An investigation of the performance of a recently built estate of over 50 low-energy rental dwellings indicated that there was a slight but significant increase in electricity use of the “super low energy” designs over the control “low energy” designs. The “super low energy” designs included, in addition to the enhanced fabric specification of the “low-energy” types, active systems such as mechanical ventilation, solar DHW panels and enhanced space heating systems.
Angle factors between a human body and rectangular planes are calculated by a numerical model. The method presented in this paper which predicts the thermal radiation field in a space, is based on a numerical integration method proposed in a previous paper. To confirm the validity of the calculated results, predicted angle factors for both standing and seated persons are compared with those from experiments. It was found that the predicted figures matched well with those from experiments except those between the human body and the front floor.
The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of air duct cleaning on the indoor air quality. Three buildings in the Helsinki metropolitan area were selected for the study. In two of the test buildings the ducts were cleaned using three different cleaning methods. The third building serves as a control where no cleaning was done. The air handling systems in the test buildings had operated 26 and 30 years without cleaning.
This paper presents the findings of two recent studies on the thermal preferences of householders in upland and coastal tropical environments. The aim of the studies was to investigate those behavioural factors that influence a householder's appreciation of an indoor environment. The studies involved 159 households in Kampala, Uganda, and 104 households in Surabaya, Indonesia. The studies indicated that householders made choices regarding their indoor environments based not on comfort sensation alone, but on "real-world factors".
In buildings with passive downdraught evaporative cooling (PDEC), occupants are subjected to environmental conditions which might be characterised by elevated relative humidities, increased air speeds, and time-varying internal conditions. A new physiological model which describes the human thermophysical system, and the active control exercised on it, has been produced. The model predicts skin and core temperatures, sweat rates, etc. on different parts of a seated, standing or exercising human.
The vote of acceptance of the thermal conditions of a built space varies with the individual. The design of the space should consider the occupant's thermal comfort therefore the future users' opinion on thermal conditions. People's opinion regarding the acceptance of thermal circumstances of a room can be expressed by several indices the PMV the scale being the most used for this purpose.