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Indoor air quality for residential buildings.

ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation traditionally was not a major concern because it was felt that between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough air. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have become much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses were changing in character in response to people's needs.

Test method of heat recovery units in single houses.

The study was to test five units used in single house mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery. Tests were made according to CEN project prepared by CEN TC 156/WG2/AH7 including air tightness, pressure-airflow's curves and temperature ratios. A full test on frost and condensation was also realised on one unit to determine the influence of these parameters on performances. Test results, influence of wet or dry conditions and main conclusions for using these results in dimensioning, will be given.

Analysis of the ventilation requirements in parking garages.

In this paper, analysis of the ventilation requirements of enclosed vehicular parking facilities is discussed. First, a compilation of existing U.S. and international standards and codes pertinent to the ventilation of enclosed parking facilities is presented. Then, the results of a field testing study are summarised to determine the actual ventilation rates and the contaminant levels in seven U. S. enclosed parking garages. Finally, this paper presents a new design method that provides the minimum ventilation rate requirements for enclosed parking facilities.

Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in forty-three flights.

This paper reports the results of thermal comfort and indoor air quality studies in forty-three flights with a duration of more than one hour. The measurements were performed continuously during the whole flight (from the departure gate to the arrival gate) and the parameters monitored were temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. The results were then compared with the ASHRAE Standards for the thermal and indoor air quality.

Natural controlled ventilation: performances and standards.

As everybody knows, today the air quality of an indoor environment may have several effects on our health; the beginning of serious breathing pathologies and of some forms of cancer, are with no doubt due to the presence of polluting and extremely noxious agents in the places we most frequently use. That's the reason why it is very important that indoor rooms are correctly aired also in our homes where, due to several incidental factors, the healthiness of the environment is still guaranteed by the mere and discretionary operation of users of opening the windows.

Accuracy requirements and limitations for low velocity measurements.

Recommendations for the characteristics of anemometers that will ensure accurate velocity measurements are specified in the present standards. Recent research shows, however, that the requirements in the standards are based on incorrect assumptions and are insufficient to perform draught discomfort assessment that meets the accuracy requirements for human comfort specified in the indoor climate standards.

Retrofit demonstration in Brazilian commercial and public buildings.

In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil , to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the "6 Cities Project". The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector.

Indoor air quality standards of performance applications guide.

This paper discusses the development and application of standards of performance (SOPs) for HVAC&R equipment, plumbing systems, and building envelope systems in relation to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. The utilization of the SOP procedure, developed in ASHRAE Research Project 853, will aid in the proper operation of systems and verify that acceptable building IAQ levels are obtained.

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