Fan-pressurisation method was used to test the air infiltration rate of 191 dwellings in England. All tested homes were either pre or post the introduction of energy efficient retrofit measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, draught stripping and energy efficient heating system. Results show that the average air infiltration rate of the post dwellings is only marginally lower by 4% compared to the pre dwellings.
A collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tuskegee University has resulted in an energy-efficient, healthy house that is built on Tuskegees experiment station farm to conduct various energy efficiency and indoor air quality studies. The house is well insulated and possesses other energy-efficient features, such as airtight construction, reflective roofing, and unventilated crawlspace. The energy efficiency and thermal performance of the house are investigated in view of electric power consumption as well as indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity data.
Issues associated with indoor air quality (IAQ) and its impact on occupant health have prompted research into the design and construction of healthy houses. Most of the houses constructed have been upscale housing. An affordable, energy-efficient, healthy house was built at Tuskegee
Climate change is a long term battle that involves the whole international community. The need for better energy efficiency is obvious. The energy efficiency of the existing building stock must be improved. Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) a lot of possibilities for the development of new type applications and services are present. Internet will be the main platform for the development.
A pilot questionnaire study was carried out on two groups: 128 occupants of new homes' (52 R-2000) on the one hand and 149 occupants of control homes on the other hand: both the groups were questionned to compare their general and respiratory health at occupancy and one year later. Symptom scores improved significantly over the year of occupancy for the occupants of energy efficient homes.
In January 2002, a new European project named HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol forEnergy-efficient Buildings) started with 14 participants from nine European countries. Thefinal goal of the project is to provide the means to increase the number of energy-efficientbuildings, i.e. buildings that are at the same time healthy and low energy users. Reducingenergy use by buildings also reduces CO2 emissions from primary energy used for ventilation,heating and humidity control.
A framework for performance criteria for healthy and energy-efficient buildings was developed within the context of two European funded Projects: PeBBu and HOPE.PeBBu, Performance-Based Building, is a Thematic network under the Competitive and Sustainable Growth programme, which started 1 September 2001 and will run for 4 years.
A Personalised Ventilation system provides occupants with means of adjusting their individualthermal environment and of achieving good indoor air quality. The individual control ofenvironmental variables makes it possible to compensate for the differences between people withregard to their requirements. In most tropical designs, the air-conditioning and mechanicalventilation system maintains the indoor spaces at cold temperatures in the vicinity of 21 C.
The quality of air in the indoor environment is dependent on the nature and source of indoorpollutants and the performance of the ventilation system. Increased dilution in a tropical contextimplies a high energy penalty. This paper presents a novel method of addressing IAQ and energyissues. An innovative energy efficient method and means of air-conditioning for an independentcontrol of temperature and humidity of two different air streams has been developed.
Air-conditioning and ventilation systems, which help to maintain the indoor environment ofbuildings, account for more than half of the energy consumed in them. While it is necessary toimprove the energy efficiency of buildings due to economic and environmental reasons, it isimportant to do so without compromising their indoor environment. Various optimizingstrategies for air-conditioning and ventilation systems that help to improve energy efficiencywhile enhancing the quality of the indoor environment of buildings are described in this paper.