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A comparison of residential ventilation codes and standards requirements in cold climate areas of the United States of America, Canada and selected northern european countries

The study reviewed each Code/Standard with respect to requirements relating to acommon set of ventilation factors and criteria. The main factors include the following:1. Protection against Depressurization - given the increase in more tightly built homes,how do the differing C/S protect against combustion gas spillage into the dwelling.2. Ventilation Capacity - what are the requirements for total mechanical air changerates, and high and low airflow capacities?3. Contaminant Removal - what exhaust requirements are there for specific rooms inthe dwelling?4.

Aspects of air and heat distribution in low energy residential buildings

In highly insulated residential buildings, complying with the Passive House Standard, the space heat demand can be covered by air heating at air flow rates given by air quality requirements, without the need for additional air re-circulation or for a water heating system. The air distribution system is kept compact. In a common concept the supply air terminal is located above the door to the corridor. Such configurations were evaluated for typical air transfer devices and extreme supply temperatures.

Accurate performance testing of residential heat recovery units

The Norwegian Building Research Institute (NBI) has completed a study of the performance of balanced residential ventilation systems with heat recovery (HRVs) in Norway. The study involved both a national questionnaire survey and thorough laboratory tests of 10 HRVs on the market. The overall conclusion is that balanced ventilation with heat recovery provides very good air quality, and has a payback time of 4~6 years for the most profitable systems despite Norways cheap hydropower (0.09 /kWh in 2002).

Ocular, airway, and dermal symptoms related to building dampness and odors in dwellings

The aim of that study is to establish the relationship between symptoms and report of building dampness and odors.A questionnaire was then sent to the inhabitants of 231 multi-family buildings of Stockholm, containing more than 4800 dwellings, with questions about : personal factors, symptoms, population density in the apartment, water leakage, odors, and signs of high indoor air humidity.A combination of odor and high humidities was linked to high occurrence of the symptoms : humidity in building is therefore associated to Sick building Syndrome.

Seasonal cycle of VOCs in apartments

This paper intends to resolve the spatial and temporal variation of VOC concentrations in apartments. Numerous indoor and outdoor measurements taken in the period between 1994 and 2001 have been analyzed.A method is presented, it can be used to normalize the results from VOC measurements taken at any time of the year. A table with adjustments factors is given.

Combined thermal measurement and simulation for the detailed analysis of four occupied low-energy buildings

This paper describes four simulation models, which reproduce energy and temperature measurements of occupied buildings very well. These buildings represent small to medium size residential low-energy buildings of different construction type, which are typical for mid-Europe. For the simulation, the software TRNSYS is used. The reproduction of measured energy and temperatures in time steps of 15 minutes is well suited for precise predictions on heating energy demand and comfort of the buildings and modifications of them.

A pilot investigation into associations between indoor airborne fungal and non-biological particle concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia

In this study, associations between concentration levels of airborne particles and fungi were examined in 14 houses in Brisbane. No association was found between the fungal spore and submicrometer particles or PM2.5 concentration, but a weak link was found between fungal and supermicrometre particle concentrations : similarity in behaviour lies in the relation of the contaminant with the distance from the source.

Dust : a metric for use in residential and building exposure assessment and source characterization

The use of house dust is studied to identify sources and quantify levels of toxicants for the estimation of exposure. Sampling strategies were examined, just as uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The presentation of the results of sampling is also discussed. This article describes case studies.

Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation and reconstruction of older multi-family houses

This study was carried out in nearly two hundred multi-family buildings, built before 1961, in Stockholm. Three thousand inhabitants answered first a questionnaire on symptoms and personal factors. In parallel energy saving measures and building characteristics were gathered. It appeared that major reconstruction of the interior were associated with an increase of some symptoms.

A field study of the thermal environment in residential buildings in Harbin

This paper presents the main findings of Project HIT.2000.25 supported by the Scientific Research Foundation of Harbin Institute of Technology, a field study of indoor climates and occupant comfort in 66 residential buildings in Harbin, located in northeastern China.

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