The paper examines the possibilities of using simple CFD models in practical smoke ventilationdesign. The aim is to assess if it is possible with a reasonable accuracy to predict the behaviour of smoke transport in case of a fire. A CFD code mainly applicable for ordinary ventilation design is used for the examination. The CFD model is compared with benchmark tests and results from a special application fire simulation CFD code. Apart from benchmark tests two practical applications are examined in shape of modelling a fire in a theatre and a double faade, respectively.
Ships are very demanding on the ventilation systems that need to be installed. The reasons forthis are manifold. The following paper will address the problems around the ventilation layout for a typical RoRo-Ferry and will show how CFD can help the designers to optimize the system. One new area of interest is the simulation of fire to optimize the fire suppression systems in engine rooms of RORO vessels.
The paper describes the design of a fire and a smoke source for scale-model experiments with smoke ventilation. It is only possible to work with scale-model experiments when the Reynolds number is reduced compared to full scale, and it is demonstrated that special attention to the fire source (heat and smoke source) may improve the possibility of obtaining Reynolds number independent solutions with a fully developed flow. The paper shows scale-model experiments for the Ofenegg tunnel case.
The conversion of CAD models into 3D Cartesian-defined geometries is presented, and a two-pass algorithm to perform the transformation is described. The methodology for implementing the numerical solution of fire dynamics problems involving the FDS simulation program is tested. The results from these predictions are visualized on the original geometry using elements which take into account the optical properties of the phenomena for a realistic rendering of smoke and fire.
The aim of this study is to compare the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of people in smoking and nonsmoking dining room. Levels of airborne pollutants and changes in urinary cotinine and nicotine levels were examined for 8 restaurants and 97 nonsmoking subjects (employees, patrons and referents).
Levels were significantly lower in the nonsmoking dining areas than in the smoking areas, and for the patrons than for the employees.
An evaluation of different ventilation principles and their application in various premises like bars and restaurants has been conducted. Measurements of nicotine concentrations revealed a strong dependency on ventilation solutions. In restaurants and bars where the ventilation systems are properly designed it is possible to fulfill requirements issued by the Norwegian authorities.
The purpose of that study was to quantify the effect of the variables (previously identified during the first phase of that study conducted from 1999 to 2002) concerning smoking room performance under controlled laboratory conditions.In a test chamber simulating a smoking room, 27 experiments were conducted.
This document describes the designing process of a smoke management system for an atrium, using tools going from empirical equations to complex models, in order to have a safe evacuation of occupants in case of fire.
The aim for the design of the ventilation was to achieve the best possible air quality in the non-smoking zones and for the employees in a combined bar/restaurant. Air curtains are used to separate the zones. The experiment proved that the air curtain is vulnerable to temperature differences between the curtain air and the room air but stable conditions have been achieved.. Nicotine concentrations have been measured too. Tests showed that smoking in the non-smoking zones leads to nicotine concentrations above the target levels.