Interzonal airflow from garages to occupied zones as one reason for building related illness: three case studies using tracer gas measurements.

Tracer distribution measurements were performed to assess pollutant transport from basement garages situated in a commercial building and in two residential buildings, in which the occupants had reported typical garage odors and complained about bad indoor air and typical SBS symptoms. A tracer gas technique (tracer gas SF6, infrared detection) was used in all three buildings to study the contaminant distribution in the buildings. In the commercial building, a leaky HVAC system distributed contaminated air from the garage to other zones of the building.

Zonal model to predict air distribution and dynamic concentration of pollutant in ventilated rooms.

The first part of the paper will show some aspects of experimental research on air distribution in ventilated rooms. The study has been carried out to get an understanding of the air movement and the ventilation effectiveness by means of tracer gas measurements. It has been investigated the velocity and the distribution of the concentration in a two-dimensional isothermal flow issue of a linear supply opening. The second part of the paper will describe a proposed zonal model in 9 zones.

Ventilation performance evaluation using passively-generated carbon dioxide as a tracer gas.

Tracer gases are commonly used to evaluate the performance of ventilation systems. One way to reduce the time, complexity, and cost of such experiments is to use the carbon dioxide generated by occupants as a tracer gas. In this paper, a method for using the carbon dioxide generated by occupants as a tracer gas for determining the effective supply air flow rate to a zone or the relative air-change effectiveness of a zone is described. The approach is to make use of a model of the accumulation dynamics and a model of the way that occupants generate carbon dioxide.

Measurement of ventilation air flows.

The common way to determine air infiltration, exfiltration and interzonal flows from tracer gas measurements in multizoned buildings is to rely upon the standard single or multizone model, Vc(t) = Qc(t)+p(t) . Here c, p are zonal tracer concentrations and injections, t is time and V, Q are the sought volumes and flows. This model may work well provided that all zones are sufficiently well mixed and all flows really are constant during the measurements. The latter can be doubtful in naturally ventilated buildings, especially as the measurements may require several hours.

Developing tracer gas technique to determine interzonal air exchange rate.

The use of local exhaust is considered to be the most effective way to control pollutant dispersion from intense sources, such as in kitchens, in toilets, as well as in copy machine rooms. The optimum air exhaust rate required to prevent pollutants from escaping into the major occupant areas very much depends on the natural air exchange rate(AER) between the hooded room and the major room space. This paper presents a mathematical model and a test procedure of using tracer gas technique to quantify the AER.