International IBSPA Conference, held September 8-10, 1997, in Prague, Czech Republic, Volume II, pp 363-370, 3 figs, 7 refs.

In this study, the thermal performance of the external envelope of existing residential buildings in Istanbul and energy efficient retrofitting of these buildings are being investigated and modelled by MICRO DOE-2.1E. Hour-by-hour weather data for Istanbul and the data to describe each type of the existing residential buildings as well as the date for energy conscious alternative retrofitting systems are prepared. In the simulations, the thermal performance of interior and exterior insulation systems are verified for a selected reinforced concrete residential building block representing the typical characteristics of the residential buildings in Istanbul. The developed alternative solutions for the external envelopes with opaque and transparent components are being simulated. Finally, the alternatives for retrofitting the residential building block is compared and the solutions and the performance of the computer program are discussed.

thermal performance, retrofitting, simulation

#NO 11358 High efficiency houses: moving markets, updating codes.

Rider Allen D

USA, Home Energy, May/June 1998, pp 35-39.

Describes a demonstration house intended to show builders that energy efficient design can be economic. The house promotes the Virginia Power Energy Saver Home Plus program. Innovative features included an unvented crawlspace, flow-through walls, dense-pack cellulose insulation, mechanical ventilation, round metal ductwork, air sealed drywall, and efficient HVAC equipment housed within partially conditioned space.

residential building, energy efficiency, retrofitting

#NO 11360 Small buildings: technology in transition. 

NRCC

Canada, National Research Council, proceedings of Building Science Insight '90, August 1990, 58pp.

Four papers from the above conference: "Small building - technology in transition", by G A Chown; "Reducing fire hazards in small buildings", by M A Sultan; "Controlling the transfer of heat, air and moisture through the building envelope", by M C Swinton, W C Brown and G A Chown; "Ventilation strategies for small buildings", by J T Reardon, C T Shaw and G A Chown; "Developments in noise control", by A C C Warnock.

retrofitting

#NO 11362 First step in cellulose sealing: spot the style.

Lugano F

USA, Home Energy, May/June 1998, pp 14-21.

Describes the use of cellulose insulation in a wide variety of homes, and the particular problems involved with different structures. 

retrofitting, sealing, residential building

#NO 11636 Issues in developing small energy efficient office buildings.

Anon

Australia, ERDC, 1997.

Identifies the key issues to be managed if a small office building is to be developed to its energy efficient potential. It seeks to outline how this outcome can be achieved, and identified the potential danger zones along the way for those involved. The document is based on the lessons learned and experiences gained during a project that was instigated and funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC).

energy efficiency, retrofitting

#NO 11642 Retrofitting natural ventilation systems in UK office buildings.

Robinson P, Perera E

UK, Building Services Journal, August 1998, pp 37-38, 2 figs, 1 tab.

Describes how the UK Building Research Establishment has examined the suitability, effectiveness and potential energy savings of retrofitting natural and low energy ventilation systems in UK offices during refurbishment projects.

refurbishment

#NO 11643 Energy answers.

Dumont R

Canada, Solplan Review, May 1998, pp 16-17.

Interview conducted with a building services researcher who owns a superinsulated dwelling, regarding the perceived advantages of life in such a dwelling.

retrofitting, residential building, superinsulation

#NO 11661 High performance. Cutting energy demand and consumption.

Woods T

ABN, No 20, pp 16-19, 2 tabs.

Describes a detailed before and after study of two electrically-heated high-rise apartment buildings (one 19-storey in Toronto, one 21-storey in Ottawa), and assesses the impact of envelope improvement measures on energy and peak demand requirements. The objective was to reduce the energy waste and comfort problems associated with stack effect. The areas of the envelope that were upgraded included windows, exterior doors, baseboards, shafts and several vertical penetrations. Windows and doors were re-weatherstripped using top-of-the line industrial quality retrofit weatherseals and baseboards, service penetrations and other holes were made airtight using various polyurethane foam and caulking materials. The results were startling. Peak space heating demand was reduced by 4W to 7W per square meter of floor space and heating energy consumption was also cut by 7.5 kWh to 11.5 kWh per square meter per year. Additional tests showed that there was no negative impact on comfort or air quality in either building. Payback on the retrofit was between four and six years.

high rise building, apartment building, building envelope

#NO 11835 Retrofit of existing housing stock. A feasibility case study.

