Thermal bridges are parts of the building envelope where, due to the two-dimensional or three-dimensional character of the heat conduction, either the inside surface temperatures are rather low, which can cause condensation, or the heat losses are rather high. In this paper thermal bridges are analyzed by numerical methods, shortly described in the first section. They are based on energy balance techniques.
Rising moisture from the ground has caused quite a lot of damage on foundations of Swedish buildings, in particular for the type concrete slab on the ground. Some of these constructions may be repaired by mechanical ventilation, for example below the floor or below the concrete slab , if there is an air-permeable layer below the slab. Summarized results from a few field studies and tests, which have been going on for a period of 2-3 years, are reported. Different methods with mechanical ventilation systems have been found to work quite well so far, i.e.
Approximately 40% of the energy consumption in Sweden is utilized in the heating of buildings. In order to reduce the amount of energy utilized for heating purposes, more stringent thermal insulation requirements for buildings were introduced.
States that the future belongs to light building structures which have been well insulated. A decided improvement may be achieved by windows, which must become an active element in the facade for air extraction. Air heating is considered. With ever decreasing heat resources, the division of heat flow mechanisms into basic inert and fast-control peak heating, is no longer an economical approach.
Treats a research study by the Danish Building Research Institute to develop a comprehensive set of design details for the use of bricks in a highly insulated cavity wall and building methods that could easily be followed by contractors. Illustrates photographically and describes the detached house which resulted from the project. Illustrates structural details diagrammatically. The energy consumption of the house is less than a quarter of older houses of similar size. Explains the design details to avoid thermalbridges and the application of modular coordination.
The problem of indoor air pollution has many facets, ranging from excess humidity, mould and insects over emissions from gas boilers to high levels of various chemicals in tight buildings. The common denominator of all these problems is the existence of several sources of pollution inside a volume of relatively low dissipative capacity. Where the resulting concentration from a single substance exceeds an already established hygienic standard regulatory measures are straightforward. Assessing the risk of several substances being present at the same time is still difficult.