Measures the air change rate in 2 atrium houses and in 6 terrace houses. Examines the possibility of allocating the air change to particular rooms by correctly placed and operated exhaust ventilation and ventilation openings. Concludes that in dwellings with mechanical exhaust the fresh air change rate only depends slightly on the ventilation openings being opened or closed, and that it is possible to direct fresh air flow into different rooms if the doors within the house are not tight.
Presents a model for computing the infiltration and air flow between rooms of a multi-room building in terms of basic principles of fluid mechanics. Incorporates model into a comprehensive loads-predicting computer program, and calculates air flows, room temperatures and heating loads for a typical townhouse. When the inter-room openings of a low-rise structure are large compared to the envelope openings, the infiltration and total load can be accurately and more quickly computed by assuming no resistance to air flow between rooms.
Describes methods for measuring air flow rates and air velocities in buildings, with the aim of formulating identical rules within the Nordic countries for the inspection and adjustment of ventilation systems.
Shows the ventilation of electrowinning cell houses and electrorefineries as being a complex problem. Develops a systematic approach to define the important contaminant generation rates including heat, moisture and acid mist. Discusses fluid dynamic scale modelling as a powerful tool for solving a building's flow field and contaminant concentration field. Examines other associated problems, including wintertime fogging in the building and the high costs of make-up building heat. Presents the possibilities for reclaim of low-grade waste heat, and evaluates the economic impact.
The author examines the influence on thermal comfort of the air flow inside wall air spaces, on the assumption of a stabilized periodical condition. In these particular conditions an increase of the circulating thermal flow always involves a lowering of the reduction factor, and this increase is greater thelower are the thermal inertia characteristics of the outer wall. Displacement values are found to be mainly influenced by the physical characteristics of the outer wall.
The concept of age, or residence time is applicable to characterize both how the supplied air or a contaminant is spread within an enclosed space and how quickly a contaminant is removed. Discusses the application of the concept toany enclosed space with air intakes and extracts. Establishes a direct relationship between the age concept, exposure to contaminants, and equilibrium concentrations. Treats different tracer gas techniques for measuring the age distributions and derived quantities.
Presents the underlying theoretical basis for measuring air flows in complex, multi-cellular buildings and by reviewing the existing experimental procedures which enables the carrying out of these measurements. Shows that inter-cell air flows can be determined only by generating N sets of tracer gas conservation equations, where N is the number of cells. Describes 3 systems being designed to carry out multi-cell ventilation measurements< 1. "grab sampling"< 2. multiple tracer measurements< 3. measuring averaged air change rates over long periods.
A supplement to an earlier aricle. Notes that the trend to airtight windows has altered the order of importance of the factors which influence air flow in buildings. Treats the calculation of the air flow in a building and the constituent factors - pressure loss, differential pressures with air supply, thermal buoyancy, wind, fans. Sets out the calculation procedure and applies it to two worked examples. Illustrates the effect on a building of the pressure drop, thermal buoyancy etc. in diagrams.
Explains possibilities of saving energy in the area of ventilation. Summarises fundamental theories for calculating air flow through building leaks, ventilators and fan systems which are put in their total context - wind, temperature, air leakage, intentional ventilation, building technology, energy requirements. Treats factors which influence ventilation requirements. Compares results from field studies of actual air change rates with the requirements of Swedish Building Standard 1980.
Discusses the evaluation of building surface pressures resulting from the action of external wind, the modelling of individual components through which air flows, the determination of their characteristics under the action of pressure and temperature differences, and the solution of large airflow networks consisting of several such dissimilar components. Describes the integration of airflow calculations with heat transfer calculations in an attempt to produce a balanced approach to the determination of energy requirements for buildings.