Meir I A, Messinas E V

UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 283-286, 3 figs, 1 tab, 8 refs.

Israel, not unlike other Mediterranean countries, experienced a housing construction boom in the 1950s and 1960s. Many projects from that period are currently undergoing renovation and refurbishment. This study reviewed the thermal characteristics of such projects and evaluated the current refurbishment practices vis-a-vis a combined effort including retrofit. Different solutions for a specific case study were evaluated. The results point toward a vast savings potential in energy consumption or the national level, as well as to marginal savings for individual customers, which such solutions provide at current energy prices in Israel.

retrofitting, refurbishment, energy consumption

#NO 11841 Use of ventilated envelopes in building retrofitting.

Forgia F, Margani G, Marletta L

UK, James & James Ltd, 1988, proceedings of "Environmentally friendly cities", PLEA 98 (Passive and Low Energy Architecture) conference, held Lisbon, Portugal, June 1998, pp 337-340, 4 figs, 15 refs.

The application of a continuous thermal insulation on the external face of building walls ameliorates the thermal performance of external walls and alleviates problems related to thermal bridges.

However a further improvement of this insulation system may be achieved by using ventilated walls, which consist of an open ended cavity placed between an insulating board (directly applied to the external side of outer walls) and an external cladding. The convective natural flow which occurs in the cavity, permits to cool the surface of the insulating board in summer and to control condensation problems in winter. The use of ventilated envelopes does not reduce the living space and presents also interesting economic aspects.

The present paper compares the thermal behaviour of an existing building, before and after the application of a ventilated envelope, with some references to the economic aspects of this approach.

building envelope, retrofitting, external insulation, wall, ventilated walls, condensation

#NO 11876 Ventilation, humidity, and energy impacts of uncontrolled airflow in a light commercial building.

Withers C R, Cummings J B

USA, ASHRAE, 1998, in: the ASHRAE Transactions CD, proceedings of the 1998 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, held Toronto, Canada, June 1998, 10 pp, 5 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

A small commercial building was monitored before and after energy-saving retrofits to study the impact of retrofits upon ventilation rates, humidity, building pressure, and air-conditioning energy use. Duct airtightness testing identified severe duct leakage as a significant source of uncontrolled airflow. Differential pressure and infiltration measurements using tracer gas indicated an attic exhaust fan as another significant source of uncontrolled airflow. Duct repair results in a 31% drop (30.5 kWh/day) in cooling energy and an increase in relative humidity from 72% to 76%. Turning off the attic exhaust resulted in an additional 36% energy savings (14.3 kWh/day), including fan power, and a decrease in relative humidity from 76% to 58%. Turning off the attic exhaust fan also significantly reduced the ventilation rate in the building by about 62% from pre-retrofit ventilation measurements. The study of this building before and after retrofits illustrates the impacts that air leakage can have on light commercial buildings with nonairtight ceilings, the importance of using good diagnostics to discover all sources of uncontrolled airflow in buildings, and the importance in understanding what the duct zone environment is like in small commercial construction.

humidity, commercial building, retrofitting, ventilation rate

#NO 11936 Measuring energy savings of a comprehensive retrofit in an existing Florida residence.

Parker D S, Sherwin J R, Sonne J K, et al

USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 1.235-1.251, 21 figs, 6 tabs, refs.

Simulation analysis suggests that electricity consumption can be reduced up to 40% in existing Florida homes. To test this theory, an all-electric home was located in Miami, Florida upon which to perform a variety of retrofits. The total annual electricity consumption on the one year base-line period preceding the study was 20,733 kWh. Detailed instrumentation and metering equipment was installed in May of 1995 so that each energy end-use could be evaluated. A year of baseline monitoring was followed by installation of a battery of retrofits: radiant barrier with additional attic ventilation, a SEER 15 air conditioner, an add-on solar water heating system, a super efficient refrigerator, a smaller, more efficient pool pump and compact fluorescent lighting.

