Reviews new standards on thermal comfort and discusses the scientific basis for some of the limits. Presents new data for human response to asymmetric radiation and air velocity. Briefly discusses different strategies for saving energy while maintaining thermal comfort.
The author examines the influence on thermal comfort of the air flow inside wall air spaces, on the assumption of a stabilized periodical condition. In these particular conditions an increase of the circulating thermal flow always involves a lowering of the reduction factor, and this increase is greater thelower are the thermal inertia characteristics of the outer wall. Displacement values are found to be mainly influenced by the physical characteristics of the outer wall.
Numerically predicts air quality and thermal comfort in 2-dimensional ventilated air spaces of several geometries when conditions on the various room surfaces are taken to be either adiabatic or constant temperature.
Reports experiments on whether there is an optimum air speed for comfort carried out at the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst. 9 seated subjects were separately exposed to a steady horizontal air movement over the whole body. At air velocities of 0.1, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 m/s the subjects were asked to adjust room air temperature personally to a preferred level. An enquiry list was laid before them. Preference was given to the 10-point Bedford list over the 7-point ASHRAE one. Compares test result figures with Bedford and Fanger theories. Uses the Newman Keuls procedure.
Presents a proposal for an Indoor Climate Standard, to be included in the building codes of the nordic countries. The standard comprises two parts: 1) air quality and ventilation, 2) thermal environment. The paper presents and discusses the main features of the two parts of the standard. Mechanical ventilation is required in all buildings including dwellings at a minimum outdoor air change of 0.5/h. Limits for operative temperature and for thermal non-uniformity are given for winter and summer conditions.
Airflow inside air-conditioned rooms needs to be determined experimentally using test rooms. The test room dimensions vary because a test room must represent a section which is characteristic of the original room dimensions. The flow pattern is made visible; the velocities, and in some cases the gas concentration is measured. The experiments are done under thermal steady-state conditions. Some general results are:
In order to reduce heating energy consumption, single glazed windows are commonly replaced by double glazing and joints tightened in Danish dwellings. Reports investigation of the influence of such tightening of dwellings on the indoor climate. 25 tightened and 25 not-tightened identical flats were investigated. Finds an improvement in thermal climate and a significant reduction in heat consumption in the retrofitted flats. Finds absolute humidity of indoor air was significantly higher in improved flats, probably due to reduced ventilation.