The development of models for the production of indoor air quality in buildings.

The National Bureau of Standards has undertaken a research effort to develop a general air quality simulation program for buildings. At present there exists three computer programs which can be used to analyse interzonal air movements in multizoned buildings and predict the level of contaminants due to a wide variety of contaminants. This paper will introduce the reader to the scientific and mathematical basis of the models, the preparation of building input data for these programs, and the use of the models for both residential and commercial buildings.

Thermal coupling of leakage flows and heating load of buildings.

The actual heating load of a building differs often from the designed load. One reason for this is the uncontrolled ventilation through a building envelope. The heating load of air infiltration has, in practical calculations, been calculated according to the predicted leakage flow rate and to the indoor and outdoor air temperature difference. We suggest, however, that the value of transmission heat losses should be corrected by a factor, Nusselt number, because of the thermal interaction of leakage flows and conduction heat transfer in wall structures.

Use of statistics for predicting distribution of air infiltration.

Calculation of air infiltration in a large number of cases can give information of expected variations in yearly air change and energy consumptions. As model is used the equivalent leakage area model written in a spreadsheet computer program. For a typical Norwegian house an analysis of the influence of some parameters is made. The influence of climate is found to be small, if we compare the mean yearly air change for towns in Norway. Prediction of air infiltration is made from known variations in indoor temperature, 50 Pa pressurization air change and leakage and pressure characteristics.

Applications of a simplified model for predicting air flows in multizone structures.

A simplified pocket calculator model has been developed which can simulate the air flow distribution in multizone structures. The model is based on lumped parameters and includes several assumptions to simplify the description of air flow due to wind and stack effect and their superimposition. This paper gives a brief overview of the model and describes several applications. Results obtained from a mainframe based research tool. The examples show that the simplified method can be used to predict air mass flows within reasonable accuracy for different types of buildings.

An integrated computational procedure to predict natural ventilation in buildings.

A computational procedure to predict expected rates of natural ventilation for buildings at the design stage is investigated. This procedure integrates three computational methods, namely one to predict temperature induced pressures, another to compute wind generated pressure distributions around buildings, and the third to analyse the networks of resulting air flows in buildings. Experiments show that these methods are valid. The three methods can be used not only for the prediction of natural ventilation, but also for many other environmental engineering applications, e.g.