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thermal comfort

Model Home 2020 – full-year measurements of daylight, energy and indoor climate in five single-family houses occupied by typical families: what has been learned

This paper describes Post Occupancy Evaluation survey and physical measurements of five families living for one year or longer in five houses located in Germany, Austria, France and UK, all part of the Model Home 2020 project. The houses are built according to Active House principles and focus on high performance on indoor environmental quality, energy performance and environmental impact. The survey is carried out seasonally during the test year when the family lives in the house to capture seasonal variations. Physical measurements were made in all main rooms of the houses.

Night time cooling by ventilation or night sky radiation combined with in-room radiant cooling panels including Phase Change Materials

Night sky radiative cooling technology using PhotoVoltaic/Thermal panels (PVT) and night time ventilation have been studied both by means of simulations and experiments to evaluate their potential and to validate the created simulation model used to describe it. An experimental setup has been constructed at the Technical University of Denmark, where the outside PVT panels are connected through a storage tank to in-room radiant ceiling panels. The radiant ceiling panels include phase change material (PCM) and embedded pipes for circulating water.

Simulated Influence of Indoor Climate and Ventilation on Schoolwork Performance in Estonian Manor Schools

Indoor temperature and humidity conditions as well as CO2 and airborne mould concentrations were measured in four manor schools in the Estonian cold climate. Based on these measurements, the influence of the indoor climate on the performance of schoolwork was assessed. The indoor environmental quality in manor schools turned out to be quite poor due to the inadequate performance of ventilation and heating systems. Intermittent stove heating was found to secure the minimum temperature in general but in winter thermal comfort was not always guaranteed.

Development of a Unique Thermal and Indoor Air Quality Probabilistic Modelling Tool for Assessing the Impact of Lowering Building Ventilation Rates

Adequate ventilation is necessary to maintain thermal comfort and remove indoor air pollutant concentrations (Crump et al., 2005). Indoor pollutant concentrations vary considerably depending on occupants’ behaviour patterns, building characteristics and meteorological parameters and seasonal effects. Experimental measurements are time consuming and expensive to carry out, while computational models are regarded as a valid complement.

Numerical simulation of indoor air quality - mechanical ventilation system supplied periodically vs. natural ventilation

Building integrated renewable energy sources e.g. photovoltaic system is one of the promised solution for improving energy efficiency in building. However such kind of the system is restrained by irregular power supplied and necessity to convert current from direct to altering form. Therefore, very often the electrical energy generated by photovoltaic system cannot be effectively utilised to supply building devices, e.g. components of HVAC or lighting system.

Energy saving and thermal comfort in Residential buildings with dynamic insulation windows

To realize the concept of low-energy buildings, an increase in the thermal insulation performance of building parts, especially the openings that show poor insulation performance, is necessary. In addition, an adequate level of thermal comfort is also needed within residential buildings. We have developed window-applied dynamic insulation (DI), and verified thermal insulation performance in chamber and field tests.

Co-heating test and comfort assessment of a coupled system made by a ventilated window and a heat recovery unit

The article describes the results of an experimental campaign carried out at ITC-CNR in outdoor test cells to evaluate the energy performance and the related comfort level achieved through a coupled system made up of a dynamic window and a heat recovery unit.

A protocol for assessing indoor air quality in retrofitted energy efficient homes in Ireland

In recent years there has been much emphasis on improving the energy performance of Irish buildings. Much of this impetus stems from our requirements to implement provisions in the Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD, 2002/91/EC, 2010/31/EU), and international targets to reduce CO2 emissions by 2020. In Ireland, residential buildings account for 27% of Ireland’s CO2 emissions after transport. As a large proportion of the Irish building stock has already been built home owners are encouraged to retrofit existing buildings to improve the energy rating.

Impact of the use of a front door on thermal comfort in a classroom in a passive school

A new school building block in Passivehouse standard near Kortrijk (Belgium) is in use since spring 2013. The urban development regulations required that this new building did not influence the incidence of daylight in the adjacent dwellings. This results in an open corridor on the first floor and classrooms with a front door. Draught and increased energy losses are expected. This design choice is contradictory to the basic idea of a passive school that aims to be very airtight and to have very low energy use and excellent thermal comfort.

Indoor climate in a Danish kindergarten built according to active house principles: measured thermal comfort and use of electrical light

The Kindergarten Solhuset is built according to the Active House vision with an emphasize of good daylight conditions and fresh air. The house was completed in 2011, and detailed measurements of the indoor environment have been performed since the completion. The daylight performance is evaluated with daylight factor simulations. The main activity rooms have daylight factors of 7%, while the innermost rooms with only roof windows achieve a high daylight factor of 4%. Electrical light is used frequently in daytime during the winter, but much less frequently during summer.