Considers windows as part of system of air controlling features of buildings to enhance air movement through living zone to cool occupants. Discusses how air is moved by pressure differences set up as wind strikes a building. Treats how location and type of window determines the pattern of air entering a building. Size of window opening determines speed. Location and type of window directs the air as the nozzle of a hose directs water.Considers how overhangs, landscaping screens, trees, and shrubs can also be used in control of air movement.
Gives brief description of the new computer package developed by the Oscar Faber partnership for predicting the movement of smoke during a building fire. The model treats the building as a network and calculates air flow between rooms driven by stack effect and wind pressure. Four levels of complexity in the simulation are possible. Describes the results of these different types of analysis for a multi-storey building.
Discusses conditions that must be satisfied for a model in a wind-tunnel to give the same air-flow as a full-sized building. Reports two series of tests on interior and exterior air flow patterns, made on a full-sized building and a scale model of the building. Air flow patterns were observed using titanium tetrachloride smoke. Tests were also made to determine the limits by which the product of the height of the model by the air speed may vary without serious error.
Reports measurements of the wake flows behind solid and porous fences, made with a pulsed wire anemometer (PWA) and a hot-wire anemometer (HWA). Discusses results which show the superiority of PWA in correctly measuring the highly turbulent and sometimes re-circulating wake flows. Gives empirical formula for profile of the velocity defect and shear stress perturbations. Concludes that porosity, and not the form of construction of thefence, determines the structure of the wake flow. States that in general it is difficult to say which value of porosity provides the best shelter.
Examines the influence of air movement on the thermal performance of the building envelope by identifying and discussing the mechanisms of 8 distinctive air movement paths. These are; convection from interior air to interior surface ; convecti
Briefly discusses wind-pressure on buildings. Derives equations for air-flow in a building without internal walls caused by wind pressure from perpendicular and oblique wind. Gives simplified method for calculating air flows inside a building with internal walls. Gives tables showing results of calculation of air flows for a building with two and three rooms. Discusses more complicated building types and gives results of calculation. Outlines determination of ventilation heat loss, air leakage of windows and doors.
Describes method for measuring the direction and volume of air flows in a building with several rooms. The method uses carbon dioxide as a tracer gas produced from dry ice in each room. Over a period of 2-3 hours the concentration of gas in each room is measured every ten minutes. Gives equations for calculating air flows between rooms and some results of tests made on a flat.
Discusses pressure distribution on buildings. Describes wind tunnel tests on model buildings. Pressure distribution on walls were measured in a constant velocity field and in anartificially produced velocity gradient. Discusses results and deduces rules by which pressure distribution and wind loads can be predicted for buildings in any specified wind field. Changes in the flow pattern due to the velocity distribution were observed and correlated with the pressure distribution.
Reports wind tunnel investigation of the air flow around single houses and in passages between two single buildings. Wind velocity around the house was measured using thermistors and results converted to isovel maps, that is maps showing curves joining points of equal velocity. Gives diagrams showing isovels.