The work presented in this paper is aimed at the definition of tracer gas experimental procedures for measuring the air change rate, the age of air and the air change efficiency in real buildings under mechanical ventilation conditions. The measurement procedures, based on the decay method, were validated in a special experimental chamber and implemented in two rooms of a building under real operating conditions. Measurements of volumetric flow rate through the air ducts of two buildings, performed by means of the constant emission rate method, will be shown and commented.
One of the main aspects determining the thermal behaviour of buildings concerns the distribution and circulation of air. Experimentation was undertaken in the context of the investigation of a method of measurement of the natural ventilation of large rooms. The first objective was to endeavour to characterise the atmospheric conditions around the building, namely, conditions related to wind factors, but also those concerned with the location of the building in relation to neighbouring obstacles (other buildings, relief of the ground, etc).
The study concerns the ventilation of a parallelepiped shape room by means of several systems whose supplying and extracting methods differ, so the different thermic conditions applied to limits. To qualify the efficiency of each of these systems in relation with the various current criteria, we carried out measurements by means of a tracer gas, both with a transitory and a permanent flow. At the same time, numerical simulations were carried out by means of a CFD code which solves the equations of the fluids mechanic, material and heat transfers associated with flows.
The measurement techniques used to obtain ventilation effectiveness parameters require the infection of a tracer gas followed by the sampling of air at a number of points in the space. However, it is physically difficult to sample the air at a