The results showed a 40-45% reduction in measured daily energy use (28.6kWh/day). Annual savings were between 8.000 and 10.300 kWh depending on the base year of reference. Space cooling was reduced by 42% and water heating by more than 70%.

energy saving, retrofitting, residential building

#NO 11940 The design and implementation of the first low-income, shared-savings weatherization program: a Wisconsin pilot program.

Hall N, Reed J, Strand D

USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 2.45-2.57, 3 tabs.

In 1997 the State of Wisconsin began searching for low-income programs that were innovative in their approach and which offered the potential to improve or expand program delivery. TecMRKT Works responded to this call with an RFP to implement the first shared-savings pilot weatherization program in the United States. This paper describes the program being tested in Wisconsin and presents some of the early "lessons learned".

low income housing, retrofitting

#NO 11942 Energy savings from a comprehensive multi-family DHW retrofit program.

Reichmuth H S, Khawaja M S

USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 2.177-2.188, 5 figs, 4 tabs, refs.

This paper documents the experimental results and energy savings estimate from an end-use and water metering study of a sample of 104 multi-family sites. These sites were treated with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW) retrofit consisting of flow efficient 2.0 GPM showerheads, kitchen and bath aerators, tank thermostat setback to 130 Deg.F, and a tank wrap if necessary. These measurements were modeled by a regression model with variables for occupancy, setback degree, and delta flow at the primary showerhead. The model was used with actual measure installation records to extend the results of the study sample to the full participant population, in excess of 25,000 participants. The mean savings for the whole participant population at actual observed measure installation rates was 93-0 kWh per year per site.

retrofitting, energy conservation

#NO 11950 Retrofit demonstration in Brazilian commercial and public buildings.

Lamberts R, Thome M, et al

USA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1998, in: proceedings of "Energy Efficiency in a Competitive Environment", the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CD format, pp 5.227-5.238, 12 figs, 3 tabs, refs.

In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil, to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the "6 Cities Project". The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector. A data-base is being created with information on energy consumption intensity and demand intensity in 15 buildings in each city. The data-base was designed to help the standards development. Among those buildings, in each city, two were selected, one is a public building and one a private building, for a detailed energy audit. The audit data was used to calibrate a DOE2 simulation model. Simulations were performed and state of art technologies for energy efficiency are being tested and will be implemented. An after retrofit monitoring program is planned. In this paper the results of the first buildings will be shown.

retrofitting, commercial building, public building, standard, energy simulation

#NO 12137 DG XII programme, retrofitting of museums for antiquities in the Mediterranean countries.

Tombazis A N, Preuss S A

EPIC '98, Volume 1, pp 255-260, 5 figs.

The JOULE III programme has studied a selection of 16 typical museums for antiquities in five Mediterranean countries. Through an elaborate analysis and complete refurbishment of the archaeological museum of Delphi the programme is setting an example for an innovative museum design based on present-day know-how.

retrofitting, museum, hot climate

#NO 12138 Passive retrofitting of office buildings: the office project.

Santamouris M, Dascalaki E, Koronakis I

EPIC '98, Volume 1, pp 261-266.

OFFICE is a research project partly funded by the CEC dealing with the passive retrofitting of office buildings to improve their energy performance and indoor working conditions. The project is coordinated by the University of Athens with the participation of organisations and research institutes from eight European countries. The aim of the project is to develop global retrofitting strategies, tools and design guidelines in order to promote successful and cost effective implementation of passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures to office buildings. Within the frame of the project, ten office buildings located in different climatic zones around Europe are studied extensively. Case studies are carried out for the selected buildings including energy audits and monitoring activities, specific experiments as well as an assessment of the potential of proposed retrofitting scenarios for each building, with regards to the issues of energy conservation and cost effectiveness.

The final deliverables of the project are:

a) Case studies presenting high quality examples of representative retrofitted office buildings in various parts of Europe b) a Rating Methodology classifying office buildings according to their energy consumption, CO2 production and indoor thermal and visual comfort

c) an Atlas describing the technical and economical potential for energy conservation of selected retrofitting scenarios for defined types of office buildings in different climatic zones of Europe

d) Design Guidelines, performance criteria and methodologies for best practice giving credit for renewable energy sources incorporated into office buildings, all presented in the form of a Handbook. Results from the assessment of the potential of various retrofitting scenarios proposed for each case study are included in the Handbook in the form of brochures.

