IEA EBC Annex 68 – Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

The overall objective of the IEA EBC Annex 68 is to provide scientific basis usable for optimal and practically applicable design and control strategies for high Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. Naturally, those strategies should ensure minimal possible energy use. The project aims to gather existing and provide new data on pollution sources in buildings, model the indoor hydrothermal conditions and air quality as well as thermal systems, and will look to ways to optimize the provision of ventilation and air-conditioning.

Model Home 2020 – full-year measurements of daylight, energy and indoor climate in five single-family houses occupied by typical families: what has been learned

This paper describes Post Occupancy Evaluation survey and physical measurements of five families living for one year or longer in five houses located in Germany, Austria, France and UK, all part of the Model Home 2020 project. The houses are built according to Active House principles and focus on high performance on indoor environmental quality, energy performance and environmental impact. The survey is carried out seasonally during the test year when the family lives in the house to capture seasonal variations. Physical measurements were made in all main rooms of the houses.

CO2 and volatile organic compounds as indicators of IAQ

The trend toward minimizing ventilation of houses in order to reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling leads to an increase in indoor air pollution. The deterioration of indoor air quality (IAQ) negatively affects human health, safety, productivity and comfort. In order to evaluate the scale of this influence IAQ assessment has to be performed. However, the IAQ itself is not well defined and a number of parameters are considered as its indicators. In this work we compared carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds as indicators of indoor air quality.

The Effect of Legionella Pneumophila Contamination in the Surface Dust of the Air Ducts of Central Air Conditioning Systems on Indoor Air Quality

The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in the surface dust of the air ducts of central air conditioning systems and evaluate its effects on indoor air quality. Thirty dust samples were collected from thirty air ducts and analyzed using real-time TaqMan PCR targeting the mipgene.

Simulated Influence of Indoor Climate and Ventilation on Schoolwork Performance in Estonian Manor Schools

Indoor temperature and humidity conditions as well as CO2 and airborne mould concentrations were measured in four manor schools in the Estonian cold climate. Based on these measurements, the influence of the indoor climate on the performance of schoolwork was assessed. The indoor environmental quality in manor schools turned out to be quite poor due to the inadequate performance of ventilation and heating systems. Intermittent stove heating was found to secure the minimum temperature in general but in winter thermal comfort was not always guaranteed.

Prospects of Improving the Indoor Air Quality in Classrooms by Reactivating Historic Ventilation Stacks

Stack ventilation systems were installed in German schools constructed around 1900 and are no longer in operation. The aim of this study was to show how reactivating these systems could improve the indoor air quality in classrooms. Ventilation stacks were reactivated in three classrooms in a school while a fourth classroom, which was naturally ventilated via openable windows, served as the reference case. All classrooms were measured for carbon dioxide levels, air temperature and relative humidity.

Experimental and Modelling Investigations of Air Exchange and Infection Transfer due to Hinged-Door Motion in Office and Hospital Settings

Occupants spend a significant amount of time indoors where temperature and air quality has an important impact on their comfort, health and work performance. Understanding the role of airflow exchange between spaces is crucial to describe the processes of mixing and transport of substances driven by air motion and therefore essential for evaluating indoor air quality. This work presents the results of field measurements and laboratory experiments designed to characterise door operation and to quantify its influence on air volumes exchanged between rooms due to door motion.

An Energy Saving Ventilation Strategy for Short-Term Occupied Rooms based on the Time-Dependent Concentration of CO2

Most HVAC systems are designed to supply air based on assumed (usually maximal) rather than actual occupancy, therefore often resulting in over-ventilation. The concept and theories of demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), which are to find better ventilation strategies according to actual occupancy, have been developed for more than two decades and have been applied to many situations. However, a certain type of room (i.e. short-term occupied room) seems to have been neglected in the literature of DCV.

The indoor air quality observatory - outcomes of a decade of research and perspectives

For over a decade now, the OQAI — Observatoire de la qualité de l’air intérieur [French observatory for indoor air quality] — has been leading research into indoor air quality and occupant comfort in living spaces: housing, schools, offices, leisure spaces.

Development of a Unique Thermal and Indoor Air Quality Probabilistic Modelling Tool for Assessing the Impact of Lowering Building Ventilation Rates

Adequate ventilation is necessary to maintain thermal comfort and remove indoor air pollutant concentrations (Crump et al., 2005). Indoor pollutant concentrations vary considerably depending on occupants’ behaviour patterns, building characteristics and meteorological parameters and seasonal effects. Experimental measurements are time consuming and expensive to carry out, while computational models are regarded as a valid complement.