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ENERGY BENCHMARKS FOR VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN AIR-CONDITIONED OFFICES

Indoor environmental quality (IEQ), subjective satisfaction of occupants and energy conservation ofbuildings are usually determined separately. Since the energy crisis in 1973, engineers haveendeavored to implement energy conservation in buildings. Unfortunately, the effort resulted in energysavings without the fundamental delivery of indoor satisfaction in many cases. It is worthwhile todetermine a balance strategy between the potential energy saving and occupants satisfaction inworkplaces.

Full Scale Test Method for Gas Contaminant Removal Device

Activated carbon filters have been used forpurification of air and water in industrialapplications. However these technologies have notbeen applied to the non-industrial builtenvironment in general and there is no standard toquantify or to classify the performance of thesesystems for in-duct mechanical systemapplication.

Improvement of Indoor Air Environment in a Large Welding Factory by Displacement Ventilation

The design of ventilation equipment is important because it affects the ventilation performancedirectly. To improve the ventilation efficiency of the displacement ventilation, a new ventilation system was proposed in this study. The experiment was performed to measure the fume concentration and the visibility at four points under working conditions. In experimental results, the concentration of dust with a new ventilation system was decreased by about 42-60% compared to that of the existing system. The visibility was increased by about 11-18%.

Performance of ventilation system in a non-standard operating room

In Hong Kong, design and construction of new operating rooms and upgrading of older ones have been based on the UK Health Building Notes. In a case study, field measurements showed that the airflow and some design features did not tally with the specifed requirements.
As the risk of contamination in an operating room can be minimized through appropriate filtration and air distribution scheme, a CFD analysis was carried out with the simulation of the temperature distribution, airflow pattern and the contaminant dispersion.

Natural ventilation in high-rise buildings with double facades, saving or waste of energy

For that study , three german buildings with double facades have been monitored for at least one year in order to evaluate their energetic performance. The first building had no air conditioning facilities, the second one had cooling equipment without mechanical ventilation, and the third one had cooling equipment combined with mechanical ventilation.

Pressure controlled variable air volume system

Designing an HVAC system has different aims, the first one is to satisfy the user with a long-term functioning system in the most energy efficient way and the second is to increase the supply air flow. So the main objective of this paper is to give the fundamentals for a system design that takes into account the 3 factors. The benefit of a pressure controlled variable air volume (VAV) system is presented .

Study on Normalized Concentrations in an Occupied Zone in Office Space Optimization of Fresh Supply Air Flow Rate and Analysis of Energy Consumption

The values of the normalized concentration in the occupied zone (Cn) in an office space arecalculated by CFD for five different ventilation systems and the minimum ventilation rate which maintains the average concentration in the occupied zone under the regulated value is analyzed. Energy consumptions associated with the change in ventilation rate are analyzed. In this analysis, for most ventilation systems, the value of Cn is around 1.0, but for large circulation flow ventilation systems it changes greatly depending on the supply inlet velocity and temperature.

Building mass and ventilation working together to reduce cooling loads

Integration of building components and ventilation systems is an effective way to control thermal loads, especially cooling loads. The key point of the system which has been studied in this paper is a special hollow building slab which allows the penetration of variable ventilation air flows. The ventilation rate may be adjusted following a specific control strategy, in order to activate the thermal mass of the slab, and enhance the free cooling effect in the night time.

Performances on Indoor Air Quality and Energy Consumption in the Working Spaces using Under-floor Air Distribution (UFAD) System.

Arthur Rosenfeld cited a study showing that the huge link between IAQ and productivity in anoffice building and the serious initiative to improve indoor air quality will have a tremendous return. This study attempts to analyze the working spaces with different variances. The chamber measurements in the laboratory constructed in Shu-Te University will be taken, and the numerical simulation using CFD techniques will also be applied. The results from both should be compared. The different inlet layout of HVAC system, especially the UFAD system, and the boundary conditions will be discussed.

Study on the Rule of Mechanical Airflow Fluctuating Characteristics Shifting in Indoor Environment

The fluctuating characteristics of airflow have impacts on the thermal comfort of people. Two kinds of mechanical airflows in indoor environment were tested and analyzed in the paper. Spectrum analysis, chaos analysis were used to study the rule of the fluctuating characteristics shifting of the mechanical airflows. The results show that the fluctuating characteristics of different kinds of mechanical winds are different. It is also found that the characteristic parameters of the mechanical airflow, such as power spectrum etc.

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