Reviews some of the cost effective techniques for energy conservation in new dwellings. Covers site layout and design, insulation of roofs, walls, doors and windows, ventilation control and control of condensation.
An attempt was made to make the super-insulated Saskatchewan Conservation House as air-tight as possible, to avoid heat loss. By lapping all joints in the vapour barrier over solid backing, by continuous sealing of all joins, and by protecting the vapour barrier with solid covering, the natural air-change rate(A/C)was decreased to 1/20 change per hour. At this rate, induced air change was necessary to control odour and humidity. Most of these details could be modified to make any insulated house air-tight.
The traditional vapour barrier is designed to be a barrier to the diffusion of water vapour. The air-vapour barrier also prevents the natural infiltration of air. Section one of this report discusses air-vapour barriers, the management of air in a tightly sealed house, the positioning of the barrier and testing procedures and standards. Section two gives detailed descriptions and diagrams of the installation of an air-vapour barrier at all parts of a house construction. Includes 123 figures showing precise positioning and installation of the barrier.
Notes that many existing dwellings are inadequately insulated and in need of caulking and weatherstripping. Gives criteria for the selection of retrofit materials which are eligible for the Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. Materials discussed are insulation, storm windows and doors, caulks and sealants, weatherstripping, vapour barriers, clock thermostats and replacement windows. Discusses the literature on retrofitting. Describes the different caulks and sealants available. Outlines precautions to be taken when applying different retrofit materials.
Treats drawbacks of current methods used in East Germany of calculating vapour barriers used to protect building elements from condensation. Notes building materials for which moisture absorbed in winter is sufficient to cause condensation damage before it has diffused in summer. Develops method based on calculation model of determining direct relation between any period of condensation and requisite vapour barriers. In addition amount of wateraccumulated during condensation period can also be determined.
Gives comprehensive and detailed instructions for the design and construction of airtight buildings. Discusses the problems involved in building an airtight house. Gives details of materials and methods for sealing joints, installing a vapour barrier and adding thermal insulation. Notes the difficulties in making penetrations for services, such as for electricity, water, space heating and ventilation, airtight. Describes three projects - at Taby, Umea and Akersberga - where test houses were constructed and gives details of their construction.
This is a practical handbook for constructing an energy efficient house. Describes energy conservation measures for the reduction of space heating in an average house on the Prairies. Describes conservation measures for a new house which include the improvement of air tightness, insulation, passive solar gainand insulation of window systems. Also describes refitting an older house, reducing energy used to heat water and reducing electricity consumption. Gives a short list of sources of information.
Air leakage through the junction between wall and roof of a building can cause damage from excess dampness. Discusses in detail the problem of constructing atight wall/roof junction for different forms of roof construction. describes installation of roof membrane and vapour barrier.< Also describes problem of air infiltration through uninsulated soffits. Outlines various solutions.
This is a practical handbook for retrofitting existing buildings. Describes with illustrations the addition of insulation, weatherstripping windows, and doors, addition of triple glazing and the installation of a vapour barrier. Discusses the savings for three different climate zones in Sweden.
Presents mathematical model for predicting the heat transfer and moisture- transfer processes in residential attic spaces. Uses model to predict attic ventilation rates required for preventing condensation or frost accumulation on the underside of roof sheathing. Gives attic ventilation charts covering a wide range of outdoor temperatures, ceiling thermal resistances and ceiling air penetration rates. Finds that the addition of a ceiling vapour barrier reduced the required attic ventilation rate by36%, but the effectiveness of a vapour barrier was reduced by air leakage into the attic.