The air quality at the breathing zone with displacement ventilation.

This paper presents the difference in the air quality between that perceived by the occupants (breathing zone) and that in the occupied zone as a whole. An environmental chamber with displacement ventilation system has been used to carry out the measurements with the presence of a heated mannequin and other heat sources. Measurements of the age of air distribution, the air exchange index and the ventilation effectiveness were carried out at different points in the chamber for different room loads.

The use of heat pumps to induce airflow on hot days in otherwise passive ventilation systems.

The paper presents results from a wider study into providing displacement ventilationin urban areas by taking air into buildings from the top without the use of fans.Results from large scale experimental work are given. These results indicate thatventilation airflows can be induced using gravity chillers and heaters in conditionswhere this type of installation would otherwise fail. The paper also describes initialexperiments undertaken to see how far the same equipment can be used in heatrecovery.One test installation is modelled using a proprietary zonal model.

Design of ventilation systems in industrial buildings. A computational approach of displacement ventilation in paper industry.

In this paper, the ventilation of a “crêpe” paper-processing workshop containing dryers, which generate a high thermal load, is considered. Displacement ventilation has been used for many years in industries with high thermal load. The main ventilation de

Selective ventilation in large enclosures.

A new method for providing ventilation in large enclosures, which utilizes the principle of 'selective withdrawal' of contaminants while ensuring energy-efficiency and allowing a better use of space, is presented in this study. The concept is based on dividing the enclosed space ventilation-wise into separate zones using a combination of horizontal partitions by stratification and vertical partitions by temporary walls. This gives a high degree of flexibility in the use of available space.

Velocity distribution in a room ventilated by displacement ventilation and wall-mounted air terminal devices.

The article describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The airflow from an air terminal device influences the occupants' thermal comfort and, therefore, it is important to develop an expression for the flow in the occupied zone. The velocity at the floor is influenced by the flow rate to the room, the temperature difference and the type of diffuser. The flow is stratified at Archimedes numbers larger than four. The article gives expressions for the velocity distribution close to the floor.

Measurement and evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in a large domed stadium.

This paper describes the measurements and evaluation of the indoor thermal environments in a large domed stadium. This stadium was built mainly for professional baseball games, but it has a lot of other purposes. It will be used not only for many sport games but also for various entertainment events. To satisfy such purposes, various intelligent mechanical systems were equipped to control and create a suitable space and environment without consuming excessive energy.