In the urban environment, there is strong evidence that fine particulates associated with vehicular emissions are linked with respiratory problems and an increase in mortality. The population sector most at risk is the elderly who spend much of their time indoors; consequently, the infiltration of these particles and their subsequent behaviour indoors is of primary concern.
A high resolution particle-imaging velocimetry has been developed and applied to study full-scale room air flows. The system is designed to study local field quantities in occupied zones (microclimate), ventilation effectiveness, and airborne pollutant transport in the indoor environment. The system can be applied to evaluate indoor environment in typical commercial and residential settings. The technique and instrumentation have been applied successfully to study localized air flow patterns and particle concentration distribution in the indoor environment.
There is an increasing concern at the possible health effects of fine suspended particulate (aerosol) upon human health, particularly in the urban environment. Aerosol infiltrating indoors may arise from transport, power generation and natural sources. Aerosol also arises from indoor sources, through cooking processes for example, and from animal dander. In zones within a building, within which the air is reasonably well-mixed, the levels of aerosol will depend upon the ventilation rate and the rate of deposition on indoor surfaces.
A preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings was performed. The main objective was to provide insight into the potential of three IAQ control options to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources the controls are most likely to impact, and the potential limitations of the controls. Another important objective was to identify key issues related to the use of multizone models to study residential IAQ and to identify areas for follow-up work.
To achieve acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ), ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 recommends the use of the alternative IAQ procedure. The IAQ procedure can treat both constant-volume and variable-air-volume (VAV) with constant or proportional outside airflow rates. The relationships in Appendix E of the standard must be used in conjunction with the IAQ procedure to directly calculate indoor air contaminant concentrations in an occupied space.
Interest in aerosols in the indoor environment has increased as a result of interest in fine particles in the urban environment and their health effects, and how indoor air concentrations and settles dust levels depend on the main variables, su