This paper gives an analytical description of the activities carried out within the frame of the project and describes the resulting final deliverables.

retrofitting, office building, passive cooling

#NO 12139 Examination of low energy retrofit measures in European office buildings.

Kofoed N-U

EPIC '98, Volume 1, pp 267-273, 3 tabs.

This paper describes the methodology used in the Design and Evaluation Group in the project 'OFFICE - Passive Retrofitting of Office Buildings to Improve their Energy Performance and Indoor Working Conditions' funded by the European Commission under the JOULE III Programme. The objectives of the OFFICE project are to promote passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures in office buildings. This is done by examining different low energy retrofitting measures in terms of energy, indoor environment and economy and based on this develop global retrofitting strategies and design guidelines. Ten European office buildings are included in the project situated respectively in England, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland. To exemplify the type of results and analysis produced in the project, selected results from the Danish and the Greek case study buildings are presented.

retrofitting, office building, passive solar design

#NO 12148 Energy and comfort orientated retrofitting of an office building.

Fisch M N, Rozynski M

EPIC '98, Volume 2, pp 385-390, 7 figs, 1 tab, refs.

Describes a comprehensive concept for an energy and comfort orientated retrofit for an office high rise building on the campus at Braunschweig Technical University. The project takes the form of a research and development exercise - a pilot realisation will be carried out on the 10th floor.

retrofitting, office building, high rise building

#NO 12285 Limits of natural ventilation through windows in office buildings.

Zeidler O, Fitzner K

UK, Garston, BRE, 1999, proceedings of Indoor Air 99, the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, and the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) 20th Annual Conference, held Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August 1999, Volume 4, pp 304-309.

Many HVAC systems built in the time between 1960 and 1980 have now reached the end of their lifetime and require retrofitting. When HVAC retrofits are performed in connection with building renovation, there is often a potential for reduction of thermal loads. The question whether a renovated building should have an air conditioning plant or free ventilation often revolves around arguments of energy consumption and investment. However, it is not taken into account that there can be no thermal comfort in many cases of cooling loads and outdoor temperatures. For the buildings with HVAC systems the room air flow is well known, but the flow when an open window is mostly unknown. In this research project at the Hermann-Rietschel-Institute investigations are made on ventilation by opening the windows. The limits of free ventilation with windows are given by air temperature and air velocity. Now we have first results of the still ongoing investigations.

natural ventilation, window

#NO 12335 New image and lower energy bills in Manchester (USA) inner-city neighbourhood.

CADDET

Netherlands, CADDET, Result No. 51, 4 pp, 1 fig.

The Manchester Project involved the energy-efficient rehabilitation and retrofitting of existing housing units plus the construction on vacant lots of new dwellings incorporating energy conservation measures. This project, in the Manchester neighbourhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, began in the late 1970's and was completed in 1983. Energy use and air quality monitoring were carried out for one year after the completion of the project. It was found that in comparison to detached single-family houses using standard construction, energy savings of 75 to 80% were being realised. Monitoring of air quality showed that in most apartments the indoor air quality was better than standards. This project has set a standard of construction for energy savings in Pittsburgh which people recognise and have used in part in various, subsequent construction projects; however, the project has not been replicated at the same level. A major lesson learned is that a project of this nature requires cooperation at all levels of government.

retrofitting, refurbishment, low income housing

#NO 12441 Your mobile home. Energy and repair guide for manufactured housing.

Krigger J

USA, Saturn Resource Management, 1998, 224 pp.

