Demand controlled ventilation systems are representing a large majority of installations in France. They are commonly used for more than 35 years. The strong development of these systems can be explained by the French regulatory framework for air renewal. These demand controlled systems have been developed in order to optimise the energy consumption and at the same time to ensure indoor air quality and building durability. In residential buildings, demand control is based mainly on humidity whereas in commercial buildings it is based on occupancy and/or CO2 levels. Research is still in progress to guarantee that the indoor air quality is ensured at design stage and maintained during the building life.