Effect on Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption of Different Installation Height and Supply Air Angle of Room Air Conditioner by Simulation

Improving actual operation performance of room air conditioners (RAC) shows great importance in the indoor environment and building energy conversation. The installation height and supply air angle of the indoor unit of RAC directly affect thermal comfort and energy performance in heating conditions. In this paper, a combined simulation of building, indoor air distribution, and performance of RAC is proposed to investigate the influence of installation height and supply air angle. The combined simulation model was validated by experiment results.

Examination of Occupant Arrangement in an Office Floor based on Nonuniformity of CO2 Concentration Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems attempt to achieve a uniform indoor environment. However, this can be challenging, because the placement and control of HVAC systems and sensors are affected by many unpredictable factors. The efficacious exploitation of this nonuniformity can lead to an improvement of indoor environment around occupants. Of the many indoor environment variables, we focused on the CO2 concentration associated with ventilation.

Experimental Study of Cool Roof Impact on Building Performance in Hot-Dry and Dusty Climates

Maintaining thermal comfort in buildings has become a big challenge in developing countries. Cool roof or high reflective/emissive roof reduces absorbed building solar energy, roof surface temperature to reduce energy consumption and maintain thermal comfort. However, the impact on buildings thermal performance located in hot-dry climate and dusty conditions is not well-known.

High-Rise Buildings Airtightness Measurements: Practical Advices and Error Estimation

For an ideal building airtightness test, the pressure difference between inside and outside would be constant over time and uniform along the entire building envelope, so that each leakage is equally considered and that the test result does not depend on the test conditions. This is particularly challenging for high-rise buildings as they are more subject to strong stack effects: the temperature difference between inside and outside induces a pressure difference along the envelope directly proportional to its height.

IAQ Assessment in Higher Education Classrooms with Natural Ventilation during the Cold Season

Indoor air quality (IAQ) control in educative centres, where students spend most of their time, is essential. The presence of high levels of contaminants can impact the academic performance of the students and, ultimately, their health. A study has been carried out to assess the IAQ of higher education classrooms with natural ventilation in order to quantify the exposure of the occupants to certain contaminants during the cold season. CO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been measured.

Indoor Climate Prediction Performance of Dynamic BES Models in Dymola

How accurately can reduced-order dynamic building energy simulation models (with Dymola simulation software) simulate the indoor climate (i.e., indoor air temperature, relative humidity and CO2-concentration) in common inhabited residential buildings? In order to address this question, high resolution measurement data of a zero-energy case study dwelling were gathered through a measurement campaign. A dynamic multi-zone modelling approach has been applied to have room-level indoor climate results.

IEQ Direct Reading Instruments – Myths and Realities

In this paper various direct reading instruments and techniques used in air monitoring are reviewed. Principles of operation are described, pointing out advantages and disadvantages of using such instruments. A procedure for inspection activities, and a sampling and analysis approach is outlined. One case study, covering inspection in an office space is presented in detail, describing monitoring of different types of contaminants, possible false positives and calculations related to exposure limits.

Impact of WELL Building Standard v2 on the Office Building Energy Performance

This study aims to use the WELL Building Standard (v2), an internationally recognised rating system for health & wellbeing in buildings, to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of wellbeing measures on an office building’s energy use in three different climates. The qualitative analysis was based on literature review and engineering rules of thumb to assess the potential energy impact of WELL’s 120 features.

Indoor Conditions in Educational Buildings: the Case of Bolzano Schools

Indoor environmental quality in educational buildings is recognized as a crucial aspect for the achievement of the learning outcomes for students. Nevertheless, indoor school conditions are often found unsatisfactory in several European countries, including Italy, especially as regards indoor air quality IAQ. For instance, taking CO2 concentration as IAQ indicator, the threshold of 1000 ppm is often overcome, suggesting insufficient ventilation rates.

Air Distribution Assessment - Ventilation Systems with Different Types of Linear Diffusers

The primary purpose of ventilation and air-conditioning system is to ensure internal comfort conditions through a continuous supply of air and maintaining the assumed indoor parameters. High air velocity in the occupied zone may result in an uncomfortable feeling of the draft, cooling effect, or local discomfort. The subjects of the study are linear diffusers, which depending on the purpose, are installed in ceilings, floors, or walls. Models may vary widely in their shape, number or size of slots/nozzles, and the length or shape of the deflector blades.