The most important feature of manufactured homes for their customers is their low cost - about one third that of the average site-built home. Many metal-sided and metal-roofed mobile homes from the 1960s and 1970s are still in good repair in the United States. Most older mobile homes can be cost-effectively renovated and weatherized. Manufacturing defects, including ineffective insulation and duct air leakage can cause moisture problems, and inadequate insulation is also a major energy problem, along with excessive air leakage. Some new US mobile homes can be very energy efficient. This book describes how the homeowner can upgrade the energy efficiency of the older mobile home, reducing heating and cooling cost by up to 40%. Covers foundations, landscaping, health matters, air leakage, insulation, floors, walls, doors and windows, roofs and ceilings, heating, cooling, water heating, plumbing and electrical matters.

low income housing, retrofitting

#NO 12444 Insulation tops list of low-income weatherization measures.

Anon

USA, Home Energy, July/August 1999, pp 10-11, 2 tabs.

States that the gas savings from the 1994 Ohio Home Weatherization Program (HWAP) were among the highest that have been documented in any published, large-scale weatherization assistance program evaluation based on actual billing data. Electricity savings were also significant. Attic and wall insulation, along with air sealing, provided the bulk of energy savings. For the 244 gas-heated multifamily units, the average reduction in gas usage following weatherization was 251 ccf per year; for the 2,209 gas-heated single-family homes, the reduction was 324 ccf per year. This represented 23% of total usage and 29% of heating usage for the single-family homes. The 150 electrically heated single-family homes and 116 electrically heated multifamily units averaged a savings of 2,000 kWh per year, which represented 9% of total usage and 17% of heating usage. Floor insulation appeared to provide no significant savings, although many of the units receiving floor insulation were mobile homes. A quarter of the homes received duct sealing measures, but the observed savings were not significant. 

retrofitting, low income housing, energy saving programme

#NO 12455 School IAQ improvements promise energy conservation.

Anon

USA, IEQ Strategies, October 1999, pp 4-6.

Describes how a multiyear demonstration project being conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Association of Energy Services hopes to achieve energy and maintenance savings in a group of schools through improvements that are designed to improve indoor air quality. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the "performance contracting" approach, an innovative procurement method offered by energy service companies. In this type of program, payment is linked to performance. Typical contracts include an energy audit, design, financing, installation, training, and maintenance for the life of the contract. The average contract lasts ten years. In the demonstration project, the investigators selected five public schools in various US climate zones. They selected four sampling locations in each school to monitor IAQ baseline parameters. They also characterised the HVAC systems in the buildings before the energy service companies began upgrading the HVAC system. Current estimates place the cost of improvements between $250,000 and $841,000 with annual energy and maintenance savings ranging from $27,400 per year to $246,150 per year. Estimated payback ranges from 3 to 15 years.

educational building, energy savings, retrofitting programme

#NO 12554 Guidelines on cost effective natural and low energy ventilation strategies for retrofitting to UK offices.

Robinson P, Palmer J, Perera E

Australia, CSIRO and the University of Sydney, and IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 35, 1999, proceedings of Hybvent Forum '99, First International One-Day Forum on Natural and Hybrid Ventilation, held at the University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia, 28 September 1999, Supplementary Papers, 4 figs, 9 tabs, refs.

Work carried out in the UK, on behalf of, and fully funded by the Department Transport and Regions, has produced guidelines for the cost effective refurbishment of offices for natural and low energy ventilation. The aim of the work is to counteract the current trend towards the installation of air conditioning when other low energy strategies will provide suitable comfort conditions. This paper shows ways in which comfort conditions can be achieved with zero or minimal energy use in a range of office types, using a natural ventilation or simple mechanical low energy systems.

office building, retrofitting

#NO 12591 Large four-phase retrofit at Toronto schools.

CADDET

Netherlands, Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET), Result 346, March 1999, 4 pp, 1 fig, 1 tab.

The Toronto District School Board has embarked on the largest energy and water reduction project of its kind in North America. The project is a major building retrofit costing approximately CAD 180 million and is being implemented in four phases by two energy service companies (ESCOs). Retrofit measures include lighting systems, fuel conversions to enhance efficiency, the networking of existing and the installation of new control systems, water conservation, as well as motor, pump and duct redesign, and staff training. Upon completion of all phases, the board anticipates a total reduction of 270,000 tons in annual carbon dioxide emissions and a reduction of CAD 16.1 million in annual energy costs.

retrofitting, school

#NO 12599 EPIQR and IEQ: indoor environment quality in European apartment buildings.

