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thermal comfort

Transitional spaces in São Paulo, Brazil: mathematical modeling and empirical calibration for thermal comfort assessment

This paper presents different thermal comfort models and empirical verification for assessment of the thermal conditions of transitional spaces in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The method adopted is deductive, performing simulations of predictive models, and experimental inductive, considering field research of micro-climatic variables and subjective answers.

Comfort driven adaptive window opening behavior and the influence of building design

It is important to understand and model the behaviour of occupants in buildings and how this behaviour impacts energy use and comfort. It is similarly important to understand how a buildings design affects occupant comfort, occupant behaviour and ultimately the energy used in the operation of the building. In this work a behavioural algorithm for window opening developed from field survey data has been implemented in a dynamic simulation tool. The algorithm is in alignment with the proposed CEN standard for adaptive thermal comfort.

A new simulation system to predict human-environment thermal interactions in naturally ventilated buildings

This paper describes the development of computational thermal manikins (CTMs) to be used in a coupled simulation envrionment to simulate the human thermoregulary response in buildings. 3D graphic design and engineering tools have been used to create CTMs with different postures and clothing insultation levels. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a nude CTM in a space with displacement ventilation has shown good agreement with experimental data of measured convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients.

An integrated adaptive model for overheating risk prediction

Based on results from a field survey campaign, this paper describes three new developments which have been integrated to provide for a comprehensive basis for the evaluation of overheating risk in offices. Firstly, a set of logistic regression equations have been derived to predict the probability of office occupants’ adaptation of personal and environmental characteristics. Secondly, empirical adaptive increments (offsets in comfort temperature) have been derived for each of these modes of adaptation.

Energy evaluation for personal air-conditioning system in a general multi -bed patient’s room

This paper discuss about characteristics and energy performance of personal air-conditioning system for a general multi-bed patient’s room. Two types of personal air-conditioning systems are evaluated by the laboratory experiment. Energy performance of a peri-counter FCU (a conventional) air-conditioning system is simulated by CFD to compare with that of personal systems. Compared with the conventional system, personal air-conditioning system has an advantage from the viewpoint of amenity improvement, but may consume more energy for cooling in the system.

Feasibility of controlled hybrid ventilation in mid rise apartments in the USA

Natural ventilation is generally accepted as the preferred ventilation option as it is a healthy and energy-efficient means of supplying fresh air to a building. In the USA it is seldom being applied as most climate zones are considered unsuited to apply natural ventilation, mostly due to perceived uncontrollability and very humid and hot or very cold seasons. For mid and high rise apartment buildings the option of natural ventilation is virtually disregarded because the tradition of full air conditioning is so well established.

An energetic-environmental building simulation model in transient state aimed at comfort evaluations

Through the paper a model simulating the thermal performances of an environment in transient state is presented. The model is composed by two codes that, used in sequence, concur to obtain evaluation, at a local level, of the most used comfort indexes, starting from the acquaintance of the external climatic conditions and of the thermal-physical characteristics of the building envelope.

Building design for hot and humid climates – implications on thermal comfort and energy efficiency

The paper discusses the concept of an adaptive thermal comfort design methodology and its impact on the selection, design and performance of climate control systems for large public spaces with transient occupancy in hot and humid climates. It outlines the design methodology which is based on providing localised comfort conditions to zones within a building based on its occupancy patterns, activity of occupants and acceptable thermal comfort criteria. The methodology focuses on quantifying the collective impact of space operating parameters on the thermal comfort of its occupants.

Development of approach to optimization of building envelope design in aspect of thermal comfort and energy use

This study examined the effect of building envelope on thermal comfort. The effects of key energy conservation measures, such as window/wall ratio, transmittance of fenestration glass and shading devices, were studied. The output from EnergyPlus was use to predict their influence on thermal comfort. Standard energy conserving measures proposed by ENVLOAD to reduce indoor thermal discomfort and cooling energy consumption were examined.

Multicriterion evaluation of an integrated sustainable heating/cooling system in climate conditions of central Europe

The aim of this case study is to investigate an integrated heating/cooling system performance in central Europe climate conditions. The possibility of a reliable application of radiant low-temperature heating/ high-temperature cooling ceiling system with capillary mats is discussed. ESP-r, an energy performance simulation program, was used for this purpose. Three types of the buildings are taken into account: a residential building, an office building with small offices and an office building with open space offices. Each of them represents a different operating pattern.

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