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Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of the peoples in Beijing: a community-based pilot study

In this study, we attempt to investigate the level of indoor air pollution and to evaluate itshealth effects on the subjects exposed to pollution in Beijing. About 270 households (90 perdistrict) were selected randomly from three districts (90 per district), representing theindustrial, old downtown and cultural/educational areas of Beijing. The concentrations ofPM10, PM2.5 and SO2 in indoor air were measured in the bedroom and the kitchen of thesubjects homes.

A pilot study on the effect of indoor particle sources on indoor particle concentration in residential houses

Characterization of indoor particle sources from 14 residential houses in Brisbane, Australia,was performed. The approximation of PM2.5 and the submicrometre particle numberconcentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all thehouses by using a photometer (DustTrak) and a condensation particle counter (CPC),respectively. From the real time indoor particle concentration data and a diary of indooractivities, the indoor particle sources were identified.

Fungal index in dwelling environments

Microclimates in moisture chambers and environment in houses were evaluated using afungal index. The index was calculated from the growth rate of a sensor fungus in a test piece,fungal detector, during an exposure period to the test environment. In the constant climates inthe moisture chambers, higher indices were obtained at higher relative humidity. In the roomswith higher fungal indices, the densities of airborne fungi were higher, indicating arelationship between the index and fungal contamination.

Validation of questionnaire data with inspections on dampness indications in 390 Swedish dwellings DBH step 2

A questionnaire on e.g. building characteristics including dampness, and allergic symptomsamong children from 8 918 homes was carried out in the year 2000. 18-24 months later, 6professional inspectors visited 390 of the homes and made inspections and measurements.Questionnaire reports on building characteristics, type of ventilation system, and buildingmaterials were in good agreement with observations from the inspectors (K=0.68-0.87). Individualkappa-values for the inspectors varied in the range of 0.33-0.96.

Dampness in dwellings and sick building symptoms among adults: a crosssectional study on 8918 Swedish homes

Moisture-related indicators indoors are, e.g. visible mould and damp spots, condensation onthe inside of window panes, detached floor covering materials, flooding and bad odours. Suchindicators are frequently found and are reported to appear in 25-80% of the buildingsworldwide (Bornehag et al., 2001). Dampness has also been identified as a major risk factorfor, e.g. respiratory symptoms such as asthma, cough and wheezing among both children andadults (Bornehag et al., 2001).

Role of volatile organic compounds in residential interior air pollution: a study

The indoor environment is dynamic in nature, in particular, because of various emissionsources contributing with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Indoor air pollution is aconsequence of increased use of synthetics as building materials, cleaning and renovation ofbuilding process, constructing airtight buildings to reduce energy costs and inadequateventilation efficiency. VOCs are ubiquitous in indoor air and by far the largest group ofpollutants.

French permanent survey on indoor air quality microenvironmental concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 90 French dwellings

Before starting a French nationwide survey, a pilot study was conducted in 2001 on 90dwellings in three geographical areas (North, East and South of France). This survey includedmeasurements on 40 priority indoor parameters (VOC, NO2, CO, CO2, bacteria, moulds,allergens, MMMF, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics,occupants description and time activity diaries. The paper focuses on the chemical levelsfound in dwellings.

Investigation of indoor air quality in a residence using natural materials

Indoor air quality (IAQ) in a house using building materials with low chemical emission wasinvestigated for 8 months. Indoor air concentration, emission rate of aldehydes and VOCsfrom floor and wall, air change rate, temperature and relative humidity were measured toevaluate the IAQ of the house. Air change rate was measured by two methods. Indoor airconcentration and emission rate from building materials were measured at differentconstruction phases (before and after completion) and after being occupied. A questionnairewas used to examine the influence of lifestyle on IAQ.

Measurements of aldehydes and VOCs in a newly constructed, multi-family residential building using passive methods

Unique means to evaluate IAQ with passive sampling devices are described in this paper.They are simple, silent and require less equipment. Field measurements in a newlyconstructed, multi-family residential building were conducted with these means and theresults show the effect of ventilation, occupancy and interior finishing on IAQ. Indoor airconcentration, emission rates from indoor surfaces and ventilation rate were measured bypassive sampling methods. The ADSEC method was used for emission measurements. ThePFT method was used for measurement of the ventilation rate.

The development of indoor air quality during the first year in new, residential buildings

A 3-year research project was established in 1999 to create numerical reference data forindoor air quality follow-up in new buildings. A total of 12 measurement sites, representingthe present construction practice in Finland, were chosen for investigation. Low-emittingsurface materials according to the Finnish Classification of Building Materials were used atall sites. The indoor air VOCs, formaldehyde and ammonia concentration as well as thetemperature, relative humidity and the air exchange rate were defined for the newly finishedbuilding.