Wind pressure measurements corresponding to the various configurations of a detached houseshould be conducted by wind tunnel tests using a comparatively large geometric scale model because a building of extremely small size is targeted.
The compatibility of energy conservation and thermal comfort in Japanese house with high air-tightness and insulation equipped with the whole-housing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (H.V.A.C.) system was examined by a numerical analysis. In addition to the present situation, several scenarios for achieving the compatibility were supposed. Thermal environment, thermal comfort and electricity consumption of H.V.A.C. system were analyzed throughout a year for each scenario. A combination of proper scenarios was found to be achieved the compatibility.
In this study, the houses located in the northern region of Japan had been investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the ventilation rate using four different methods, namely the constant concentration method, measurement of airflow at inlet/outlet and two kinds of PFT method. This paper shows the relationship between the measurement results of ventilation rate via these four measurement methods. It is found that the amount of outdoor air introduced is insufficient for many houses and some of the used ventilation systems are not properly operated.
The simulation has been performed using the CFD package SWIFT. In the first phase, meanflow and thermal comfort parameters of the integral living room of the modern family househave been calculated. In the second phase the effect of turbulence was the subject of interest.Two turbulence models, the k-e and the HTM (Hybrid Turbulence Model), were applied.HTM already showed good results in other application areas, e.g. aerodynamics of cars. Thepresent study demonstrates the new approach in modelling and calculating air conditioning ofthe rooms.
Continuous measurements have been operated on 28 identical low energy houses near Leipzig (Germany) during two years.The houses face due south, have two levels and one occupied attic, with a total aera of 147 m2. Heating period is from September to May. All houses except 2 were equipped with different mechanical ventilation systems, providing about 180 m3/hr of fresh air : central balanced flue systems with heat recovery, air heating system with heat recovery, central exhaust ventilation with heat recovery by heat pump, room mechanical ventilation systems.
Research has suggested associations between indoor microbial exposures and respiratorydiseases across the globe. This aim of this study was to examine whether microbe levels wereassociated with housing characteristics. Study homes were selected from a prior citywidesurvey, and housing characteristic questionnaires were distributed afterwards. Airborne fungi,bacteria and dust samples were collected. Samplings were conducted every month for a year.Having pets at homes and age of the house were found to affect the indoor concentrations ofDer p 1 and Der p 2.
This paper demonstrates the technical considerations that are important to understanding the energy-saving potential of encouraging the use of brushless direct current (BDC) motors in residential air handlers. Energy savings estimates are provided, and the regulations that are already in place are explained. Some misperceptions about the testing and operation of residential furnaces and air conditioners are also covered. Using one set of parameters that assume typical cyclic
In order to identify the effects of various kinds of floor materials and that of humidity on theconcentration of mite allergens in houses of allergy patients, measurements were carried outin two houses near Tokyo in August, November and December 2001. Temperature, humidityand mite allergens, Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der 2, were measured and a questionnaire survey wasconducted.
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), emitted from building materials and othersources in the indoor environments, are likely to be bound to particulates due to theirrelatively low vapour pressure. While toxic metals and biological pollutants in house dusthave been investigated in several studies, little work has been done to detect SVOCs. In thispaper, the preliminary results on the screening of SVOCs in house dust in selected sixresidential homes are presented. The dust particles (
As part of a larger indoor environmental study, residential indoor and outdoor levels ofnitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured for 14 houses in a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland,Australia. Passive samplers were used for 48-h sampling periods during the winter of 1999.The average indoor and outdoor NO2 levels were 13.8 6.3 and 16.7 4.2 ppb, respectively.The indoor/outdoor NO2 concentration ratio ranged from 0.4 to 2.3, with a median value of0.82.