Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Wed, 11/06/2013 - 17:07
This paper gives the status on the regulation on ventilation in the different regions of Belgium for residential and non residential buildings. The effect of ventilation, building airtightness and duct airtightness on the energy performance regulation for buildings and its calculation method are specified. The various ways in which this regulation shows to act as a driver for market change, are identified. Due to the increased interest for energy efficiency, the ventilation industry is currently developing and promoting particular systems.
This paper describes the history and background of the ventilation requirements. Thepaper starts with an overview of existinginternational requirements. An analysis is madeabout the reasons and goals for ventilation.Ventilation strategies are discussed .The advisedstrategy is to ventilate only for unavoidablesources such as people in rooms and theirunavoidable activities, for instance cleaning,maintenance and personal care like cooking,bathing and showering. The history is of therequirements as well as the underlying studiesare described an discussed.
Conflation of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and building energy simulation (BES)has been used in recent years in order toimprove the estimation of surface coefficientsfor studies on thermal comfort, mold growthand other performance aspects of a building.BES can provide more realistic boundaryconditions for CFD, while CFD can providehigher resolution modelling of flow patternswithin air volumes and convective heat transfercoefficients (CHTC) for BES. BES and CFDcan be internally or externally coupled.
A com~nonp ractice, adopted by several buildingenergy simulation (BES) tools, is the use ofsurface averaged wind pressure coefficients (Cp)instead of local Cp values with high resolutionin space. The aim of this paper is to assess theuncertainty related to the use of surfaceaveraged data, for the case of a cubic buildingwith two openings. The focus is on wind-drivenventilation and infiltration, while buoyancy isnot taken into account.
Translucent thermal insulation walls forJapanese houses have been designed to allowsolar radiation and daylight to pass through thewalls into the house (Fig. 1) in order to reducethe amount of energy required for heating andlighting and to create a comfortable lightingenvironment. The walls are made of translucentor transparent materials such as glass andthermal insulation material.The walls have been developed withconsideration given to conditions of variousregional climates and housing lots.
This paper presents a design method to definethe settings of HVAC systems in order toprovide thermal comfort in high MRTenvironment in hot climates. The method,firstly, discuss the use of simplified thermalload calculation methods, in face of thespecificities of the theme. Then, dynamic heat,air and moisture envelope simulations areperformed in order to define the surfaces'internal temperatures. The distribution system,including terminal sizing and positioning, flowrate and temperature, is defined based on CFDsimulations.
An investigation was performed in a middle-corridor-type elementary school in Tolcyo, Japan, equipped with an air-conditioning system for cooling.Temperatures and C02 concentrations weremeasured in classrooms, corridors and outdoors.Visual inspections were made on opened andclosed conditions of windows, doors andcurtains, and pupil numbers in classroomsduring each lesson hour. Pupils' and teachers'thermal environment evaluations andenvironmental control behaviors were obtainedfrom questionnaires.
This field work was conducted in Wuhan in2007 summer to investigate local residents'thermal adaptation. A total of 367 residentsanswered questionnaires and 69 familiesprovided 348 data sets including residents'demographics information, thermal sensation,corresponding indoor and outdoor climaticcondition, housing characteristic and residents'adaptive behavior. The investigation has shownthat local residents can tolerant more rigorousthermal environments comparing with theranges defined by ASHRAE.
The Energy Conservation for Buildings andCommunities Systems (ECBCS) is anImplementing Agreement among 23 countriesof the IEA (International Energy Agency) forenergy research and development in buildingsand communities. The ECBCS has nowcompleted 43 major international projectsresulting in demonstrated and adoptedtechnologies and tools with major impacts onenergy efficiency and environmental impacts inbuildings and communities. The ECBCS hasnow completed its 2008-13 strategic plan.