Bluyssen P M

UK, Energy and Buildings, No 31, 2000, pp 103-110, 5 figs, 5 tabs, 1 ref.

In the frame work of the European project EPIQR (energy performance, indoor air quality, retrofit), European apartment buildings were investigated with a newly developed tool called EPIQR. This tool is aimed at assessing information on refurbishing and retrofitting needs of apartment buildings. This package is, however, not only meant to identify the possible refurbishment/retrofitting needs but also to indentify the possible improvements that can be made to result in a better environment and a lower energy consumption. As part of the EPIQR tool (a user-friendly software programme), procedures and methods were developed to be able to investigate indoor environment quality (IEQ) in apartment buildings. Among others a questionnaire was developed. In this paper the methods and instruments related to IEQ developed for EPIQR are described and the results of the field study in the apartment buildings are reported and analysed [P.M.Bluyssen, EPIQR: IEQ part of EPIQR from 1 June 1996 to 1 June 1998. TNO Report 98-BBI-R0844, May, 1998]

apartment building, indoor air quality, survey, field monitoring

#NO 12789 Ventilation in 2 or 3 unit multifamily buildings before and after weatherization.

Gerbasi D

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, December 1999, 29 pp + app,., 11 refs.

This study investigates the fresh air distribution in 2 or 3-unit multifamily buildings before and after weatherization and evaluates the effectiveness of exhaust-only ventilation in providing the minimum recommended fresh air flows to dwelling s in such buildings. Low-rise multifamily buildings often have no mechanical ventilation system and rely on the air leakage through the exterior envelope to provide outdoor air to occupants. Weatherization of the roof space, a common energy conservation measure applied to 2 or 3-unit multifamily buildings (also known as Duplex or Triplex) in Quebec can greatly reduce the equivalent leakage area of the exterior shell and change the location of the neutral pressure plane. Consequently, this has major impact on the outdoor air supply to the building and how it is distributed on a unit-per-unit basis. Field test data characterizing the shell leakage and inter-zonal leakage of a case study building was used to define various pre-and post-weatherization airflow models. Airflow models were introduced in CONTAM a software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To determine the air change profiles (fresh air change & total air change) for the individual dwellings. The results of simulations presented herein shed light on the most popular mechanical ventilation strategy used in weatherized low-rise multifamily buildings. 

retrofitting, apartment building, air distribution

#NO 12930 Low energy urban housing: six European Union demonstration projects.

Jaure S

in: PLEA '99 "Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture", proceedings of a conference held Brisbane, Australia, September 22-24, 1999, edited by Steven V Szokolay, published by PLEA International, in conjunction with the Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Volume 1, pp 275-282, 4 figs, refs.

The SUNH and SHINE European Commission THERMIE 1996 Targeted Projects aim to demonstrate for European urban housing sector the relevance of a serie of innovative technologies (applied on 10 new constructions within SUNH and 6 retrofitting projects within SHINE) to reduce CO2 emissions through the implementation of different RUE & RES techniques. After the general presentation of SUNH and SHINE made during the PLEA conference of Lisbon, this paper aims to give a detailed presentation of the most advanced projects using slides and video. 

residential building, low energy building, case study

#NO 13010 Energy efficient modernisation of housing: a UK case study.

Bell M, Lowe R

Energy and Buildings, No 32, 2000, pp 267-280, 8 figs, 8 tabs, 34 refs.

This paper sets out the results of the York Energy Demonstration Project and discusses its implications for the modernisation of low rise housing in the UK. The project consisted of three schemes, which were carried out in the early to mid 1990s and monitored over a two year period. Results indicate that modernisation schemes have a very important part to play in reducing CO2 emissions and that improvements in the region of 50% can be achieved at modest cost using well proven (early 1980s) technology. The possiblity of additional improvements are also identified which could see emissions fall by a further 30-40%. In addition, the project identifies difficulties posed by, often small, variations in dwelling construction, which can have a disproportionate impact on costs, and by the demonstration project on the dissemination of good energy efficient practice within the Local Authority and highlights the lessons learned for implementation in future modernisation schemes.

existing housing, energy efficiency, retrofitting


 


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