Passive window ventilation openings in every-day use

In Switzerland, 70 % of building refurbishments are realised in stages. When only a window replacement is done, the new airtight windows can lead to a reduced infiltration air exchange and subsequently there may be moisture issues, e.g. mould. The integration of passive window ventilation openings (PWVO) with additional exhaust fans in the kitchen and bathroom(s) can ensure a user-independent basic air change rate. PWVO can be defined as small air inlets integrated in or near the window frame.

Residual analysis of UTCI predictions on outdoor thermal sensation survey data

The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI assesses the interaction of ambient temperature, wind, humidity and radiant fluxes on human physiology in outdoor environments on an equivalent temperature scale. It is based on the UTCI-Fiala model of human thermoregulation and thus also allows for thermal comfort prediction.

The establishment of a simulation capability to support the England and Wales building regulations 2006

In support of the movement towards the integration of modelling in the design process, a unified simulation-based compliance methodology for the energy performance of buildings was introduced in the UK Building and Approved Inspectors (Amendment) Regulations 2006 (England and Wales). As part of a larger project with the overall aim of presenting an analytical study of the process of introducing of this legislative approach to the UK construction industry, the paper reports on the status of the establishment of a simulation capability to support its use.

Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found.

The national radon survey in ireland

This paper presents the results of the National Survey of Radon in Dwellings carried out by theRadiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII). Radon measurements were carried out in 11,319houses throughout the country. Indoor annual average radon concentrations ranged from 10 Bq/m3 to1924 Bq/m3. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the IrishNational Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceedsthe Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3.

Results of the national survey on radon indoors in all the 21 Italian regions

The National Survey on Radon Indoors was designed to estimate the distribution of annual radonconcentration in Italian dwellings, on the basis of a representative sample of about 5000 dwellings. Itstarted in 1989 and ended in 1994, involving all Italian Regions except Sicilia and Calabria, due toorganizational problems in these two regions of Southern Italy. After the official conclusion, tworegional surveys were also carried out in Sicilia and Calabria, using the same experimental apparatusand protocols as in the other Regions.

The Spanish radon program: achievements and future

One could say that the Spanish Radon Program began in 1988 with the development of a nationalsurvey on indoor radon in Spanish houses. Today, 10 years later, many activitites by differentinstitutions and Universities have been carried out and a good information about the radon problemhas been achieved. Spain consists of 50 provinces which are amalgamated to form 17 autonomousregions. In this paper, we show the results of a major research and development program which is stillin progress.

Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in Greece

Indoor radon concentrations were determined with the use of track-etched detectors and two monitors,both for radon and one for the decay products, in various regions of Greece. Until now, 1137 dwellings have been measured. Some factors, that influence the radon concentration in dwellings, are discussed in this paper. The factors, used in this analysis, were derived from the householders answers to the relevant questions about various physical features of the dwelling. Different statistical methods were used, as the unpaired t-test and the ANOVA method.

Mapping indoor radon-222 in denmark: design and test of the statistical model used in the second nation-wide survey

In Denmark, a new survey of indoor radon-222 has been carried out. One-year alpha trackmeasurements (CR-39) have been done in 3019 single-family houses. There is from 3 to 23 housemeasurements in each of the 275 municipalities. Within each municipality, houses have been selectedrandomly. One important outcome of the survey is the prediction of the fraction of houses in eachmunicipality with an annual average radon concentration above 200 Bqm-3.

Ventilation and radon transport in dutch dwellings: computer modelling and field measurements

In 1995 and 1996 radon concentrations and effective air flows were measured in about 1500 Dutchdwellings built between 1985 and 1993. The goal of this investigation was to describe the trend inthe average radon concentration by supplementing the first survey on dwellings built up to 1984and to quantify the contributions of the most important sources of radon. In the living room of newdwellings the average radon concentration was 28 Bq m-3, which is 50% higher than in dwellingsbuilt before 1970.