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tracer gas

Development of a demand control strategy in buildings using radon and carbon dioxide levels.

Air change rates, indoor radon and carbon dioxide levels were monitored in a lecture theatre in the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Two preliminary measurements (Cases 1 and 2) and one series of demand control ventilation simulation (Case 3) were made to investigate the indoor air quality of the lecture theatre. Radon and carbon dioxide levels were found to be relatively high in Case 1 and later improved at the expense of operating the system catering for maximum occupancy in Case 2.

Transition from bi-directional to unidirectional flow in a doorway.

The air flow in a doorway is governed by density difference caused by temperature difference and pressure difference caused by mechanical ventilation. Tests have been carried out in a unique indoor test house where the room to room to temperature difference could be controlled very accurately with a new control system. In addition to these tests some tests were carried out in a scale model with water as the operating fluid. Two main criteria of unidirectional flow in a doorway have been explored:

Effect of data logging frequency on tracer gas measurement.

A data acquisition system which uses a computer provides a more useful analysis system. Since the processing speed of computer is continuously increasing, the information than it is possible using conventional data acquisition systems. However, the raw measurements also include the signal noise which may lead to difficulty when the signal is analyzed. This work assesses an algorithm for removing possible signal noise, usually with high-frequency, from the measurement of tracer gas concentration.

A new technique for measuring air change rates in a cross-ventilation model using the step down method of video image signals.

Air change rates in a cross-ventilation model were measured from the decay curves of video image signals obtained by the step down method assuming perfect mixing of tracer mists inside the spaces. Wind tunnel test results led to the following conclusions. 1) Ray extinction due to lighting scattering did not affect the measurement accuracy of the air change rates in the two-dimensional model. 2) Tracer mists in a diameter between 0.25 μ m and 2.0 μ m produced the same measurement accuracy.

Experimental study of ventilation performance in dwelling-cells.

In order to assess ventilation systems, ventilation and thermal comfort parameters are calculated. Parameters are temperature and ventilation efficiency and PMV I PPD. Two ventilation configurations are set: the supply grille is under the ceiling and tests are performed for 2 exhaust positions. Both are opposite the ceiling: the first one is under the ceiling and the second one is on the floor. In regards with extract position, the ventilation system is better when extract is on the floor. It appears that the air renewal does not influence neither ventilation nor temperature efficiency.

Effect of interior partitions on the air movement and air quality in a room with mixing ventilation.

Working spaces in modem buildings are easily formed by interior partitions because these buildings have been designed and constructed as open spaces for flexibility. This could lead to an indoor environment which might be different from the intended design. In this study, the effect of partition on the indoor air quality in a model room has been investigated with different configurations such as the height of' partition and the gap between partition and floor.

Assessment of the systemic approach using radioactive tracers and CFD.

An application of the systemic approach is presented for the study of the ventilation of a room in an industrial facility. First, a series of tracer gas experiments was made with a radioactive tracer. Analysis of the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves, supported by some CFD, then enabled to build a simple zonal model for the description and quantification of the observed air flow patterns. This model was able to reproduce the experimental RTDs inside the room as well as at the exhaust.

The comparison between air change efficiency and contaminant removal effectiveness under some typical air flow conditions in the room ventilated mechanically.

There are many indices to evaluate the ventilation characteristics of the ventilated rooms. These indices are classified into air change efficiency and contaminant removal effectiveness. In order to know how to use many indjces for a good understanding of the characteristics of the concerned ventilation system, the values of various efficiencies under some typical air flow conditions with isothermal condition are compared. The local mean age distributions and local contaminant concentrations are measured with tracer gas technique in a scaled model of the room ventilated mechanically.

Airflow patterns in Schonbrunn Palace.

The purpose of this study is to find more information of the complicated air flow pattern in the SchOnbrunn palace. The aim is to improve the control of the air infiltration. We have used a passive tracer gas technique, a special case of the constant injection technique, called the homogeneous emission technique. The results gives Air Change Rate's (ACH) of 0,7 to 1,7 in different rooms and parts of the palace. Wind driven ventilation dominates stack driven ventilation. We found a considerable air flow between floors.

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