Describes the retrofitting of 2 1930's semi-detached houses with insulation, draught-stripping, double glazing, heating controls and heat pumps. Measures performance and finds results compare with expectations. Simulates the heat gains equivalent to a family of four. Heat losses were slightly lower than predicted. Air leakage was also low.
Performs tracer gas measurements and fan pressurization experiments on an 8-storied student residential building in order to determine the influence of wind as well as of stack effect upon air infiltration. Compares pressure and tracer gas distributions with those from a predictive infiltration computer model for high rise buildings.
States that methods used by Swiss energy consultants in calculating air change rates are often inaccurate. Most consultants use the "observation method" utilising smoke pencils etc. and mistakes are made in calculating conditions causing air infiltration. Describes a new graphic method for estimating mean air change rates, which needs data on construction, pressurization values and window opening.
Writes for experts and non-experts on calculation methods for energy consumption in buildings. Gives a brief introduction to the physical and numerical bases used in this field. Presents the calculation methods investigated, selected to cover the simplest as well as the most complex methods in use. Describes calculation examples used for prediction of energy consumption and conservation. Analyses the calculation results and gives conclusions and recommendations. Concludes by covering work carried out on the influence of the inhabitants.
Investigates the reliability of the single-room infiltration model used in the computer program ENCORE. Compares calculated air change rates with tracer gas (N2O) measurements in 25 identical one and a half storey detached houses. Describes the infiltration model, the parameters and some results. Thecomparison shows good correlation at low wind speeds (< 3m/sec) but the model's values at higher wind speeds are too high.
Studies the predictive accuracies of infiltration-pressurization correlation models by subjecting a group of identical homes in Freehold NJ to both pressurization and tracer gas measurements of infiltration. Compares infiltration and pressurization test results. Uses four air infiltration models to predict the infiltration rates in the houses, and compares these predictions with the measured rates. Makes predictions using several different values of the inputs required for the models, and studies the effects of varying these inputs.
Describes a test method for determining the overall heat loss coefficient of a house. Bases method on the statistical correlation of measured heat consumption with outdoor weather data. Derives a regression equation from the heat balance giving the relation between indoor air temperature, internal heat production and the outdoor weather data. Continuously monitors the power consumption (from electrical heaters) in an unoccupied house, together with indoor air temperatures and outdoor weather data, as solar radiation, outdoor air temperature and wind velocity.
Long-term efforts in Belgian research has led to the development of computer models for energy consumption predictions. Describes some simplified methodologies to be used for quick analysis of situations, especially in 2 cases:< 1. The analysis of the impact of certain design options on the thermal and energy balance of a house.< 2.
Explores the health implications, external and internal contributions, and the measurement of indoor air pollution including such subjects as sampling and analysis, calibration, time scale and interferences. Outlines the current status of prediction techniques, including areas such as one-compartment models, infiltration estimation, and empirical models. Summarizes the most common control methods. Examines, in detail, the application of modelling techniques to several typical indoor settings, for example, a restaurant, kitchen or a conference room with smokers.
Discusses the evaluation of building surface pressures resulting from the action of external wind, the modelling of individual components through which air flows, the determination of their characteristics under the action of pressure and temperature differences, and the solution of large airflow networks consisting of several such dissimilar components. Describes the integration of airflow calculations with heat transfer calculations in an attempt to produce a balanced approach to the determination of energy requirements for buildings.