Investigates the effects of five different ventilation strategies on the annual energy consumption for heating and warm water of residential (family) homes. The strategies are: (1) natural ventilation, (2) mechanical ventilation and three forms of exhaust plants. Uses weather data from Portland, Oregon and Great Falls, Montana as examples of very different climatic conditions and heating/cooling requirements. The University of Wisconsin TRNSYS program was used for numerical simulation.
Describes a demonstration project to show that, in well sealed houses, trickle ventilators can provide an opening large enough to reduce condensation and odour problems, but small enough to avoid any significant increase in energy use.
A short description of a second generation low-energy house built at Hjortekaer in 1984, with a calculated annual heat demand of 3500 kWh (excluding domestic hot water), is given. The house is superinsulated and very airtight. The roof and walls are insulated with 400 and 300 mm of high quality mineral wool respectively, with infinitesimal thermal bridges, and the floor is a slab-on-grade construction insulated with 200 mm polystyrene. Most of the windows are south facing and fitted with a new type of lightweight external insulating shutter.
Examines the design of two houses, built in 1982, which integrate an exhaust air heat pump and a warm air heating system into a very well insulated structure. Monitored during 1983-84, they consumed 50% less energy than a typical Swedish house. Apart from occasional (avoidable) high temperatures, the warm air heating system led to a comfortable indoor climate. The performance of the houses could be improved by installing energy conservation appliances. The house of the future should be tight, well-insulated and mechanically ventilated.
This wind tunnel investigation studies the effects of surrounding buildings on the wind pressure distribution over a 1 1/2-storey single-family house. Pressure coefficients obtained in the tests have been used for the calculation of air change rates and associated heat losses from the house for a range of wind speeds and internal-external temperature differences. For these calculations leakage areas in the building envelope have been assumed to be uniformly distributed.
Air pollution due to volatile compounds in six unoccupied houses with intended low energy consumption was measured. The measurements included air temperature, air humidity, ventilation rate and concentration of organic gases and vapours. On average 14 different compounds were identified in concentrations exceeding 0.005 mg/m3 in the samples, and Toluene and alpha-Pinene were the most frequent compounds. A total concentration of organic gases and vapours averaged for the five periods of measurements 0.46 mg/m3 (0.032 - 5.5 mg/m3).
A survey was carried out on 15 homes in Northern Italy to evaluate the occurrence of 35 selected volatile organic compounds and of total volatile organics in indoor air and in ambient (outdoor) air. Respirable suspended particulates and venti
A representative panel of 37 conventional houses in Eastern Pennsylvania was chosen. Each house was located with respect to its geological formation (the underlying substrate). Blower-door ventilation measurements were made. The concentration of radon in the domestic water supplies was analysed and passive radon monitors were used to measure the radon in the air. It was concluded that the radon in these houses arises largely from the soil and passes through the foundations.
Lists the basic sources, mechanics, and problems of moisture in houses in the USA. The NCAT paper covers 1) why and where most moisture problems are likely to occur, 2) symptoms, causes and the range of possible solutions to excess moisture, 3) techniques used to remedy moisture problems, including vapour barriers, ventilation, drainage improvements and basement and foundation treatments and 4) a generalised moisture audit methodology, including tests and equipment needed.