Reports measurements of air infiltration and leakage using tracer gas and the pressurization technique in a three bedroom townhouse having a gas-fired forced-air furnace system. The measurements were made in order to quantify the amount of infiltration due to various mechanisms.
Reports tests of the air leakage of 24 houses made using a fan to depressurize each house. Gives a table of results including indoor humidity, air-particulate levels, energy consumption and comfort conditions for each house. Comparison of test results with calculated values for air leakage suggests than doors and windows account for only a fraction of the total. Finds some correlation between indoor humidity, air-particulate levels and leakage.
Reports the results of three programmes of measurements of ventilation carried out in one-family houses, which in most cases were of the 'council house' type. The first programme measured ventilation rates using tracer gasin two houses room by room. Wind speed and direction were recorded but no general relation between ventilation and wind was found. The second measured ventilation rate in individual rooms in a house under six different wind conditions. The third measured ventilation rates in three identical homes.
Natural ventilation of inhabited rooms is studied with regard to its dependence on wind velocity and temperature difference between the interior of buildings and outside air. On the basis of simultaneous aerosol and carbon dioxide measurements an attempt has been made to separate the two components of air exchange: ventilation through walls and ventilation through clefts and chinks.
Outlines the problem of assessing the rate of heat loss from dwellings due to ventilation. Discusses the mechanisms and pathways of ventilation and ways of controlling air infiltration. Reviews methods of measuring ventilation using tracer gases. Discusses qualities of ideal tracer gas and three automated measuring systems. Reviews some experimental results obtained from the SEGAS test house. Describes house and measurement method. Finds sealing house reduced ventilation rates by between 30 and 45 per cent.
The overall air leakage of high-rise buildings cannot be measured using a full pressure method because of the large volume involved. Describes a method of conducting small-scale pressurization tests on the exterior walls of apartments in multi-storey buildings. Gives results of measurements in a test building. compares direct method with values obtained by summing the air leakage of individual components. Finds good agreement. Concludes that floor/wall joints, windows and window sills are the three major air leakage sources in exterior walls.
Reports tests made on a mobile home to evaluate its thermal performance. Describes home, instrumentation and test procedure. Gives energy consumption as a function of indoor-outdoor temperature difference. Finds that oversized heating plant resulted in low seasonal operating efficiency. Air infiltration was measured using pressurization technique and SF6 as a tracer gas. The latter showed that operation of the heating plant induced higher air infiltration rates. Reports thermographic survey of interior surfaces which showed air paths formed by wrinkles in the surface insulation.
Describes a simple pressure method for measuring the air tightness of small buildings. It measures the leakage rate from all apertures in the external envelope simultaneously, from which total leakage area of openings could be inferred. Site measurements have shown that obvious sources of leakage like doors and windows account for only the minor part of total leakage area in the average dwelling. Results from 25 dwellings show no trend of leakage area per unit of gross floor area.
Describes portable air leakage apparatus capable of measuring the air infiltration of whole dwellings directly on site by the pressure method. Main assembly consists of a flow measurement duct and electric fan. Describes test procedure and gives air leakage curves for an ordinary semi-detached house and an experimental house. Finds that doors and windows account for a surprisingly small proportion of total leakage.
States that to calculate the ventilation characteristics of a building it is necessary to know the shape, planning and dimensions of the building, air leakage characteristics of all elements of the building, aerodynamic coefficients, wind velocity and internal and external air temperatures.