Air infiltration reduction through retrofitting.

Documents and compares the air infiltration levels experienced in five Twin Rivers townhouses before and after retrofit. The retrofits sealed and caulked window frames, sealed cracks along the attic floor/party wall Junction and reduced leakage from basement to attic. Weather data and air infiltration rates were analysed using multiple regression, polar plotting, stemleaf plotting and comparisons of infiltration rates with inside to outside temperature differences. Gives results in graphs and tables.

A method for categorizing shelterbelt porosity

States that porosity is the most important single parameter describing shelterbelts but is very difficult to measure or define. Describes a method for categorizing wind breaks in terms of porosity using only measured minimum leeward-wind velocity. Gives theoretical expressions for the flow through a porous shelterbelt. Describes experiment to measure wind velocities around shelterbelts of low, medium and high porosity. Shows that wind measurements could be made any height without affecting relative reduction in velocity.

Research review-North and South America (Wind effects on tall buildings).

Reviews current status of research in North and South America relevant to the prediction of tall building behaviour in response to wind. Four main headings are considered a)meteorological research-wind structure and climate, b) full- scale investigations of wind action on tall buildings, c) development of wind tunnel techniques for building aerodynamics, d) simplified theoretical models of wind effects on tall buildings.

Infrared thermography applied on testing of buildings.

Outlines the principles of infrared thermography and describes the equipment. Reports investigation at the National Swedish Institute for Material Testing into the use of thermography. Finds that the method should primarily be used as a relative method for plotting of building faults on external walls and for qualitative judging of their nature. It is not suitable for quantitative determination of the heat resistance of walls.Gives typical thermograms prepared using a test wall to which artificial defects were added.

Ventilation requirements in houses and flats. Ventilationskrav i en-och flerfamilyshus.

Reports study of the ways in which different ventilation levels affect people part 1 of the study took place in Gavle. Air change rates, the amounts of radon and its derivatives were measured. Finds that ventilation installations are often poorly adjusted giving a wide variation between flats in the levels of air change. Amounts of radon and daughters were also higher than expected, due mainly to the poor ventilation. Concludes that lowering ventilation to present recommended level of 0.5 changesper hour cannot be recommended without further investigation.

Radon and ventilation - Radon och ventilation

Describes background to natural radiation in building materials and particular aspects of radium decay which produces radon. Notes human lung capacity to absorb airborne particles and associated health risks. Illustrates diagramatically different particle sizes retained in various sections of human respiratory system. Suggests methods to avoid exposure to decay products: avoid materials with high radium content and maintain low radon concentration through sufficient ventilation. Graph shows concentration of radon in relation to air change rate.

Instrumenting energy audits.

Discusses ways of increasing accuracy and thoroughness of energy audits of buildings by use of specialized instruments and improved audit techniques. States air infiltration measurements are key item in audit procedure. Describes 'house doctor' kitwhich with records of past energy usage, knowledge of prevailing weather and a questionnaire are used to establish the energy signature of a house. The kit includes blower door, infrared camera, temperature probes and appliance consumption meter. Describes simple tracer gas method using sulphur hexafluoride collected in sample bottles.

Ventilation : the human factors

Gives state-of-the-art review of ventilation needed to control carbon dioxide, odours, cigarette smoke and moisture mentioning main results. Gives sketch graphs illustrating these results. Outlines the effect of opening windows on air -change-rates andgives tables showing average window opening, the moisture generation from various activities and the solar radiation falling on vertical surfaces.

Retrofitting : plan action and early results using the townhouses at Twin Rivers

Describes plan to retrofit 25 townhouses at Twin Rivers evaluating retrofits by instrumenting each house to record energy consumption, temperature, window and door opening and furnace operation. Aim of the first round of retrofits was a payback period of no more than three years. Describes fourretrofits A,B,C and D. A,C and D improved attic and cellar insulation and insulated the heating system. B aimed to limitthe amount of air infiltration from cracks around doors and windows by weatherstripping. Early results showed gas savings of the order of 25% and electrical savings of 10%

Ventilation with open windows

Shows need for intermittent high ventilation in dwellings to remove water vapour and odours. Suggests openable windows as the simplest and most common method of ventilation control. Gives air-change-rates in two british houses using carbon dioxide andnitrous oxide as tracer gases, showing the effect of opening windows. Shows that increase in ventilation rate caused by opening windows can be tenfold and is not confined to the room with the open window. Closing of internal doors has a significant effect. Describes investigation of air flow within rooms using smoke.