Air exchange measurements in a high-rise office building.

Reports measurements of air change rates made in the tower of an eleven-storey building using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. Inside to outside pressure differences were also monitored as a function of temperature and wind speed. Gives expression for autumn and winter air change rate as a function of windspeed. Reports finding that wind direction and stack effect had little effect on the air change rate. In this building toilet exhausts and other weather independent mechanisms were more important than natural infiltration.

Air infiltration measurement and reduction techniques on electrically heated homes.

Reports two-year programme to evaluate the effect of air infiltration on the heating needs of 29 electrically heated homes. Air-change rates before and after retrofitting tominimize infiltration were measured by a pressure method and heat energy consumption and occupancy effects were monitored. Thirty similar homes were also tested for infiltration and retained as controls.< Describes the retrofit methods, their effect upon the induced air infiltration, the other data which are being collected, and the data analyses which are expected at the completion of the programme.

Principles of natural ventilation

Discusses the mechanisms which govern natural ventilation. These are wind speed, flow, characteristics of openings in buildings and pressures generated at building surfaces by wind and temperature difference. Gives formulae for simple cases. Outlines ways of determining natural ventilation rates. Gives brief account of the effect of turbulence and openings in one wall only.

Air tightness of whole buildings

States that aim of research project is to develop a method of testing entire buildings for air infiltration. Suggests apressure method using a powerful fan to pressurize or depressurize the house and measuring air flow through the fan and internal pressure to give a figure for air infiltration.

The repeatability and reproduceability of test results on windows and wall span elements and the expected results.

Discusses variations in the test results which occur with the laboratory procedures for assessing the air and water penetration attributes of windows. Presents data for windows examined under British Standard BS 4315 : part 1 "Methods of test for resistance to air and water penetration - windows and gasket glazing systems". Considers the implications of thesetests for the development of performance levels for use in standards and procurement documents, and proposes a two-stage statistical procedure, based in the first instance on tests on five windows.

Window ventilation and human behaviour.

States that ventilation needs can be identified from a study of people's behaviour. Reports results of regular systematic observations of open windows in a group of scottish houses which confirmed earlier work in Britain. Finds that the number of open windows is a direct function of outdoor temperature or moisture content and was also influenced by air speed with a smaller number of windows being opened in windy weather. Large families opened their windows more frequently than small families. Suggests that moisture control may be the main motivation for opening windows.

An optical technique for measuring of ventilation rates in models.

Describes adaptation of photo-electrical optical technique to measure ventilation rates in wind tunnel models. Illustrates probe photographically and diagrammatically. It comprises essentially a light-emitting diode and a hybrid photodiode-amplifier detector. Compares technique with conventional tracer gas technique using helium and a katharometer and finds good agreement. Considers optical probe has considerable potential for measurements in small and multi-celled models where conventional techniques are not feasible.

Cavity barriers and ventilation in flat and low-pitched roofs.

Reviews the requirement in building regulations for cavity barriers in roofs. States need for providing ventilation in the cavities of certain forms of roof construction,particularly those with a continuous waterproof vapour barrier to avoid moisture build-up. Examines how adequate air movement can be provided in both new and existing flat roof voids, designed with or having installed cavity barriers.

A low-cost method for measuring air infiltration rates in a large sample of dwellings.

Presents method for collecting air infiltration data in a large sample of dwellings. The method consists of a tracer gas dilution technique using sulphur hexafluoride and employing air sample bags which are analyzed in a central laboratory. Themethod is easy to perform and inexpensive and will be used in approximately 300 dwellings on 16 sites to give air exchange rates under typical heating season conditions. Presents preliminary data on air infiltration rates in low-income housing in Portland, Maine.

Air infiltration in the U.K. and its impact on the thermal environment.

Describes briefly mechanisms and sources by which air infiltration occurs in dwellings. Compares leakage rates through windows and through houses with european standards to illustrate values that can occur in the U.K. Discusses importance of infiltration to both natural and mechanical ventilation and gives examples of the ways in which infiltration can adversely affect the thermal environment in well insulated dwelling. Concludes that more attention should be paid to infiltration through adventitious openings including improving building construction to minimise infiltration.