Experimental study of heat and mass transfer across large vertical openings. Etude experimentale des transferts de masse et de chaleur a travers les grandes ouvertures verticales.

Large openings such as doorways or windows are privileged places through which a large amount of air, heat and pollutant species flows.  In order to predict air flow rates through these systems, a physical model which can be integrated to multizone air flow models is proposed. This model is based on the empiric determination  of discharge  coefficients. The discharge coefficients  may have different definition depending on the hypothesis of the selected model.

Pressure gradients and the location of the neutral pressure axis for low rise structures under pure stock conditions.

A discharge coefficient equation was incorporated into a mass balancing procedure to compute the elevation of the neutral pressure axis (NPA) for a general distribution of openings. An equation was developed to compute the discharge coefficient of an arbitrary opening as a function of the three dimensional geometry, the pressure difference, the total minor loss coefficient, and the air properties.

A correlation for estimating wind ventilation.

Wind tunnel tests were carried out using models of fallout shelters to determine correlations between shelter ventilation rate, area and distribution of wall openings, and wind speed and its direction relative to the orientation of the shelter. Models of bermed shelters with five different opening configurations were used in these tests. A simple correlation was formulated between the shelter ventilation rate, the total area of windward openings, the ratio of leeward to windward opening areas, and the velocity of the approach wind.