In this paper the authors present the results of the European AIRLESS programme whose aim was to identify the pollution sources in air-handling units, and then avoid or eliminate this pollution. The authors propose several energy efficient ways to provide good indoor air and efficient indoor environment conditioning.
Designing an HVAC system has different aims, the first one is to satisfy the user with a long-term functioning system in the most energy efficient way and the second is to increase the supply air flow. So the main objective of this paper is to give the fundamentals for a system design that takes into account the 3 factors. The benefit of a pressure controlled variable air volume (VAV) system is presented .
This project lasted from February 1998 to January 2001. The main result from "MATerials for Healthy Indoor Spaces and more energy efficient buildings" project is SOPHIE : a database of indoor pollutants sources, a useful tool for the selection of low polluting materials and components. Other interesting results have been obtained :
- SOPHIE protocol testing for building material
- A new model for IAQ and energy efficiency
- 3 new methods and first results concerning study sorption and diffusion properties of VOCs in the materials
Supply air CO2 control (SACO2) is a technique for measuring the outdoor air fraction in the supply air and controlling the outdoor air intake. It is applicable to recirculating systems serving multiple places where ventilation targets are based on outdoor airflow rate per person. SACO2 offers significant benefits : energy savings, simple maintenance, adequate ventilation and ability to measure and record performance.
In this article, the sources of risk using DCV (demand control ventilation) are examined along with the components typically and the possible ways to minimize risk without sacrificing potential energy savings.
Fan-pressurisation method was used to test the air infiltration rate of 191 dwellings in England. All tested homes were either pre or post the introduction of energy efficient retrofit measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, draught stripping and energy efficient heating system. Results show that the average air infiltration rate of the post dwellings is only marginally lower by 4% compared to the pre dwellings.
A collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tuskegee University has resulted in an energy-efficient, healthy house that is built on Tuskegees experiment station farm to conduct various energy efficiency and indoor air quality studies. The house is well insulated and possesses other energy-efficient features, such as airtight construction, reflective roofing, and unventilated crawlspace. The energy efficiency and thermal performance of the house are investigated in view of electric power consumption as well as indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity data.
Issues associated with indoor air quality (IAQ) and its impact on occupant health have prompted research into the design and construction of healthy houses. Most of the houses constructed have been upscale housing. An affordable, energy-efficient, healthy house was built at Tuskegee
Climate change is a long term battle that involves the whole international community. The need for better energy efficiency is obvious. The energy efficiency of the existing building stock must be improved. Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) a lot of possibilities for the development of new type applications and services are present. Internet will be the main platform for the development.
A pilot questionnaire study was carried out on two groups: 128 occupants of new homes' (52 R-2000) on the one hand and 149 occupants of control homes on the other hand: both the groups were questionned to compare their general and respiratory health at occupancy and one year later. Symptom scores improved significantly over the year of occupancy for the occupants of energy efficient homes.