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indoor air quality

Measured Pollutant Performance of Island Overhead Kitchen Exhaust

Cooking is one of the most substantial sources of indoor air pollution in most residences.  This is mitigated most often by exhaust devices located near cooking surfaces.  In this study, we measured the efficacy of one type of kitchen ventilation device: an island overhead kitchen exhaust.  Laboratory tests using tracer gas capture were performed on a full-scale mock-up of a kitchen with a cooktop in an island. The results show that the Capture Efficiency (CE) varies greatly from about 10% to nearly 100%.

Influence of multizone airleakage on IAQ performance in residential buildings

This article proposes to study the impact of envelope and internal partition walls airleakage distributions, on the indoor air quality (IAQ) performance. It is based on a preliminary performance-based approach using formaldehyde with three emission levels (low, medium, high). This multizone modelling (CONTAM) approach uses as performance indicators, the average concentration per room as well as the percentage of time of exceeding the limit value (ELV) of 9 µg.m-3.

The future of passive techniques for air change rate measurement

Ventilation is critical in interpreting indoor air quality (IAQ), yet few IAQ assessments report ventilation rates; even when they do, the measurement method is often not fully described. Most ventilation assessments use a tracer gas test (TGT) to measure total air change rate. In a TGT, the indoor air is marked with an easily identifiable gas (tracer) so that the air exchange rate can be inferred by monitoring the tracer’s injection rate and concentration.

Measurements of perceived indoor air quality

Occupants in non-industrial indoor environments should decide whether the indoor air quality is acceptable or not. This paper describes the method by which the assessments of acceptability of air quality can be used for measuring short-term sensory effects on humans caused by indoor exposures. It also describes how this method can be applied to estimate the perceived indoor air quality used as a design criteria for the ventilation of buildings.

Background and Objective of IEA-EBC Annex 78. Supplementing Ventilation with Gas-phase Air Cleaning, Implementation and Energy Implications

The proposed Annex should bring researchers and industry together to investigate the possible energy benefits by using gas phase air cleaners (partial substitute for ventilation) and establish procedures for improving indoor air quality or reduced amount of ventilation by gas phase air cleaning. The project shall also establish a test method for air cleaners that considers the influence on the perceived air quality and substances in the indoor air.

Development of an Indoor Carbon Dioxide Metric

Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been used for decades to purportedly evaluate indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation. However, many applications of CO2 as a metric have reflected a lack of understanding of the connection between indoor CO2 levels, ventilation and IAQ. In many cases, an indoor concentration of 1800 mg/m3 (1000 ppmv) has been used as a metric of IAQ and ventilation without understanding its basis or significance.

Characterising Window Opening Behaviour of Occupants Using Machine Learning Models

Occupants control indoor environments to meet their individual needs for comfort. The control of window is the most common natural ventilation method influencing indoor environment as well as the energy use of the buildings to maintain a suitable environment. Therefore a better understanding of window control behaviour of the occupants has significant implication to enhance occupant comfort with minimal energy consumption. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate algorithm and variables to develop a predictive model for window control.

Smart monitoring of ventilation system performance with IEQ sensor networks

The recent development of affordable and quite accurate temperature sensors and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) sensors has led to a growing interest in continuous indoor climate monitoring. Not just amongst scientists and engineers but also amongst building owners, developers and e.g. architects interested in boosting our buildings’ health and comfort qualities.

Simulation of control strategies for ventilation systems in commercial buildings

By the end of 2020 all newly constructed buildings have to be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEB). In school and office buildings the ventilation system has a large contribution to the total energy use. A smart control strategy that adjusts the operation of the ventilation to the actual demand can significantly reduce this energy use. Consequently, control systems are becoming an important part of the ventilation system in these nZEB buildings.

A review of performance-based approaches to residential smart ventilation

In order to better address energy and indoor air quality issues, ventilation needs to become smarter. A key smart ventilation concept is to use controls to ventilate more at times it provides either an energy or IAQ advantage (or both) and less when it provides a disadvantage. This would be done in a manner that provides improved home energy and IAQ performance, relative to a “dumb” base case. This paper highlights that a favourable context exists in many countries, with regulations and standards proposing “performance-based approaches”.

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